REDISCOVERING TEACHER’S ROLE IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION
This article aims to highlight the crucial and challenging role that teachers have in entrepreneurship education. We will introduce a piece of data gathered during a project “Measurement Tool for Entrepreneurship Education”. A group of teachers (n 29) in 2008 were asked to describe their aims and results concerning entrepreneurship education. The results indicate teachers were familiar with entrepreneurship education, but, there is a remarkable lack of cohesion in definitions of basic concepts and, most of all, in between the aims and results. Moreover, when describing the aims of entrepreneurship education teachers “out source” themselves but describe the aims for the pupils / students. We argue, since the learner centred education has been in focus during the last decades, teachers’ role in education might have been neglected and hence we could “rediscover” teachers’ role again. In order to develop this point of view in research and in implications for practice we would like to stress 1) the development of teachers’ learning in terms of their reflection, 2) developing practical tools for their self reflection, 3) realizing changes of education, like curricula reforms, from the point of view of teachers’ learning and 4) realizing the links between aims and results in the context of entrepreneurship education. Key words: entrepreneurship education, teacher’s learning, teacher’s reflection
The strategy of the European Union highlights the importance of the development of entrepreneurial culture by fostering the right mindset, entrepreneurship skills and awareness of career opportunities (Commission of the European Communities 2006). Finland in particular has extensively promoted entrepreneurship education mainstreaming at all education levels. This process has been supported administratively. For example, The Ministry of Education 1
announced an initiative entitled The Clarification and the Action Program of Entrepreneurship Education in 2004. The cross-curricular themes represent central emphasis of the educational and teaching work and the educational challenges of the time are met through them (The Finnish National Board of Education 2004). In line, In Finland entrepreneurship education has long been included in the national core curriculum and the latest curricula reforms at all education levels point out the development of entrepreneurship education. The entrepreneurship education theme is called “Participatory citizenship and entrepreneurship”. The National Core Curriculum is the basis which the local and regional education providers follow but they may put own emphasis in their curricula. (Finnish National Board of Education 2004) However, there is a long distance from the international and national policy making level to the future realization of outcome of entrepreneurship. A journey consisting two different processes: first, from the goal setting in education system, starting from the EU strategies and national curricula, to the altered daily teaching work of all teachers, and secondly, from the teaching to the altered behaviour of the students in the years to come. These processes are illustrated in the following picture.
Picture 1: Teacher executing the aims of entrepreneurship education.
Nevertheless, teachers have at times had difficulties in identifying contents and means by which to respond to challenges posed by entrepreneurship education
(Seikkula-Leino 2006; 2007, Fiet 2000a; 2000b). We propose a view that teachers are in a crossroads of several transformation processes embedded in entrepreneurial education. Teachers are living through the overall aims of entrepreneurship education into increased...
References: Burrell, Gibson – Morgan, Gareth (1979): Sociological paradigms and organizational analysis: elements of the sociology of corporate life, Aldershot, Ashgate Bygrave, W.D. & Hofer, C.W. (1991). Theorizing about Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneuship Theory and Practice, Vol. 16, No. 2, p.13-22
Davidsson. P., Low, M.B. & Wright, M. (2001). “Low and MacMillan ten years on: achievements and future directions for entrepreneurship research“, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 25, No. 4, p5-14 Dey, P. & Steyert, C. (2006). Keeping [Social] Entrepreneurship Hybrid: Towards a Dangerous Research Agenda? RENT XX Conference, Brussels, Belgium, 23-24.11.2006. Published in Conference Proceeding (CD Rom) Dreisler, Poul – Blenker, Per – Nielsen, Kent (2003) Promoting entrepreneurship – changing attitudes or behaviour? Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 10, No. 4, p.383-392 European Commission. (2003). The Commission’s Green Paper: Entrepreneurship in Europe. Fiet, J.O. (2000a) ”The Theoretical Side of Teaching Entrepreneurship.” Journal of Business Venturing 16, 1-24. Fiet, J.O. (2000b) ”The Pedagogical Side of Entrepreneurship Theory.” Journal of Business Venturing 16, 101-117. Finnish National Board of Education. (2003). National Core Curriculum for Upper Secondary Schools 2003. Vammalan kirjapaino Oy. Vammala Finnish National Board of Education. (2004). National Core Curriculum for Basic Education 2004. Vammalan kirjapaino Oy, Vammala. Gibb, A. (2001). Creating Conducive Environments for Learning and Entrepreneurship. Living with, dealing with creating and enjoying Uncertainty and Complexity. Conference Paper 21.– 24.6.2001: Naples. Gibb, A. (2005). The future of entrepreneurship education – Determining the basis for coherent policy and practice?, in Kyrö, P. and Carrier, C., The dynamics of learning entrepreneurship in a cross-cultural university context, Entrepreneurship Education Series 2/2005, Hämeenlinna: University of Tampere, Research Centre for Vocational and Professional Education 44-67. Gartner, W.B. (2004). The edges defines the (w)hole: saying what entrepreneurship is (not) in Narrative and Discursive Approaches in Entrepreneurship – A Second Movements in Entrepreneurship Book, (Eds.) Hjorth, Daniel; Steyaert, Chris, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, p.245-254 Grebel, Thomas – Pyka, Andreas – Hanush, Horst (2003) An Evolutionary Approach to the Theory of Entrepreneurship, Industry and Innovation, Vol, 10, No. 4, p.493-514 Hartshorn, C. & Hannon, P.D. (2005) Paradoxes in entrepreneurship education: chalk and talk or chalk and cheese. A case approach.” Education + Training. Vol. 47 (8/9), 616-627. Heinonen, J. & Akola, E. (2007a). Entrepreneurship training and entrepreneurial learning ENTLEARN Best Practice Guide for Educators and Policy-makers. TSE Entre. Turku School of Economics. Finland. Tampere. http://www.entredu.com/tiedostot/best_practice_report.pdf
Heinonen, J. & Akola, E. (2007b). Entrepreneurship training and entrepreneurial learning in Europe - Results from the ENTLEARN project. TSE Entre. Turku School of Economics. Finland.Tampere. http://www.entredu.com/tiedostot/final_report.pdf
Hisrich, R.D. & Drnovsek, M. (2002). Entrepreneurship and Small Business Research, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 9, No. 2, p.172-222 Hjorth, D. (2003). Rewriting Entrepreneurship – for a new perspective on organizational creativity, Liber – Abstrakt – Copenhagen Business School Hytti, U. (ed.) (2002). State-of-Art of Enterprise Education in Europe – Results from the Entredu project. Written jointly with Kuopusjärvi, P., Vento-Vierikko, I., Schneeberger, A., Stampfl, C., O’Gorman, C., Hulaas, H., Cotton, J. & Hermann, K. A publication published in the Entredu – project, Leonardo da Vinci –programme of the European Comission: Turku, Finland. Hytti, Ulla (2003): Stories of Entrepreneurs: Narrative Construction of Identities. Turun kauppakorkeakoulun julkaisuja, A-1:2003 Hytti, U. & O’Gorman, C. (2004) ”What is “enterprise education”? An analysis of the objectives and methods of enterprise education programmes in four European countries.” Education + Training. Vol 46, No. 1, 11-23. Hytti, U., Kuopusjärvi, P. (2004). Evaluating and Measuring Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Education: Methods, Tools and Practices. Small Business Institute Business Research and Development Centre. Turku, Finland. School of Economics and business Administration. Johannisson, B. (1992). Entrepreneurship – The Management of Ambiguity in Responsibility and Accounting – the Organizational Regulation of Boundary Conditions, (Eds.) Polesie, Thomas; Johansson, Inga-Lill, Lund: Studentlitteratur, p.155-179 Johannisson, Bengt – Mønsted, Mette (1997) Contextualizing entrepreneurial networking, International Studies of Management and Organizations, Vol. 27, No. 3, p.109-136 Johannisson, B. & Olaison, L. (2006). Emergency Entrepreneurship – Creative Organising in the Eye of the Storm, RENT XX Conference, Brussels, Belgium, 23-24.11.2006. Published in Conference Proceeding (CD Rom) Kilby, P. (1971). Hunting the Heffalump in Entrepreneurship and Economic Development, (ed. Peter Kilby), p. 1-40, New York, The Free Press Kyrö, P. (1998). Yrittäjyyden tarinaa kertomassa. Juva. WSOY. Matlay, H. (2005) ”Researching entrepreneurship and education. Part 1: What is entrepreneurship education and does it matter?” Education + Training. Vol. 47 (8/9), 665-677. Matlay, H. (2006) ”Researching entrepreneurship and education. Part 2: What is entrepreneurship education and does it matter?” Education + Training. Vol. 48 (8/9), 704 -718. Nyström, Harry (1995) Creativity and Entrepreneurship in Creative Action in Organizations: Ivory Tower Visions & Real World Voices, eds. Ford, Cameron M.; Gioia, Dennis A., Thousand Oaks, (Calif.): Sage Opetusministeriö. (2004a). Yrittäjyyskasvatuksen linjaukset ja toimenpideohjelma. Opetusministeriön julkaisuja 2004:18. Helsinki: Yliopistopaino. Opetusministeriö. (2004b). Koulutus ja tutkimus 2003-2008 kehittämissuunnitelma. Helsinki: Yliopistopaino. Remes, L. (2003). Yrittäjyyskasvatuksen kolme diskurssia. Jyväskylän yliopisto. Jyväskylä: Jyväskylä University Printing House.
Sarason, Y., Dean, T. & Dillard., J.F. (2006). Entrepreneurship as nexus of individual and opportunity: A structuration view. Journal of Business Venturing, No. 21, p.286-305 Schumpeter, J.A. (1934). Theory of economic development, Cambridge Mass:, Harvard University Press. Seikkula-Leino, J. (2006). Perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelmauudistus 2004-2006 ja yrittäjyyskasvatuksen kehittäminen (in Finnish). Opetusministeriön julkaisuja 2006:22. Yliopistopaino, Helsinki. Seikkula-Leino, J. (2007). Opetussuunnitelmauudistus ja yrittäjyyskasvatuksen toteuttaminen (Curriculum reform and entrepreneurship education). Opetusministeriön julkaisuja 2007:28. Yliopistopaino, Helsinki. Shane, S. (2003) A General Theory of Entrepreneurship: The Individual – Opportunity Nexus, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham. Shane, S. & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The Promise of Entrepreneurship as a Field of Research, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, p.217-226. Shulman, L.S. & Shulman, J.H. (2004) How and what teachers learn: a shifting perspective. Journal of Curriculum Studies, (36) 2, 257-271. Steyaert, Chris (2004) The prosaics of entrepreneurship in Narrative and Discursive Approaches in Entrepreneurship – A Second Movements in Entrepreneurship Book, (Eds.) Hjorth, Daniel; Steyaert, Chris, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, Vesper, K.H. & Gartner, W.B. (1997) “Measuring progress in entrepreneurship education.” Journal of Business Venturing 12, 403-421.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document