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TEACHER TRAINING AND HIGH QUALITY OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN HARGEISA, SOMALILAND

By monagib Apr 26, 2014 3103 Words
TEACHER TRAINING AND HIGH QUALITY OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN HARGEISA, SOMALILAND.
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A Proposal
Presented during the course of research methodology in
Admas University college
Hargeisa, Somaliland
__________________

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the course
Of research methodology in Development Studies
________________
By:
Najiib Mohomed Omer & Mohad Mohamed Abdi
January, 2014

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DECLARATION
“This research proposal is our original work and has not been presented for a Degree or any other academic award in any University or Institution of Learning”

Najiib Mohomed Omer

Mohad Mohamed Abdi

Date
1/20/14

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APPROVAL
"I confirm that the work reported in this research proposal was carried out by the candidate under my/our supervision".

Name and Signature of Supervisor

Date

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CONTENT

PAGE NO

CHAPTER ONE PROBLEM OF STATEMENT
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY………………………………….....................5 BROBLEM STATEMENT………………………………………………………...6 PURPOSE OF STUDY..............................................................................................7 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES……………………………………………………….7 RESEARCH QUESTIONS…………………………………………………………8 SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH……………………………………………………….9 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH……………………………………………...9 CHATER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

REVIEW……………………………………………………………………………..10 THEORETICAL REVIEW…………………………………………………………...11 RELATED LITERATURE….…………………….………………………………….12 CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN
RESEARCH DESIGN………………………………………………………………….13 RESEARCH POPULATION…………………………………………………………...13 SAMPLE SIZE…………………………………………………………………………..13 SAMPLE PRECEDURE………………………………………………………………….13 PROPORTION……………………………………………………………………………13 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT……………………………………………………………..13 REFERENCESESS………………………………………………………………………..14 & 15

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CHAPTER ONE: THE PROBLEM AND IT IS SCOPE
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Argentina attained its independence in 1816, but it took several years for the country to organize. A long civil war and armed conflicts delayed the organization of the country, which finally started with the National Constitution in 1853.

In the last century, the secondary and primary schools showed opposite trends in terms of private schools participation. In the secondary level, the enrollment share grew quickly at the beginning of the 1900s as a response to the demand for more education in a fast growing country, demand that the public schools was not covering By 1965, 32% of the secondary school students were attending the schools due to low quality of public schools and scarcity of trained teacher Sebastián Auguste etal (2008),

In Ivory coast Government schools are seriously under-funded, lack critical resources and qualified teaching personnel, and many other necessities proper schools should have and their quality become low” says DRC-born Ngoy, who lived in Ivory Coast for more than 20 years and has over 35 years’ experience in the education field.

In context of Somaliland Parents cite quality of the low public school as their main reason for transferring their children from public school to private schools. But this is based on their perception of quality rather than an actual measure of quality because of they have seen that there is no qualified teachers in public schools so that they prefer in private schools. Unfortunately, unacceptably high numbers of transfers from public schools are still into private schools because of perceptions of poor quality in public schools following the low grade of public school pupils for General Certificate Examination for last three years where private schools stood Top ten students.

Teacher training refers to the policies and procedures designed to equip prospective teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school and wider communication to the community

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Public schools are State schools in Australia, Canada, Scotland, and the United States; a school funded with tax revenue and administered by a government or governmental agency. Although public schools have a lower fee according to private schools but not seemed to be an important motivation for pupils who are rushing from public schools to private schools due to the lower quality of teachers than the private schools according to Omar (2013)

PROBLEM OF THE STATEMENT

There is tremendous decline in the academic performance of our public schools the indicators that proved that this problem is substantive problem are, unacceptably high numbers of transfers from public schools are still into private schools, low grade of public school for General Certificate Examination for last three years where private schools stood Top ten students. If this problem continue as this current situation it may cause that the public schools are closed due to frequently transferred to private schools and then a lot of poor people who can’t afford to pay the fee of private schools become thieves, robbers and also luck of experienced teachers because of scares of training teachers. It may cause that the private schools collar the educational management.

The possible causes of this problem are first the public schools in Somaliland are not equipped with managerial skills. This implies that school public managers need to be trained to equip them with the relevant skills and techniques to prepare them to be effective in implementation of Somaliland educational policies. The second cause is the salary of teachers in public schools is lower than the private schools so the active teachers looking for a vacancy in the private or the managers of private will call the active teacher in order to convince to teach his schools so the active teachers will automatically go the private schools. The reasons that we have chosen this topic is in Somaliland the number of the students in public schools are extremely more than the private and that students in public schools most of them are the lower class society or less-privileged so if the government of our country focus on how to change the sitution public schools we sure that the Somaliland community will also change and our society become developed society.

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PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

1. The main purpose of the study is to check the hypothesis of no significant relationship between teacher training and the high quality of public schools in Hargeisa Somaliland. 2. To validate existing of conceptual on teacher training and the quality of public schools based on conceptual perspective to which this study is based 3. To get a new information based on the findings of the study RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

General objectives: this study will correlate teacher training and quality of high public schools in Hargeisa Somaliland.
Specific objectives
1. To decide the demographic features/profile of respondents in terms of I.
II.

Age
Gender

III.

Marital status

IV.

Educational background

V.

Work experience

2. To decide the quality of public schools in Hargeisa Somaliland 3. To set if there is significant relationship between teacher training and high quality of public schools in Hargeisa Somaliland.

4. To set if there is a significant difference between teacher training and high quality of public schools in Hargeisa Somaliland

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This study is looking for to answer the following questions
1. What are the demographic profile of the respondents as to A. Age?
B. Gender?

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C. Marital status?
D. Educational background?
E. Work experience?
2. What is the level of teacher training in Hargeisa district, Somaliland? 3. What is the level of quality of public schools in Hargeisa district, Somaliland? 4. Is there a significant relationship between teacher training and high quality of public schools in Hargeisa Somaliland?

5. Is there a significance difference between teacher training and high quality of public schools in Hargeisa Somaliland?
HYPOTHESIS

1. There is a significant relationship between the level teacher training and high quality of public schools in Hargeisa Somaliland.
2. There is no significant relationship between the level of teacher training and the high quality of public schools in Hargeisa Somaliland.
SCOPE

Geographical scope
This study will be directed in the five districts that Hargeisa the capital city of Somaliland contains because Hargeisa is the most populated place in Somaliland so that the study will focus on only Hargeisa and its districts.

Content scope
This is study is going to search the level of training teachers and high quality of public schools in Hargeisa districts, Somaliland. Cause and problem and also the relationship between independent variables and dependent variables

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Theoretical perspective
This study is based on theoretical on Bernstein’s theory of pedagogic discourse as the main theoretical framework of the study (Bernstein, 1990, 2000; Bernstein, & Solomon, 1999; Domingos et al, 1986), frame work.

Time scope
The time that this study will take December 24/2013 until January 15/2014 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The beneficiaries of this study are these
Somaliland government: especially ministry of education
Non-governmental organizational also will benefit the findings of the study and they focus how they give more training in public school teachers.
Academic and future researchers: the people or the academic researchers who want to write something about teacher training and the high quality of public schools will benefit the findings of the study.

Operational definitions
Public schools are State schools in Australia, Canada, Scotland, and the United States; a school funded with tax revenue and administered by a government or governmental agency. Quality according to concise oxford dictionary eleventh edition is the standard of something as measured against of other things of a similar kind.

Teacher training refers to the policies and procedures designed to equip prospective teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school and wider communication to the community

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CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
According in UNESCO (2006) Teacher quality OR training encompasses a range of skills, competencies and motivation. As common sense suggests, specific training is required in order to expect quality services from a teacher or any other skilled professional. Teacher training, is the time where a person traines to be a teacher. They often watch how teachers of the subject they want to teach for a while, and then attempt to teach that class. Teacher education is the process of providing teachers and potential teachers with the skills and knowledge necessary to teach effectively in a classroom environment. Most teacher education starts with initial training such as a degree program at a college or university, though other paths are available for a candidate to begin teacher education http://www.wisegeek.com. According Jacob & Lefgren (2005) while most research has focused on general skills, school districts and states often rely on in service staff development as a way to improve student learning. This on-the-job training seeks to instruct teachers in content as well as pedagogy. Professional development is an extremely widespread practice in U.S. Public Schools. 72 percent of teachers report having engaged in training related to the subject area of their main teaching assignment during the previous 12 months (Parsad et al. 2000). A similar fraction reports having received training on how to implement new teaching methods. Despite the widespread nature of these activities, the intensity of training is typically fairly low, with more than half of the teachers engaging in eight hours or less of training in each of these areas per year. Unfortunately, most of the existing research on in service training suffers from the fact that the training is endogenously determined by teachers and schools. THEORETICAL REVIEW

According to Ana M. etal (2005) they consider that teacher training should have a clear theoretical basis and its conceptualization and characterization should be deep and coherent and should also take into account a sociological dimension. On the basis of these principles, we decided to concentrate on Bernstein’s theory of pedagogic discourse as the main theoretical framework of the study (Bernstein, 1990, 2000; Bernstein, & Solomon, 1999; Domingos et al,

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1986), as this theory contains a strong conceptual structure and operational concepts with a high analytical power.
If we consider Bernstein’s model of pedagogic discourse, teacher training is part of the meso level of that model. Training modalities can be thought of pedagogic practices and as such can be characterised in terms of the instructional and regulative contexts.1 In the instructional context we can consider the relation between agents (discursive rules – selection, sequence, pacing and evaluation criteria – related with the transmission-acquisition of discourse) and between discourses (intradisciplinary, interdisciplinary and researcher-teacher knowledges). In the regulative context we can consider the relation between agents (hierarchical rules) and between spaces.

The characterisation of any pedagogic practice is made by using the two operational concepts of classification and framing. Classification (C) defines the degree of insulation between categories (agencies, agents, discourses) and framing (F) defines the control that the various categories have in the communicative practices. In the teacher training context, the framing refers to the control given to transmitters (researchers/teacher trainers) and acquirers (teachers), in both the regulative and the instructional contexts.

Categories can be sharply separated with strong boundaries between them; this can be referred to as strong classification. When the boundary between categories is blurred, the classification is weak. Framing is strong if, in the relation of communication, the control is exercised by the 4 transmitter (researcher/teacher trainer) and is weak if the acquirer (teacher) has also some form of control in that relation. Classification and framing of diverse relations of the instructional and regulative contexts differ in degree, from very weak to very strong and, to a certain extent, they can vary independently.

Different combinations lead to diverse forms of realisation of the pedagogic code. In terms of teacher training, distinct training modalities lead to distinct coding orientations, that is, “distinct interactional practices originate, at the level of the subject, differences in recognition and realisation rules” (Domingos et al, 1986, p. 245).

For Bernstein, the acquisition of the specific coding orientation, that is the acquisition of recognition and realisation rules (passive and active) for a given context, is fundamental for

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acquirers success in that context. However, Bernstein argues that in order that the subject produces the legitimate text in a given context, s/he should also have the socio-affective dispositions favourable to that context, that is s/he should have aspirations, motivations, values and attitudes adequate to the production.

RELATED LITERATURE
Despite the importance of teacher training in most school districts, there is surprisingly little evidence on the effect of teacher training on student achievement. Indeed, as Angrist & Lavy (2001) pointed out, there seems to have been more research on the impact of teacher training in developing countries than in developed countries.

Early research on teacher training presents a rather pessimistic view of the effectiveness of staff development for increasing student performance. In a meta-analysis of 93 studies of the effect of teacher development on student performance, Kennedy (1998) reports that only 12 studies show positive effects of staff development. Consistent with this finding, Corcoran (1995) and Little (1993) claim that typically staff development is a low intensity affair that lacks continuity and accountability.

There are some notable exceptions to these findings however. Bressoux (1996), using a quasiexperimental research design, and Dildy (1982), examining the results of a randomized trial, find that teacher training increases student performance. Wiley and Yoon (1995) and Cohen and Hill (2000) are others who find teacher development programs to have at least small impacts on student performance.

One recent paper that finds particularly strong effects of teacher training is Angrist and Lavy (2001). While this paper presents strong evidence regarding the potential effectiveness of teacher training programs, this analysis has several limitations. In addition to funding teacher training, the intervention consisted of several other components that might have increased student achievement, including the establishment of a learning center to assist failing students after school and a project to support immigrant students and their families. Perhaps more importantly, the schools were not randomly assigned to the treatment, forcing the authors to relyon matching and difference-in-difference strategies for the estimation

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CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN
RESEARCH DESIGN
This research will follow a descriptive correlational design the research will questionnaire qualitative and quantitative data from respondents, students, teachers, stake holders and the parents to describe the current situation and to examine the impact of teacher training and high quality of public schools.

RESEARCH POPULATION
The target population of this study will carry out of the target population composed of the categories and they are these teachers, students, in the whole public schools in five districts of Hargeisa Somaliland.

SAMPLE SIZE
The sample size of this study will be 300 selected from a target population of 750 in the whole public schools in Hargeisa Somaliland based on sloven’s formula. SAMPLING PROCEDURE
This study will employ stratified sampling method in stratified sampling technique that identifies subgroups in the population
PROPORTION
Will chose from match using simple random sampling 35%
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
The research will use questionnaire in the study because is taking a short time

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REFERENCES
Sebastián Auguste, María Echart and Francisco Franchetti (2008), the Quality of Education in Argentina.
Omer, (2013) the quality of public schools at http/www.somalilandpress.com Angrist, Joshua. D. and Victor Lavy. 1999. “Using Maimonides Rule to Estimate the Effect of Class Size on Scholastic Achievement.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 114(2): 535-75. Unesco literacy for all base document (2003-2013) published 2006 http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-teacher-education.htm

Jacob & Lefgren (2005) The Impact of Teacher Training on Student Achievement:QuasiExperimental Evidence from School Reform Efforts in Chicago Bernstein, B. (1990). Class, codes and control: Volume IV, The structuring of pedagogic discourse. London: Routledge.

Bernstein, B. (2000). Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity – Theory, research, critique (rev. edition). New York: Rowman & Littlefield.
Bernstein, B., & Solomon, J. (1999). Pedagogy, identity and the construction of a theory of symbolic control: Basil Bernstein questioned by Joseph Solomon. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 20 (2), 265-279.

Briscoe, C., Peters, J., & O’Brien, G. (1993). An elementary science program emphasizing teacher’s pedagogical content knowledge within a constructivist epistemological rubric. In P. Rubba, L. Campbell, & T. Dana (Eds.), Excellence in educating teachers of science (Chapter 1). The 1993 Yearbook of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (AETS). Columbus: ERIC.

Lavy, Victor. (1995). “Endogenous School Resources and Cognitive Achievement in Primary Schools in Israel.” Discussion Paper no. 95.03. Jerusalem: Falk Institute for Economic Research in Israel.

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Kennedy, Mary M. (1998) “Form and Substance in In-service Teacher Education.” Research Report from the National Institute for Science Education. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin.
Little, Judith W. (1993) “Teacher’s Professional Development in a Climate of Educational Reform.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 15(2): 129-151. Corcoran, Thomas B. (1995) “Helping Teachers Teach Well: Transforming Professional Development.” CPRE Policy Briefs. Consortium for Policy Research in Education. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania.

Bressoux, Pascal. (1996) “The Effect of Teachers’ Training of Pupils’ Achievement: The Case of Elementary Schools in France.” School Effectiveness and School Improvement 7(3): 252-279. Dildy, Peggy. (1982) “Improving Student Achievement by Appropriate Teacher In-Service Training: Utilizing Program for Effective Teaching (PET).” Education 102(2): 132-138 Angrist, Joshua. D. and Victor Lavy. (1999) “Using Maimonides Rule to Estimate the Effect of Class Size on Scholastic Achievement.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 114(2): 535-75. . 2001. “Does Teacher Training Affect Pupil Learning? Evidence from Matched Comparisons in Jerusalem Public Schools.” Journal of Labor Economics 19(2): 343-369.

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