Schools as Organisations
1.1 Identify the main types of state and independent schools
Foundation and trust schools
2.1 Describe the characteristics of the different types of schools in relation to educational stages and school governance
Nursery schools provide pre-school education for children aged between 0-5 years. They are staffed by professionals who encourage and supervise educational play, rather than just provide childcare. Many primary schools have an onsite nursery. They are OFSTED (The Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills) inspected and regulated to maintain high quality provisions.
Community schools are run and owned by the LEA (Local Education Authority). They aim to develop links with and can be used by the local community, providing facilities for a variety of clubs, adult education and childcare.
Foundation and trust schools are run by their own governing body. They employ their own staff. They usually form a charitable trust with an outside partner, like a business or educational charity. The land and building are usually owned by the governing body or a charitable foundation.
Voluntary schools are mainly religious or faith schools, although any child can apply for a place. The buildings and land are normally owned by a religious organisation. They employ their own staff and set the admission criteria. Voluntary-aid school is similar but owned by the LEA.
Independent schools are privately run. They are funded from fees paid by parents and income from investments and donations. They must register with the DFE (Department for Education), and are regularly inspected by OFSTED as they do not have to follow the national curriculum.
Academies are independently managed schools. They have been set up by sponsors from independent businesses together with the DFE. They fund the land and buildings. They are not maintained by the LEA, but they have connections with it.
Specialist schools usually mean a school which has become a college. They have been given a specialist status. They have one area which they specialise in such as sport, arts, languages etc. Specialist schools can also mean schools that provide extra support for children with special educational needs, that can’t be provided in mainstream schools.
Free schools are all ability schools funded by the taxpayer. They are free to attend and are not controlled by the LEA. They can be set up by parents, teachers, charities, and businesses.
2.1 Describe roles and responsibilities of:
Senior management team
Other statutory roles e.g. SENCO
School governors can be anyone in the community with an interest in improving and upholding school standards. They help to provide an environment where good quality education is provided. They are volunteers, usually parents, teachers and people from the local community. They are responsible for managing the school budget, appointing the head teacher, monitoring the school’s progress and setting targets for the school’s performance. They can decide on the types and amount of staff to employ, and what equipment is required for the school.
Senior management team is usually made up of the head teacher and the deputy head, depending on the size of the school, maybe more. They are responsible for leading the whole of the school. They must make sure the school is doing the best it can for all pupils. They set and manage the strategic direction of the school and manage the day to day running of it.
Other statutory roles e.g. SENCO.
The SENCO is responsible for ensuring that the needs for children with special educational needs are met appropriately. The SENCO oversees the day to day operation of the school’s SEN policy. They must liaise with and advise teachers. They also must liaise with the parents of special needs children. They must develop effective ways to overcome any barriers that the special needs child comes across. They should ensure that the learning for all children is given equal priority and available resources are used to maximum effect. They also work with other agencies such as speech and language therapists. SENCOs ensure that IEPs (individual educational plans) are in place. They also ensure that a smooth transition for the next stage of education for the child.
The main role of a teacher is to teach! But they also have to plan, prepare and deliver lessons to meet the needs of all pupils in their class. They must be good communicators and good listeners. I think they must also be able to ‘read between the lines’ with children. They must mark work and record pupil development. They must assess and report the progress of their children. They also must be available to meet with parents and others such as SENCOs. They should be able to maintain discipline among pupils and provide guidance and advice to pupils.
Support staff are people like teaching or learning assistants, office workers, meal time assistants and caretakers. Teaching assistants help the teacher with the running of the class. They can also have responsibility for one child. They should help with implementing an IEP. They should take on tasks that enable the teacher to concentrate on teaching, e.g. preparing the class, clearing up after lessons.
Office workers are vital to the running of a school. They look after the finances, dealing with lunch money, trip money and petty cash etc. They must have basic bookkeeping skills. They should undertake reception duties, such as answering the phone and dealing with face to face visitors. They should provide general clerical support, like photocopying, filing, faxing, emailing and correspondence. They must make arrangements for outside agencies to visit the school such as photographers. They should maintain stock such as stationery and any supplies the school needs.
Meal time assistants supervise the children during lunch break in the playground and dining hall. They set up the hall ready for lunch, encourage the children to eat and help, if necessary. They must clear up any mess and keep the area clean. They must report back to teachers/head any occurrences during lunch.
Caretakers look after the maintenance of the school. They are responsible for opening and closing the school at the start and end of the day. They should take overall responsibility for health and safety. They should have good DIY skills. They are usually responsible for the overall cleanliness of the school.
2.2 Describe the roles of external professionals who may work with a school e.g. educational psychologist.
Educational psychologists are concerned with children’s learning and development. They work with individuals or groups, advising teachers, parents and social workers. They assess children using observation, interviews and test materials. They can offer intervention work such as counselling to individuals.
Speech and language therapists are another group who work from an outside organisation. They assess and treat speech, language and communication problems. They work closely with teachers, SENCOs and teaching assistants, advising them on treatment plans for the individual.
3.1 Define the meaning of:
3.2 Describe with examples how schools may demonstrate and uphold their aims. 3.3 Describe with examples how schools may demonstrate and uphold their values.
All schools must have clearly defined aims and values which should be upheld by staff and pupils. They should set out the expectations of the pupils, in areas such as behaviour, learning, motivation, morality, social skills, enthusiasm and their own expectations for now and the future.
The aims of a school are set out in the school prospectus and are usually set by the head teacher in collaboration with the parents, staff and the community. The values are however, usually based on moral code including respect for ones self and others around you.
Teachers and staff should be setting examples to pupils at all times. Values are learnt through experience, education and observation. It is necessary for the head to consciously plan school programmes that promote the values a society approves and wishes to uphold.
An example of the aims and values of a school:
Our aim is to create a happy school in which we can all be proud and in which all children can develop their full potential. We want our school to be one in which children are able to
- feel secure and comfortable,
- develop confidence,
- become independent learners and thinkers.
We will help the children to do the best they can through
- encouraging self motivation,
- harnessing enthusiasm,
- having high expectations of everything they do.
We will encourage shared values by
- showing mutual respect and tolerance towards others,
- caring for the world in which we live,
- preparing for future good citizenship.
We will develop an approach to learning that strives for the highest standards in academic, social, cultural, moral, spiritual and physical aspects.
4.1 Identify the laws and codes of practise affecting work in schools
- Child protection: Every child matters, Children Act (1989 and 2004)
- Data protection: Data protection act (1998)
- Disability and Special Educational Needs (SEN): Disability Discrimination Act (1995 and 2005), SEN Code of Practise (2001)
- Health and Safety: Health and Safety at Work Act (1974)
- Human Rights: Human Rights Act (1998)
- Education Act (2002)
- Children’s Act (2004 and 2006)
- United Nation’s Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)
4.2 Describe how laws and codes of practise promote well being and achievement
Child protection laws are designed to safeguard and promote the welfare of children.
Data protection: Schools are required to keep information secure and it can only be used for the purpose it was gathered for.
Disability and Special Educational Needs (SEN): Disability Discrimination Act (1995 and 2005), SEN Code of Practise (2001): Schools are not to discriminate against disabled children. This has led to more disabled children in mainstream schools.
Health and Safety: Health and Safety at Work Act (1974): Health and safety is designed to protect everyone within the school and give procedures to follow in the event of an accident.
Human Rights Act (1998): This means that everyone should be treated fairly, equally and with respect.
Children’s Act: This act's ultimate purpose is to make the UK better and safer for children of all ages. The idea behind the act is to promote co-ordination between multiple official entities to improve the overall well-being of children. It encourages close relationships between agencies and sharing of information between agencies.
United Nation’s Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989): This act is a human rights treaty setting out the civil, political, economic, social, health and cultural rights of children.
5.1 Describe why schools have policies and procedures.
School policies are an essential part of every school.
All schools have policies and procedures in place to support staff in their management of situations, and pupils, with their safety and well-being in mind. They are there to protect the staff and the pupil against any given situation. Policies are intended to provide a framework that ensures consistent principles are applied to practice across a school. Policies can also provide prospective employees, governors and parents of prospective pupils with valuable information. They should also enable school staff, governors, parents, LEA officers and Ofsted inspectors to see at a glance what principles they can expect to see applied at school.
Procedures and policies are there to uphold different areas of the school, such as health and safety. It makes staff and pupils feel safe and secure in the knowledge that they are protected. It can promote a sense of well-being for everyone in the school, knowing that their interests are being looked after.
There are policies for a number of different things throughout school, to include; pay, school curriculum, sickness, admission, complaints, grievances, equal opportunities, behaviour management, discrimination and disabilities.
Policies and Procedures| Staff| Pupil Welfare| Teaching and Learning| Behaviour| | | |
Discipline| | | |
Homework| | | |
Special Needs| | | |
Uniform| | | |
Health and Safety| | | |
Bullying| | | |
Grievance| | | |
Complaints| | | |
Equality and diversity| | | |
Admissions| | | |
Assessments| | | |
Curriculum| | | |
Photos| | | |
Confidentiality| | | |
Child Protection| | | |
Bereavement| | | |
Safeguarding | | | |
Holiday| | | |
Planning| | | |
Attendance| | | |
Numeracy| | | |
Literacy| | | |
Science| | | |
Religious Studies| | | |
6.1 Identify the roles and responsibilities of national and local government for education policy and practise.
The department for education is responsible for education and children’s services. The national government sets out, and distributes the education budget to the local education authority. They set the national curriculum, what the lessons are made up of, and basically what is taught in schools.
They are also responsible for:
- Setting out the schools’ performance tables
- Funding research into education based projects
- Achieving economic well-being
- Ensuring the health and safety of children
The MP for education is Michael Gove.
The local education authority is responsible for:
- Ensuring sufficient school places are available by building or extending schools - Assess and provide home to school transport
- Provide support services for schools
- Assist the government in implementing initiatives and legislation relating to schools, children and families
- Allocate and distribute finance to schools
- Schools policies
- Schools admissions, including allocating number of places available - Schools management issues
- Staff training
- Behaviour management
- They own and are responsible for school land
6.2 Describe the role of schools in national policies relating to children, young people and families.
It is essential that schools make themselves aware of any national policies relating to children, young people and families, so that they are able to contribute and help in any way. They should have their own policies in place that tie in with the national policies. They must follow any guidelines set out, such as child protection and safeguarding young people. There are many different organisations which work with children, young people and families. Often, these organisations have to work alongside schools, or share information with them to benefit those involved. Some organisations such as Social Services will develop links with schools for support with pupils. Most schools will follow the national curriculum or early years foundation stage. The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) is the statutory framework that sets the standards that all early years providers must meet to ensure that children learn and develop well and are kept healthy and safe. It promotes teaching and learning to ensure children are ready for school and gives children the broad range of knowledge and skills that provide the right foundation for good future progress through school and life
“Every Child Matters” is a government initiative that was launched in 2002. It s aims are for all children to have the support they need to: Be healthy
Enjoy and achieve
Make a positive contribution
Achieve economic well-being.
In the past it has been argued that children and families have received poorer services because of the failure of professionals to understand each other's roles or to work together effectively together. It is important that all professionals working with children are aware of the contribution that could be made by their own and each other's service and to plan and deliver their work with children and young people accordingly.
6.3 Describe the roles of other organisations working with children and young people and how these may impact on the work of schools.
- The NHS - work closely with schools, routine in school screening or one to one. Promote healthy eating/exercise. Fit for life initiative. - Speech and language therapists, providing therapy for those with extra needs in that area. - Occupational therapists, providing therapy for physical, mental or social disabilities. - Charity organisations – lottery funded organisations that come into schools i.e. cookery groups showing children how to cook. - Sporting organisations, such as local football teams, showing children how to play football, teaching skills and developing an interest in the sport. - Police personnel giving talks about staying safe, staying on the right side of the law and possibly developing an interest in a future career. - Fire officers, teaching children about fire safety, what to do in the event of a fire, and possibly developing an interest for a future career choice. - Mobile acting groups, getting children involved in drama, which could help shy and introverted children become more involved with others, and more confident.
- Life Caravan is a travelling classroom that teaches children about health related issues. - Musicians, showing children how to play different instruments. - World Book Day, set up stalls in schools and promote reading by supplying vouchers to buy books.
These outside organisations can build confidence and promote self esteem. It can spark an interest in a child, possibly giving them ideas for a future career. It can give children new information and knowledge in an area that they previously weren’t aware of. This is turn can build morale. The different services and organisations can work alongside and enforce what the school has been teaching already. They can promote what it is like, for example, to do a certain job. Or they could help out a school by coming in and letting the children see first hand, rather than just reading or hearing about a certain subject.