Frederick W. Taylor introduced the idea of applying science into business management in the late 1880’s. Taylor, a mechanical engineer was determined to find a way to improve industrial efficiency and productivity. He sought to reduce the time a worker spent on each task by optimizing the way the task was done. This was accomplished by breaking down every job into individual motions, timing the movements and analysis each of the motions involved. He would then eliminate the unnecessary movements to create an almost ‘machine-like’ worker. This made the workers more productive and efficient. This system was theorized during a time where productivity emerged as a serious business problem due to short supply of labor in contrast to rapid expansion of businesses. He also recommended the piece rate wage system (fair day wok) to motivate the workers to work more. In his book written in 1911, The Principles of Scientific Management, Taylor introduced four basic principles which would help improve the performance of workers. This is also known as Taylorism. 1. The development of a true science for each persons work.
2. The scientific selection, training and development of workers. 3. Intimate friendly cooperation with the workers to ensure that work is carried out in the prescribed way. 4. The division of work and responsibility between the management and workers.
Taylorism was severely detrimental to factory workers since the ideals that Frederick Taylor had for managing a business did not keep the workers health and living standards in mind, but rather focused on the improvement of efficiency and output for the company. His theory treated them as merely a factor of production such as machines, which led to unfair exploitation of factory workers in the future.
Nevertheless, Taylorism was historically important as it is one of the major reasons which enabled the United States to emerge as a dominant industrial power in the 20th...
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