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Taxation
TAXATION LAW

I. General Principles

POWER OF TAXATION
TAXATION – power by which the sovereign through its law-making body raises revenue to defray the necessary expenses of government from among those who in some measure are privileged to enjoy its benefits and must bear its burdens.

Two Fold Nature of the Power of Taxation

1. It is an inherent attribute of sovereignty
2. It is legislative in character

Extent of Taxing Power

Subject to constitutional and inherent restrictions, the power of taxation is regarded as comprehensive, unlimited, plenary and supreme.

Scope of Legislative Taxing Power

1. Amount or rate of tax
2. Apportionment of the tax
3. Kind of tax
4. Method of collection
5. Purpose/s of its levy, provided it is for public purpose
6. Subject to be taxed, provided it is within its jurisdiction
7. Situs of taxation

TAXES – enforced proportional contributions from the persons and property levied by the law-making body of the State by virtue of its sovereignty in support of government and for public needs.

Characteristics of Taxes
1. forced charge;
2. pecuniary burden payable in money;
3. levied by the legislature;
4. assessed with some reasonable rule of apportionment; (see theoretical justice)
5. imposed by the State within its jurisdiction;

6. levied for a public purpose.

Requisites of A Valid Tax
1. should be for a public purpose
2. the rule of taxation shall be uniform
3. that either the person or property taxed be within the jurisdiction of the taxing authority
4. that the assessment and collection of certain kinds of taxes guarantees against injustice to individuals, especially by way of notice and opportunity for hearing be provided
5. the tax must not impinge on the inherent and Constitutional limitations on the power of taxation

Theories and Bases of Taxation

1. Lifeblood Theory Taxes are what we pay for civilized society. Without taxes, the government would be paralyzed for lack of the motive power to activate and operate it. Hence, despite the natural reluctance to surrender part of one 's hard-earned income to the taxing authorities, every person who is able to must contribute his share in the running of the government. (CIR v. Algue, Inc.)

2. Necessity Theory The power to tax is an attribute of sovereignty emanating from necessity. It is a necessary burden to preserve the State 's sovereignty and a means to give the citizenry an army to resist an aggression, a navy to defend its shores from invasion, a corps of civil servants to serve, public improvements designed for the enjoyment of the citizenry and those which come within the State 's territory, and facilities and protection which a government is supposed to provide. (Phil. Guaranty Co., Inc. v. CIR)

3. Benefits-Protection / Reciprocity Theory Taxation is described as a symbiotic relationship whereby in exchange of the benefits and protection that the citizens get from the Government, taxes are paid. (CIR v. Algue, Inc.)
Note: While taxes are intended for general benefits, special benefits to taxpayers are not required. The Government renders no special or commensurate benefit to any particular person or property.

Is the Power to Tax the Power to Destroy?

1. “Power to tax is the power to destroy” (Marshall Dictum) – refers to the unlimitedness and the degree or vigor with which the taxing power may be employed to raise revenue.
- the financial needs of the State may outrun any human calculation, so the power to meet those needs by taxation must not be limited even though taxes become burdensome or confiscatory.

2. “Power to tax is not the power to destroy while the Supreme Court sits” (Holmes Dictum) – the power to tax knows no limit except those expressly stated in the Constitution.

Marshall and Holmes Dictum Reconciled

Although the power to tax is almost unlimited, it must not be exercised in an arbitrary manner. If the abuse is so great so as to destroy the natural and fundamental rights of people, it is the duty of the judiciary to hold such an act unconstitutional.

Purposes and Objectives of Taxation

Revenue – basically, the purpose of taxation is to provide funds or property with which the State promotes the general welfare and protection of its citizens.

2. Non-Revenue (Key: PR2EP)

a. Promotion of general welfare b. Regulation c. Reduction of social inequality d. Encourage economic growth e. Protectionism

Power of Judicial Review in Taxation

As long as the legislature, in imposing a tax, does not violate applicable constitutional limitations or restrictions, it is not within the province of the courts to inquire into the wisdom or policy of the exaction, the motives behind it, the amount to be raised or the persons, property or other privileges to be taxed. The court’s power in taxation is limited only to the application and interpretation of the law.

Note: The principle of judicial non-interference extends to the administrative realm.

Aspects of Taxation
1. Levy or imposition of the tax (tax legislation)
2. Enforcement or tax administration (tax administration)

Basic Principles of a Sound Tax System (Key: FAT)

1. Fiscal Adequacy – sufficiency to meet government expenditures and other public needs.
2. Administrative Feasibility/ Convenience – capability of being effectively enforced.
3. Theoretical Justice – based on the taxpayer’s ability to pay; must be progressive. (Ability to Pay Theory)

|TAXATION |POLICE POWER |EMINENT DOMAIN |
|1. Purpose |
|To raise revenue |To promote public |To facilitate the |
| |purpose through |State’s need of |
| |regulations |property for public|
| | |use |
|Amount of Exaction |
|No limit |Limited to the |No exaction; but |
| |cost of |private property is|
| |regulation, |taken by the State |
| |issuance of the |for public purpose |
| |license or | |
| |surveillance | |
| | | |
|Benefits Received |
|No special or |No direct benefit |A direct benefit |
|direct benefit is|is received; a |results in the form|
|received by the |healthy economic |of just |
|taxpayer; merely |standard of |compensation to the|
|general benefit |society is |property owner |
|of protection |attained | |
| | | |
|4. Non-impairment of Contracts |
|Contracts may not|Contracts may be |Contracts may be |
|be impaired |impaired |impaired |
|5. Transfer of Property Rights |
|Taxes paid become|No transfer but |Transfer is |
|part of public |only restraint in |effected in favor |
|funds |its exercise |of the State |
|6. Scope |
|All persons, |All persons, |Only upon a |
|property and |property, rights |particular property|
|excises |and privileges | |

Systems of Taxation

|Global System |Schedular System |
|A system employed where |A system employed where the |
|the tax system views |income tax treatment varies |
|indifferently the tax base|and is made to depend on the |
|and generally treats in |kind or category of taxable |
|common all categories of |income of the taxpayer. |
|taxable income of the | |
|individual. | |
|A system which taxes all |A system which itemizes the |
|categories of income |different incomes and |
|except certain passive |provides for varied |
|incomes and capital gains.|percentages of taxes, to be |
|It prescribes a unitary |applied thereto. |
|but progressive rate for | |
|the taxable aggregate | |
|incomes and flat rates for| |
|certain passive incomes | |
|derived by individuals. | |

Examples Of Taxes Levied With A Regulatory Purpose, Or Combined Exercise Of Police Power And The Power Of Taxation.

A. MOTOR VEHICLE REGISTRATION FEES ARE NOW CONSIDERED REVENUE OR TAX MEASURES.(PAL V. EDU, G.R NO. L-41383, AUGUST 15,1988) This case reversed the doctrine previously held in Republic v. Philippine Rabbit Bus Lines, Inc., 32 SCRA 211, to the effect that motor vehicle registration fees are regulatory exactions and not revenue measures.

b. The tax imposed on videogram establishments is not only regulatory but a revenue measure because the earnings of such establishments have not been subject to tax depriving the government of an additional source of income. (Tio v. Videogram Regulatory Board, 151 SCRA 208)

c. The “coconut levy funds” were all raised under the state’s taxing and police powers. The state’s concern to make it a strong and secure source not only in the livelihood of the significant segment of the population, but also of export earnings, the sustained growth of which is one of the imperatives of the economic growth.” Philippine Coconut Producers Federation, Inc. Cocofed v. Presidential Commission on Good Government (178 SCRA 236, 252)

Construction of Tax Laws

1. Public purpose is always presumed.
2. If the law is clear, apply the law in accordance to its plain and simple tenor.
3. A statute will not be construed as imposing a tax unless it does so clearly, expressly and unambiguously.
4. In case of doubt, it is construed most strongly against the Government, and liberally in favor of the taxpayer.
5. Provisions of a taxing act are not to be extended by implication.
6. Tax laws operate prospectively unless the purpose of the legislature to give retrospective effect is expressly declared or may be implied from the language used.
7. Tax laws are special laws and prevail over a general law.

nature of Tax Laws

1. Not political in character
2. Civil in nature, not subject to ex post facto law prohibitions
3. Not penal in character

Taxes are personal to the taxpayer

1. A corporation’s tax delinquency cannot be enforced against its stockholders. (Corporate Entity Doctrine) Exception: Stockholders may be held liable for unpaid taxes of a dissolved corporation:
a. if it appears that the corporate assets have passed into their hands or b. when the stockholders have unpaid subscriptions to the capital of the corporation

2. Estate taxes are obligations that must be paid by the executor or administrator out of the net assets and cannot be assessed against the heirs. Exception: If prior to the payment of the estate tax due, the properties of the deceased are distributed to the heirs, then the latter is subsidiary liable for the payment of such portion of the estate tax as his distributive share bears to the total value of the net estate. (Sec. 9, Rev. Regs. No. 2-2003; see CIR vs. Pineda G.R. No. L-22734. September 15, 1967))

Classification of Taxes

1. As to subject matter: a. Personal Tax – taxes are of fixed amount upon all persons of a certain class within the jurisdiction without regard to property, occupation or business in which they may be engaged. b. Property Tax – assessed on property of a certain class c. Excise Tax – imposed on the exercise of a privilege d. Customs Duties – duties charged upon the commodities on their being imported into or exported from a country.
2. As to burden: a. Direct Tax – both the incidence of or liability for the payment of the tax as well as the impact or burden of the tax falls on the same person. b. Indirect Tax - The incidence of or liability for the payment of the tax falls on one person but the burden thereof can be shifted or passed on to another.
3. As to purpose: a. General Tax – levied for the general or ordinary purposes of the Government b. Special Tax – levied for special purposes
4. As to manner of computation: a. Specific Tax – the computation of the tax or the rates of the tax is already provided for by law. b. Ad Valorem Tax – tax upon the value of the article or thing subject to taxation; the intervention of another party is needed for the computation of the tax.
5. As to taxing authority: a. National Tax – levied by the National Government b. Local Tax – levied by the local government
6. As to rate: a. Progressive Tax – rate or amount of tax increases as the amount of the income or earning to be taxed increases. b. Regressive Tax – tax rate decreases as the amount of income to be taxed increases. c. Proportionate Tax – based on a fixed proportion of the value of the property assessed.

Impositions Not Strictly Considered as Taxes
1. TOLL – AMOUNT CHARGED FOR THE COST AND MAINTENANCE OF THE PROPERTY USED.
2. Penalty – punishment for the commission of a crime.
3. Compromise Penalty – amount collected in lieu of criminal prosecution in cases of tax violations.
4. Special Assessment – levied only on land based wholly on benefit accruing thereon as a result of improvements or public works undertaken by government within the vicinity.
5. License or Fee – regulatory imposition in the exercise of the police power.
6. Margin Fee – exaction designed to stabilize the currency.
7. Debt – a sum of money due upon contract or one which is evidenced by judgment.
8. Subsidy – a legislative grant of money in aid of a private enterprise deemed to promote the public welfare.
9. Customs duties and fees – duties charged upon commodities on their being transported into or exported from a country.
10. Revenue – a broad term that includes taxes and income from other sources as well.
11. Impost – in its general sense, it signifies any tax, tribute or duty. In its limited sense, it means a duty on imported goods and merchandise.

|Tax |Special Assessment |
| | |
|Imposed on persons, |Levied only on land |
|property and excises | |
| | |
|Personal liability attaches|Cannot be made a personal |
|on the person assessed in |liability of the person |
|case of non-payment |assessed |
| | |
|Not based on any special or|Based wholly on benefit |
|direct benefit | |
| | |
|Levied and paid annually |Exceptional both as to |
| |time and locality |
| | |
|Exemption granted is |Exemption does not apply. |
|applicable (Art. VI, Sec. |N.B. If property is exempt|
|28(3) 1987 Constitution) |from Real Property Tax, it|
| |is also exempt from |
| |Special Assessment. |

|Tax |License Fee |
| | |
|Based on the power of |Emanates from police power|
|taxation | |
| | |
|To generate revenue |Regulatory |
| | |
|Amount is unlimited |Amount is limited to the |
| |cost of (1) issuing the |
| |license, and (2) |
| |inspection and |
| |surveillance |
| | |
|Normally paid after the |Normally paid before |
|start of a business |commencement of business |
| | |
|Taxes, being the lifeblood |License fee may be with or|
|of the State, cannot be |without consideration |
|surrendered except for | |
|lawful consideration | |
| | |
|Non-payment does not make |Non-payment makes the |
|the business illegal but |business illegal |
|maybe a ground for criminal| |
|prosecution | |

Test in determining if the imposition is a tax or a license fee IF THE PURPOSE IS PRIMARILY REVENUE OR IF REVENUE IS, AT LEAST, ONE OF THE REAL AND SUBSTANTIAL PURPOSES, THEN THE EXACTION IS A TAX. IF THE PURPOSE IS REGULATORY IN NATURE, IT IS A LICENSE. (PAL V. EDU)

|Tax |Debt |
| | |
|An obligation imposed by |Created by contract |
|law | |
| | |
|Due to the government in |May be due to the |
|its sovereign capacity |government but in its |
| |corporate capacity |
| | |
|Payable in money |Payable in money, property |
| |or services |
| | |
|Does not draw interest |Draws interest if |
|except in case of |stipulated or delayed |
|delinquency | |
| | |
|Not assignable |Assignable |
| | |
|Not subject to compensation|Subject to compensation or |
|or set-off |set-off |
| | |
|Non-payment is punished by |No imprisonment in case of |
|imprisonment except in poll|non-payment (Art. III, Sec.|
|tax |20 1987 Constitution) |
| | |
|Imposed only by public |Can be imposed by private |
|authority |individual |

Test in determining if the imposition is a tax or a license fee IF THE PURPOSE IS PRIMARILY REVENUE OR IF REVENUE IS, AT LEAST, ONE OF THE REAL AND SUBSTANTIAL PURPOSES, THEN THE EXACTION IS A TAX. IF THE PURPOSE IS REGULATORY IN NATURE, IT IS A LICENSE. (PAL V. EDU)

|Tax |Debt |
| | |
|An obligation imposed by |Created by contract |
|law | |
| | |
|Due to the government in |May be due to the |
|its sovereign capacity |government but in its |
| |corporate capacity |
| | |
|Payable in money |Payable in money, property|
| |or services |
| | |
|Does not draw interest |Draws interest if |
|except in case of |stipulated or delayed |
|delinquency | |
| | |
|Not assignable |Assignable |
| | |
|Not subject to compensation|Subject to compensation or|
|or set-off |set-off |
| | |
|Non-payment is punished by |No imprisonment in case of|
|imprisonment except in poll|non-payment (Art. III, |
|tax |Sec. 20 1987 Constitution)|
| | |
|Imposed only by public |Can be imposed by private |
|authority |individual |

Compensation or Set-off

General Rule: Taxes cannot be the subject of compensation or set-off. Reasons: 1. lifeblood theory 2. taxes are not contractual obligation but arise out of duty to the government 3. the government and the taxpayer are not mutually creditors and debtors of each other. (Francia v. IAC)
Exception: When both obligations are due and demandable as well as fully liquidated and all the requisites for a valid compensation are present, compensation takes place by operation of law. (Domingo v. Garlitos)

Doctrine of Equitable Recoupment Not Followed in the Philippines A TAX PRESENTLY BEING ASSESSED AGAINST A TAXPAYER WHICH HAS PRESCRIBED MAY NOT BE RECOUPED OR SET-OFF AGAINST AN OVERPAID TAX THE REFUND OF WHICH IS ALSO BARRED BY PRESCRIPTION. IT IS AGAINST PUBLIC POLICY SINCE BOTH PARTIES ARE GUILTY OF NEGLIGENCE.

|TAX |TOLL |
| | |
|Enforced proportional |A sum of money for the use|
|contributions from persons |of something, a |
|and property |consideration which is |
| |paid for the use of a |
| |property which is of a |
| |public nature; e.g. road, |
| |bridge |
| | |
|A demand of sovereignty |A demand of proprietorship|
| | |
|No limit as to the amount |Amount of toll depends |
|of tax |upon the cost of |
| |construction or |
| |maintenance of the public |
| |improvement used |
| | |
|Imposed only by the State |May be imposed by: |
| |Government |
| |Private individuals or |
| |entities |

|Tax |Penalty |
| | |
|Enforced proportional |Sanction imposed as a |
|contributions from persons |punishment for violation of|
|and property |a law or acts deemed |
| |injurious; violation of tax|
| |laws may give rise to |
| |imposition of penalty |
| | |
|Intended to raise revenue |Designed to regulate |
| |conduct |
| | |
|May be imposed only by the |May be imposed by: |
|government |(1) Government |
| |(2) Private individuals or |
| |entities |

|Tax |Tariff |
| | |
|All embracing term to |A kind of tax imposed on |
|include various kinds of |articles which are traded |
|enforced contributions upon|internationally |
|persons for the attainment | |
|of public purposes | |

Taxpayers’ Suit A CASE WHERE THE ACT COMPLAINED OF DIRECTLY INVOLVES THE ILLEGAL DISBURSEMENT OF PUBLIC FUNDS DERIVE FROM TAXATION (JUSTICE MELO, DISSENTING IN KILOSBAYAN, INC VS GUINGONA, JR.)

TAXPAYERS AND PUBLIC OFFCIALS HAVE LOCUS STANDI
REQUISITES FOR TAXPAYERS’ SUIT
a. THE TAX MONEY IS BEING EXTRACTED AND SPENT IN VIOLATION OF SPECIFIC CONSTITUTIONAL PROTECTIONS AGAINST ABUSES OF LEGISLATIVE POWER.
b. That public money is being deflected to any improper purpose (Pascual vs Secretary of Public Works)
c. That the petitioner seeks to restrain respondents from wasting public funds through the enforcement of an invalid or unconstitutional law

LIMITATIONS ON THE TAXING POWER

A. INHERENT LIMITATIONS (KEY: SPINE)
1. TERRITORIALITY OR SITUS OF TAXATION
2. PUBLIC PURPOSE OF TAXES
3. INTERNATIONAL COMITY
4. NON-DELEGABILITY OF THE TAXING POWER
5. TAX EXEMPTION OF THE GOVERNMENT

1) TESTS IN DETERMINING PUBLIC PURPOSE
a. DUTY TEST – WHETHER THE THING TO BE FURTHERED BY THE APPROPRIATION OF PUBLIC REVENUE IS SOMETHING, WHICH IS THE DUTY OF THE STATE, AS A GOVERNMENT, TO PROVIDE.

b. PROMOTION OF GENERAL WELFARE TEST – WHETHER THE PROCEEDS OF THE TAX WILL DIRECTLY PROMOTE THE WELFARE OF THE COMMUNITY IN EQUAL MEASURE.

2) NON-DELEGABILITY OF THE TAXING POWER
GENERAL RULE: THE POWER OF TAXATION IS PECULIARLY AND EXCLUSIVELY EXERCISED BY THE LEGISLATURE. (SEE SCOPE OF LEGISLATIVE TAXING POWER, SUPRA)
- REFERS TO TAX LEGISLATION
EXCEPTIONS TO NON-DELEGABILITY:
1. FLEXIBLE TARIFF CLAUSE: AUTHORITY OF THE PRESIDENT TO FIX TARIFF RATES, IMPORT AND EXPORT QUOTAS, TONNAGE AND WHARFAGE DUES, AND OTHER DUTIES OR IMPOSTS. (ART. VI, SEC.28(2), 1987 CONSTITUTION)
2. POWER OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS TO LEVY TAXES, FEES, AND CHARGES. (ART. X, SEC. 5, 1987 CONSTITUTION)
3. DELEGATION TO ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION AND COLLECTION. - MERELY REFERS TO TAX ADMINISTRATION OR IMPLEMENTATION

3) SITUS OR TERRITORIALITY OF TAXATION THE POWER TO TAX IS LIMITED ONLY TO PERSONS, PROPERTY OR BUSINESSES WITHIN THE JURISDICTION OR TERRITORY OF THE TAXING POWER.

FACTORS THAT DETERMINE THE SITUS:
a. Kind or classification of the tax being levied
b. SITUS OF THE THING OR PROPERTY TAXED
c. CITIZENSHIP OF THE TAXPAYER
d. RESIDENCE OF THE TAXPAYER
e. SOURCE OF THE INCOME TAXED
f. SITUS OF THE EXCISE, PRIVILEGE, BUSINESS OR OCCUPATION BEING TAXED

APPLICATION OF SITUS OF TAXATION
|KIND OF TAX |SITUS |
| | |
|Personal or Community tax |RESIDENCE OR DOMICILE OF |
| |THE TAXPAYER |
| | |
|Real property tax |LOCATION OF PROPERTY (LEX |
| |REI SITAE) |
| | |
|Personal property tax |-TANGIBLE: WHERE IT IS |
| |PHYSICALLY LOCATED OR |
| |PERMANENTLY KEPT (LEX REI |
| |SITAE) |
| |-INTANGIBLE: SUBJECT TO |
| |SEC. 104 OF THE NIRC AND |
| |THE PRINCIPLE OF MOBILIA |
| |SEQUUNTUR PERSONAM |
| | |
|Business tax |PLACE OF BUSINESS |
| | |
|Excise or Privilege tax |WHERE THE ACT IS PERFORMED |
| |OR WHERE OCCUPATION IS |
| |PURSUED |
| | |
|Sales tax |WHERE THE SALE IS |
| |CONSUMMATED |
| | |
|Income Tax |CONSIDER |
| |(1) CITIZENSHIP, |
| |(2) RESIDENCE, AND |
| |(3) SOURCE OF INCOME (SEC. |
| |42, 1997 NIRC) |
| | |
|Transfer tax |RESIDENCE OR CITIZENSHIP OF|
| |THE TAXPAYER OR LOCATION OF|
| |PROPERTY |
| | |
|Franchise Tax |STATE WHICH GRANTED THE |
| |FRANCHISE |

Situs of Taxation of Intangible Personal Property
GENERAL RULE: DOMICILE OF THE OWNER PURSUANT TO THE PRINCIPLE OF THE MOBILIA SEQUUNTUR PERSONAM OR MOVABLES FOLLOW THE PERSON.
EXCEPTIONS:
1. WHEN THE PROPERTY HAS ACQUIRED A BUSINESS SITUS IN ANOTHER JURISDICTION;
2. WHEN AN EXPRESS PROVISION OF THE STATUTE PROVIDE FOR ANOTHER RULE. ILLUSTRATION: FOR PURPOSES OF ESTATE AND DONOR’S TAXES, THE FOLLOWING INTANGIBLE PROPERTIES ARE DEEMED WITH A SITUS IN THE PHILIPPINES: 1) FRANCHISE WHICH MUST BE EXERCISED IN THE PHILIPPINES; 2) SHARES, OBLIGATIONS OR BONDS ISSUED BY ANY CORPORATION ORGANIZED OR CONSTITUTED IN THE PHILIPPINES IN ACCORDANCE WITH ITS LAWS; 3) SHARES, OBLIGATIONS OR BONDS BY ANY FOREIGN CORPORATION EIGHTY-FIVE PERCENT (85%) OF THE BUSINESS OF WHICH IS LOCATED IN THE PHILIPPINES; 4) SHARES, OBLIGATIONS OR BONDS ISSUED BY ANY FOREIGN CORPORATION IF SUCH SHARES, OBLIGATIONS OR BONDS HAVE ACQUIRED A BUSINESS SITUS IN THE PHILIPPINES; AND 5) SHARES OR RIGHTS IN ANY PARTNERSHIP, BUSINESS OR INDUSTRY ESTABLISHED IN THE PHILIPPINES. (SEC. 104, 1997 NIRC).

4) EXEMPTION OF THE GOVERNMENT AS A MATTER OF PUBLIC POLICY, PROPERTY OF THE STATE AND OF ITS MUNICIPAL SUBDIVISIONS DEVOTED TO GOVERNMENT USES AND PURPOSES IS DEEMED TO BE EXEMPT FROM TAXATION ALTHOUGH NO EXPRESS PROVISION IN THE LAW IS MADE THEREFOR.

GENERAL RULE: THE GOVERNMENT IS TAX EXEMPT.
- HOWEVER, IT CAN ALSO TAX ITSELF.

RULES:
1. ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES a. GOVERNMENTAL FUNCTION - TAX EXEMPT UNLESS WHEN THE LAW EXPRESSLY PROVIDES FOR TAX. (SEC. 32 B7) b. PROPRIETARY FUNCTION – TAXABLE UNLESS EXEMPTED BY LAW. (SEC. 27C)
2. GOCCS GENERAL RULE: INCOME IS TAXABLE AT THE RATE IMPOSED UPON CORPORATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS ENGAGED IN A SIMILAR BUSINESS, INDUSTRY, OR ACTIVITY. EXCEPTION: GSIS, SSS, PHIC, PCSO AND PAGCOR. (SEC. 27(C), NIRC)
3. GOVERNMENT EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS a. PROPERTY OR REAL ESTATE TAX – PROPERTY ACTUALLY, DIRECTLY AND EXCLUSIVELY USED FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES – EXEMPT BUT INCOME OF WHATEVER KIND AND CHARACTER FROM ANY OF THEIR PROPERTIES, REAL OR PERSONAL, REGARDLESS OF THE DISPOSITION, IS TAXABLE. (SEC. 30, LAST PAR., NIRC) b. INCOME RECEIVED BY THEM AS SUCH ARE EXEMPT FROM TAXES. HOWEVER, THEIR INCOME FROM ANY OF THEIR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED FOR PROFIT REGARDLESS OF THE DISPOSITION, IS TAXABLE. (SEC. 30, LAST PAR., NIRC)
4. INCOME DERIVED FROM ANY PUBLIC UTILITY OR FROM THE EXERCISE OF ANY ESSENTIAL GOVERNMENTAL FUNCTION ACCRUING TO THE GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES OR TO ANY POLITICAL SUBDIVISION THEREOF IS NOT INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME AND EXEMPT FROM TAXATION. (SEC. 32(B)(7)(B), NIRC)
5. DONATIONS IN FAVOR OF GOVERNMENTAL INSTITUTIONS ARE CONSIDERED AS INCOME ON THE PART OF THE DONEE. HOWEVER, IT IS NOT CONSIDERED AS TAXABLE INCOME BECAUSE IT IS AN EXCLUSION FROM THE COMPUTATION OF GROSS INCOME. (SEC.32 (B)(3), NIRC)
6. THE AMOUNT OF ALL BEQUESTS, LEGACIES, DEVISES OR TRANSFERS TO OR FOR THE USE OF THE GOVERNMENT OR ANY POLITICAL SUBDIVISION FOR EXCLUSIVELY PUBLIC PURPOSES IS DEDUCTIBLE FROM THE GROSS ESTATE. (SEC.86 (A)(3), NIRC)
7. GIFTS MADE TO OR FOR THE USE OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OR ANY ENTITY CREATED BY ANY OF ITS AGENCIES WHICH IS NOT CONDUCTED FOR PROFIT, OR TO ANY POLITICAL SUBDIVISION OF THE SAID GOVERNMENT ARE EXEMPT FROM DONOR’S TAX. (SEC. 101(A)(2), NIRC)
8. LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS ARE EXPRESSLY PROHIBITED BY THE LGC FROM LEVYING TAX UPON NATIONAL GOVERNMENT, ITS AGENCIES, AND INSTRUMENTALITIES, AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS. [SEC. 133 (O), LGC]
9. UNLESS OTHERWISE PROVIDED IN THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE (LGC), TAX EXEMPTIONS GRANTED TO ALL PERSONS, WHETHER NATURAL OR JURIDICAL, INCLUDING GOCC, EXCEPT LOCAL WATER DISTRICTS, COOPERATIVES DULY REGISTERED UNDER RA NO. 6938, NON-STOCK AND NON-PROFIT INSTITUTIONS, ARE WITHDRAWN UPON EFFECTIVITY OF THE LGC. (SEC. 193, LGC)
10. REAL PROPERTY OWNED BY THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES OR ANY OF ITS POLITICAL SUBDIVISIONS EXCEPT WHEN THE BENEFICIAL USE THEREOF HAS BEEN GRANTED, FOR CONSIDERATION OR OTHERWISE, TO A TAXABLE PERSON SHALL BE EXEMPT FROM PAYMENT OF REAL PROPERTY TAX. (SEC. 234, LGC)

5) INTERNATIONAL COMITY THESE PRINCIPLES LIMIT THE AUTHORITY OF THE GOVERNMENT TO EFFECTIVELY IMPOSE TAXES ON A SOVEREIGN STATE AND ITS INSTRUMENTALITIES, AS WELL AS ON ITS PROPERTY HELD AND ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN IN THAT CAPACITY. EVEN WHERE ONE ENTERS THE TERRITORY OF ANOTHER, THERE IS AN IMPLIED UNDERSTANDING THAT THE FORMER DOES NOT THEREBY SUBMIT ITSELF TO THE AUTHORITY AND JURISDICTION OF THE OTHER.

B. CONSTITUTIONAL LIMITATIONS
A. GENERAL OR INDIRECT CONSTITUTIONAL LIMITATIONS

1. DUE PROCESS CLAUSE (ART. III, SEC. 1, 1987 CONSTITUTION) REQUISITES: a. THE INTERESTS OF THE PUBLIC AS DISTINGUISHED FROM THOSE OF A PARTICULAR CLASS REQUIRE THE INTERVENTION OF THE STATE. (SUBSTANTIVE LIMITATION) b. THE MEANS EMPLOYED MUST BE REASONABLY NECESSARY TO THE ACCOMPLISHMENT OF THE PURPOSE AND NOT UNDULY OPPRESSIVE. (PROCEDURAL LIMITATION) THE CONSTITUTIONALITY OF A LEGISLATIVE TAXING ACT QUESTIONED ON THE GROUND OF DENIAL OF DUE PROCESS REQUIRES THE EXISTENCE OF AN ACTUAL CASE OR CONTROVERSY.

2. EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE (ART. III, SEC. 1, 1987 CONSTITUTION REQUISITES OF A VALID CLASSIFICATION: a. BASED UPON SUBSTANTIAL DISTINCTIONS b. GERMANE TO THE PURPOSES OF THE LAW c. NOT LIMITED TO EXISTING CONDITIONS ONLY d. APPLY EQUALLY TO ALL MEMBERS OF THE CLASS

3. FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND OF THE PRESS (ART. III, SEC. 4, 1987 CONSTITUTION) THERE IS CURTAILMENT OF PRESS FREEDOM AND FREEDOM OF THOUGHT AND EXPRESSION IF A TAX IS LEVIED IN ORDER TO SUPPRESS THIS BASIC RIGHT AND IMPOSE A PRIOR RESTRAINT. (TOLENTINO VS. SECRETARY OF FINANCE, GR NO. 115455, AUGUST 25, 1994)

4. NON-INFRINGEMENT OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM AND WORSHIP (ART. III, SEC. 5, 1987 CONSTITUTION) A LICENSE TAX OR FEE CONSTITUTES A CURTAILMENT OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM IF IMPOSED AS A CONDITION FOR ITS EXERCISE. (AMERICAN BIBLE SOCIETY VS. CITY OF MANILA, GR NO. L-9637, APRIL 30, 1957)

5. NON-IMPAIRMENT OF CONTRACTS (ART. III, SEC. 10, 1987 CONSTITUTION) NO LAW IMPAIRING THE OBLIGATION OF CONTRACT SHALL BE PASSED. (SEC. 10, ART. III, 1987 CONSTITUTION) The rule, however, does not apply to public utility franchises or right since they are subject to amendment, alteration or repeal by the Congress when the public interest so requires. (Cagayan Electric & Light Co., Inc. v. Commissioner, GR No. 60216, September 25, 1985)

RULES:
a. When the exemption is bilaterally agreed upon between the government and the taxpayer – it cannot be withdrawn without violating the non-impairment clause. b. WHEN IT IS UNILATERALLY GRANTED BY LAW, AND THE SAME IS WITHDRAWN BY VIRTUE OF ANOTHER LAW – NO VIOLATION. c. WHEN THE EXEMPTION IS GRANTED UNDER A FRANCHISE – IT MAY BE WITHDRAWN AT ANY TIME THUS, NOT A VIOLATION OF THE NON-IMPAIRMENT OF CONTRACTS

6. PRESIDENTIAL POWER TO GRANT REPRIEVES, COMMUTATIONS AND PARDONS AND REMIT FINES AND FORFEITURES AFTER CONVICTION (ART. VII, SEC. 19, 1987 CONSTITUTION)

|DUE PROCESS |EQUAL PROTECTION |UNIFORMITY |
|TAXPAYER MAY |TAXPAYERS SHALL BE |TAXABLE ARTICLES,|
|NOT BE DEPRIVED|TREATED ALIKE UNDER |OR KINDS OF |
|OF LIFE, |LIKE CIRCUMSTANCES |PROPERTY OF THE |
|LIBERTY OR |AND CONDITIONS BOTH |SAME CLASS, SHALL|
|PROPERTY |IN THE PRIVILEGES |BE TAXED AT THE |
|WITHOUT DUE |CONFERRED AND |SAME RATE. THERE |
|PROCESS OF LAW.|LIABILITIES IMPOSED.|SHOULD THEREFORE,|
|NOTICE MUST, | |BE NO DIRECT |
|THEREFORE, BE | |DOUBLE TAXATION |
|GIVEN IN CASE | | |
|OF FAILURE TO | | |
|PAY TAXES | | |

B. SPECIFIC OR DIRECT CONSTITUTIONAL LIMITATIONS

1. NON-IMPRISONMENT FOR DEBT OR NON-PAYMENT OF POLL TAX (ART. III, SEC. 20, 1987 CONSTITUTION)

2. RULE REQUIRING THAT APPROPRIATIONS, REVENUE AND TARIFF BILLS SHALL ORIGINATE EXCLUSIVELY FROM THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES (ART. VI, SEC. 24, 1987 CONSTITUTION)

3. UNIFORMITY, EQUITABILITY AND PROGRESSIVITY OF TAXATION (ART. VI, SEC. 28(1), 1987 CONSTITUTION) UNIFORMITY – ALL TAXABLE ARTICLES OR KINDS OF PROPERTY OF THE SAME CLASS ARE TAXED AT THE SAME RATE. EQUITABILITY – THE BURDEN FALLS TO THOSE WHO ARE MORE CAPABLE TO PAY. PROGRESSIVITY – RATE INCREASES AS THE TAX BASE INCREASES.

Q: IS A TAX LAW ADOPTING A REGRESSIVE SYSTEM OF TAXATION VALID? A: YES. THE CONSTITUTION DOES NOT REALLY PROHIBIT THE IMPOSITION OF INDIRECT TAXES WHICH, LIKE THE VAT, ARE REGRESSIVE. THE CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION MEANS SIMPLY THAT INDIRECT TAXES SHALL BE MINIMIZED. THE MANDATE TO CONGRESS IS NOT TO PRESCRIBE, BUT TO EVOLVE, A PROGRESSIVE TAX SYSTEM. (EVAT EN BANC RESOLUTION, TOLENTINO, ET AL VS SECRETARY OF FINANCE, OCTOBER 30, 1995)

4. LIMITATIONS ON THE CONGRESSIONAL POWER TO DELEGATE TO THE PRESIDENT THE AUTHORITY TO FIX TARIFF RATES, IMPORT AND EXPORT QUOTAS, ETC. (ART. VI, SEC. 28(2), 1987 CONSTITUTION)

5. TAX EXEMPTION OF PROPERTIES ACTUALLY, DIRECTLY AND EXCLUSIVELY USED FOR RELIGIOUS, CHARITABLE AND EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES. (ART. VI, SEC. 28(3) 7, 1987 CONSTITUTION) THE CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION (ABOVE CITED) WHICH GRANTS TAX EXEMPTION APPLIES ONLY TO PROPERTY OR REALTY TAXES ASSESSED ON SUCH PROPERTIES USED ACTUALLY, DIRECTLY EXCLUSIVELY FOR RELIGIOUS, CHARITABLE AND EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES. (LLADOC VS. COMMISSIONER, GR NO. L-19201, JUNE 16, 1965) THE PRESENT CONSTITUTION REQUIRED THAT FOR THE EXEMPTION OF “LANDS, BUILDINGS AND IMPROVEMENTS”, THEY SHOULD NOT ONLY BE “EXCLUSIVELY” BUT ALSO “ACTUALLY” AND “DIRECTLY” USED FOR RELIGIOUS AND CHARITABLE PURPOSES. (PROVINCE OF ABRA VS. HERNANDO, GR NO. L-49336, AUGUST 31, 1981) THE TEST OF EXEMPTION FROM TAXATION IS THE USE OF THE PROPERTY FOR THE PURPOSES MENTIONED IN THE CONSTITUTION. (ABRA VALLEY COLLEGE INC. VS. AQUINO, GR NO. L-39086, JUNE 15, 1988)

EXCLUSIVE BUT NOT ABSOLUTE USE The term “ exclusively used” does not necessarily mean total or absolute use for religious, charitable and educational purposes. If the property is incidentally used for said purposes, the tax exemption may still subsist. (Abra Valley College Inc. vs. Aquino, Gr No. L-39086, June 15, 1988) COROLLARILY, IF A PROPERTY, ALTHOUGH ACTUALLY OWNED BY A RELIGIOUS, CHARITABLE AND EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION IS USED FOR A NON- EXEMPT PURPOSE, THE EXEMPTION FROM TAX SHALL NOT ATTACH

| |ART. XIV, SEC 4(3) |ART. VI, SEC |
| | |28(3) |
|Grantee |Non- stock, non |Religious, |
| |profit educational |educational, |
| |institution |charitable |
| | |institutions |
|Taxes covered |Income tax |Property tax |
| |Custom Duties | |
| |Property tax (DECS | |
| |Order No. 137-187) | |

6. Voting Requirement In Connection With The Legislative Grant Of Tax Exemption (Art. VI, Sec. 28(4), 1987 Constitution)
7. NON-IMPAIRMENT OF THE JURISDICTION OF THE SUPREME COURT IN TAX CASES (ART. VIII, SEC. 2 AND 5(2)(B), 1987 CONSTITUTION)

8. EXEMPTION FROM TAXES OF THE REVENUES AND ASSETS OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS, INCLUDING GRANTS, ENDOWMENTS, DONATIONS AND CONTRIBUTIONS. (ART. XIV, SEC. 4(3) AND (4), 1987 CONSTITUTION)

OTHER SPECIFIC TAX PROVISIONS IN THE CONSTITUTION
1. Power of the President to veto any particular item or items in an appropriation, revenue, or tariff bill. (Art VI, Sec. 27(2), 1987 Constitution)
2. NECESSITY OF AN APPROPRIATION BEFORE MONEY MAY BE PAID OUT OF THE PUBLIC TREASURY. (ART. VI, SEC. 29 (1), 1987 CONSTITUTION)
3. NON-APPROPRIATION OF PUBLIC MONEY OR PROPERTY FOR THE USE, BENEFIT, OR SUPPORT OF ANY SECT, CHURCH, OR SYSTEM OF RELIGION. (ART. VI, SEC. 29 (2), 1987 CONSTITUTION)
4. TREATMENT OF TAXES LEVIED FOR A SPECIAL PURPOSE. (ART. VI, SEC. 29 (3), 1987 CONSTITUTION)
5. INTERNAL REVENUE ALLOTMENTS TO LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS. (ART. X, SEC. 6, 1987 CONSTITUTION)

DOUBLE TAXATION

DOUBLE TAXATION – TAXING THE SAME PROPERTY TWICE WHEN IT SHOULD BE TAXED BUT ONCE.

IS DOUBLE TAXATION PROHIBITED IN THE PHILIPPINES? NO. THERE IS NO CONSTITUTIONAL PROHIBITION AGAINST DOUBLE TAXATION. IT IS NOT FAVORED BUT PERMISSIBLE. (PEPSI COLA BOTTLING CO. V. CITY OF BUTUAN, 1968).

KINDS OF DOUBLE TAXATION
1) DIRECT DUPLICATE TAXATION / OBNOXIOUS – DOUBLE TAXATION IN THE OBJECTIONABLE OR PROHIBITED SENSE. THIS CONSTITUTES A VIOLATION OF SUBSTANTIVE DUE PROCESS.

ELEMENTS:
a. THE SAME PROPERTY OR SUBJECT MATTER IS TAXED TWICE WHEN IT SHOULD BE TAXED ONLY ONCE.
b. BOTH TAXES ARE LEVIED FOR THE SAME PURPOSE
c. IMPOSED BY THE SAME TAXING AUTHORITY
d. WITHIN THE SAME JURISDICTION
e. DURING THE SAME TAXING PERIOD
f. COVERING THE SAME KIND OR CHARACTER OF TAX. (VILLANUEVA VS. CITY OF ILOILO)

2) INDIRECT DUPLICATE TAXATION – NOT LEGALLY OBJECTIONABLE. THE ABSENCE OF ONE OR MORE OF THE ABOVE-MENTIONED ELEMENTS MAKES THE DOUBLE TAXATION INDIRECT.

3) DOMESTIC- THIS ARISES WHEN THE TAXES ARE IMPOSED BY THE LOCAL OR NATIONAL GOVERNMENT (WITHIN THE SAME STATE)
4) International- refers to the imposition of comparable taxes in two or more states on the same taxpayer in respect of the same subject matter and for identical periods.

Remedies of Double Taxation
1. TAX SPARING RULE – SAME DIVIDEND EARNED BY A NRFC WITHIN THE PHIL. IS REDUCED BY IMPOSING A LOWER RATE OF 15% (IN LIEU OF THE 35%), ON THE CONDITION THAT THE COUNTRY TO WHICH THE NRFC IS DOMILICED SHALL ALLOW A CREDIT AGAINST THE TAX DUE FROM THE NRFC, TAXES DEEMED TO HAVE BEEN PAID IN THE PHIL. (SEC.28 B 5B) (CIR VS PROCTER & GAMBLE) (GR NO. 66838, DEC. 2, 1991) 2. TAX DEDUCTIONS EXAMPLE: VANISHING DEDUCTION UNDER SECTION 86(A)(2), NIRC 3. TAX CREDITS INSTANCES UNDER THE NIRC: • FOR VAT PURPOSES, THE TAX ON INPUTS OR ITEMS THAT GO INTO THE MANUFACTURE OF FINISHED PRODUCTS (WHICH ARE EVENTUALLY SOLD) MAY BE CREDITED AGAINST OR DEDUCTED FROM THE OUTPUT TAX OR TAX ON THE FINISHED PRODUCT. • Foreign income taxes may be credited against the Phil. Income tax, subject to certain limitations, by citizens, including members of general professional partnerships or beneficiaries of estates or trusts (pro rata), as well as domestic corporations. • A tax credit is granted for estate taxes paid to a foreign country on the estate of citizens and resident aliens subject to certain limitations. • The donor’s tax imposed upon a citizen or a resident shall be credited with the amount of any donor’s tax imposed by the authority of a foreign country, subject to certain limitations. 4. Tax Exemptions 5. PRINCIPLE OF RECIPROCITY 6. TREATIES WITH OTHER STATES

METHODS RESORTED TO BY A TAX TREATY IN ORDER TO ELIMINATE DOUBLE TAXATION

FIRST METHOD: THE TAX TREATY SETS OUT THE RESPECTIVE RIGHTS TO TAX BY THE STATE OF SOURCE OR SITUS AND BY THE STATE OF RESIDENCE WITH REGARD TO CERTAIN CLASSES OF INCOME OR CAPITAL. IN SOME CASES, AN EXCLUSIVE RIGHT TO TAX IS CONFERRED IN ONE OF THE CONTRACTING STATES; HOWEVER, FOR OTHER ITEMS OF INCOME OR CAPITAL, BOTH STATES ARE GIVEN THE RIGHT TO TAX ALTHOUGH THE AMOUNT OF TAX THAT MAY BE IMPOSED BY THE STATE OF SOURCE IS LIMITED.
SECOND METHOD: THE STATE OF SOURCE IS GIVEN A FULL OR LIMITED RIGHT TO TAX TOGETHER WITH THE STATE OF RESIDENCE. IN THIS CASE, THE TREATY MAKES IT INCUMBENT UPON THE STATE OF RESIDENCE TO ALLOW RELIEF IN ORDER TO AVOID DOUBLE TAXATION.

TWO METHODS OF RELIEF ARE USED UNDER THE SECOND METHOD:

1. THE EXEMPTION METHOD- THE INCOME OR CAPITAL WHICH IS TAXABLE IN THE STATE OF SOURCE OR SITUS IS EXEMPTED IN THE STATE OF RESIDENCE, ALTHOUGH IN SOME INSTANCES IT MAY BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT IN DETERMINING THE RATE OF TAX APPLICABLE TO THE TAX PAYER’S REMAINING INCOME OR CAPITAL.(THIS MAY BE DONE USING THE TAX DEDUCTION METHOD WHICH ALLOWS FOREIGN INCOME TAXES TO BE DEDUCTED FROM GROSS INCOME, IN EFFECT EXEMPTING THE PAYMENT FROM BEING FURTHER TAXED.)
2. THE CREDIT METHOD- ALTHOUGH THE INCOME OR CAPITAL WHICH IS TAXED IN THE STATE OF SOURCE IS STILL TAXABLE IN THE STATE OF RESIDENCE. THE TAX PAID IN THE FORMER IS CREDITED AGAINST THE TAX, LEVIED IN THE LATTER.(COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE V. S.C JOHNSON AND SON, INC. ET AL., G.R NO. 127105, JUNE 25, 1999)

|EXEMPTION METHOD |CREDIT METHOD |
|FOCUS IS ON THE INCOME OR |FOCUS IS ON THE TAX |
|CAPITAL ITSELF | |

NOTE: Computational illustration between a tax deduction and a tax credit:

TAX DEDUCTION METHOD GROSS INCOME LESS: ALLOWABLE DEDUCTIONS INCLUDING FOREIGN TAXES PAID INCOME SUBJECT TO TAX MULTIPLIED BY RATE INCOME TAX DUE

TAX CREDIT METHOD GROSS INCOME LESS: ALLOWABLE DEDUCTIONS EXCLUDING FOREIGN TAXES PAID INCOME SUBJECT TO TAX MULTIPLIED BY RATE INCOME TAX DUE LESS: FOREIGN TAXES PAID NET INCOME TAX DUE

FORMS OF ESCAPE FROM TAXATION

1) SHIFTING – THE PROCESS BY WHICH THE TAX BURDEN IS TRANSFERRED FROM THE STATUTORY TAXPAYER (IMPACT OF TAXATION) TO ANOTHER (INCIDENT OF TAXATION) WITHOUT VIOLATING THE LAW.

IMPACT OF TAXATION – POINT ON WHICH TAX IS ORIGINALLY IMPOSED.

INCIDENCE OF TAXATION – POINT ON WHICH THE TAX BURDEN FINALLY RESTS OR SETTLES DOWN.
ILLUSTRATION: VALUE ADDED TAX. THE SELLER IS REQUIRED BY LAW TO PAY TAX, BUT THE BURDEN IS ACTUALLY SHIFTED OR PASSED ON TO THE BUYER.

KINDS OF SHIFTING
a. FORWARD SHIFTING- WHEN BURDEN OF TAX IS TRANSFERRED FROM A FACTOR OF PRODUCTION THROUGH THE FACTORS OF DISTRIBUTION UNTIL IT FINALLY SETTLES ON THE ULTIMATE PURCHASER OR CONSUMER
b. BACKWARD SHIFTING- WHEN BURDEN IS TRANSFERRED FROM CONSUMER THROUGH FACTORS OF DISTRIBUTION TO THE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION
c. ONWARD SHIFTING- WHEN THE TAX IS SHIFTED 2 OR MORE TIMES EITHER FORWARD OR BACKWARD

2) CAPITALIZATION – A MERE INCREASE IN THE VALUE OF THE PROPERTY IS NOT INCOME BUT MERELY AN UNREALIZED INCREASE IN CAPITAL. NO INCOME UNTIL AFTER THE ACTUAL SALE OR OTHER DISPOSITION OF THE PROPERTY IN EXCESS OF ITS ORIGINAL COST.
EXCEPT: IF BY REASON OF APPRAISAL, THE COST BASIS OF PROPERTY INCREASED AND THE RESULTANT BASIS IS USED AS THE NEW TAX BASE FOR PURPOSES OF COMPUTING THE ALLOWABLE DEPRECIATION EXPENSE, THE NET DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE ORIGINAL COST BASIS AND NEW BASIS IS TAXABLE UNDER THE ECONOMIC BENEFIT PRINCIPLE. (BIR RULING NO. 029, MARCH 19, 1998)

3) TRANSFORMATION – THE MANUFACTURER OR PRODUCER UPON WHOM THE TAX HAS BEEN IMPOSED, FEARING THE LOSS OF HIS MARKET IF HE SHOULD ADD THE TAX TO THE PRICE, PAYS THE TAX AND ENDEAVORS TO RECOUP HIMSELF BY IMPROVING HIS PROCESS OF PRODUCTION, THEREBY TURNING OUT HIS UNITS AT A LOWER COST.

4) TAX AVOIDANCE – THE EXPLOITATION BY THE TAXPAYER OF LEGALLY PERMISSIBLE ALTERNATIVE TAX RATES OR METHODS OF ASSESSING TAXABLE PROPERTY OR INCOME, IN ORDER TO AVOID OR REDUCE TAX LIABILITY.
EXAMPLE: “ESTATE PLANNING” (CONVEYANCE OF PROPERTY TO A FAMILY CORPORATION FOR SHARES) (DELPHER TRADES CORP. VS. IAC, 157 SCRA 349)
5) TAX EVASION – USE BY THE TAXPAYER OF ILLEGAL OR FRAUDULENT MEANS TO DEFEAT OR LESSEN THE PAYMENT OF THE TAX.

FACTORS IN TAX EVASION
1. THE END TO BE ACHIEVED, I.E. PAYMENT OF LESS THAN THAT KNOWN BY THE TAXPAYER TO BE LEGALLY DUE, OR PAYING NO TAX WHEN IT IS SHOWN THAT THE TAX IS DUE;
2. AN ACCOMPANYING STATE OF MIND WHICH IS DESCRIBED AS BEING EVIL, IN BAD FAITH, WILLFUL, OR DELIBERATE AND NOT COINCIDENTAL; AND
3. A COURSE OF ACTION WHICH IS UNLAWFUL.

INDICIA OF FRAUD IN TAX EVASION
1. FAILURE TO DECLARE FOR TAXATION PURPOSES TRUE AND ACTUAL INCOME DERIVED FROM BUSINESS FOR 2 CONSECUTIVE YEARS (REPUBLIC VS GONZALES, L-17962)
2. SUBSTANTIAL UNDER-DECLARATION OF INCOME TAX RETURNS OF THE TAXPAYER FOR 4 CONSECUTIVE YEARS COUPLED WITH INTENTIONAL OVERSTATEMENT OF DEDUCTIONS (CIR VS REYES, 104 PHIL 1061)

| |TAX AVOIDANCE |TAX EVASION |
| | | |
|Validity |Legal and not subject |Illegal and subject|
| |to criminal penalty |to criminal penalty|
| | | |
|Effect |Minimization of taxes |Almost always |
| | |results in absence |
| | |of tax payments |

6) Tax Exemption – a grant of immunity to particular persons or corporations from the obligation to pay taxes.

LEGAL BASIS: NO LAW GRANTING ANY TAX EXEMPTION SHALL BE PASSED WITHOUT THE CONCURRENCE OF A MAJORITY OF ALL THE MEMBERS OF CONGRESS (ART VI. SEC 28(4) OF THE 1987 CONSTITUTION)

KINDS OF TAX EXEMPTION
1. AS TO SOURCE a. CONSTITUTIONAL – IMMUNITIES FROM TAXATION THAT ORIGINATE FROM THE CONSTITUTION. b. STATUTORY – THOSE WHICH EMANATE FROM LEGISLATION EXAMPLES OF STATUTORY EXEMPTIONS SEC. 27, NIRC SEC. 105 TARIFF AND CUSTOMS CODE SEC. 234 LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE SPECIAL LAWS, SUCH AS THE OMNIBUS INVESTMENT CODE OF 1987 (EO 226), PHILIPPINE OVERSEAS SHIPPING ACT (RA 1407 AS AMENDED), FERTILIZER INDUSTRY ACT (RA 3050, AS AMENDED), MINERAL RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT DECREE OF 1974 (PD 463 AS AMENDED), COTTAGE INDUSTRY ACT (RA 318, AS AMENDED) AND EXEMPTIONS IN “HOUSING FOR LOW INCOME GROUP” (PD 1205, AS AMENDED) c. CONTRACTUAL- AGREED TO BY THE TAXING AUTHORITY IN CONTRACTS LAWFULLY ENTERED INTO BY THEM UNDER ENABLING LAWS d. TREATY e. LICENSING ORDINANCE
2. AS TO FORM 1) EXPRESS – EXPRESSLY GRANTED BY ORGANIC OR STATUTE LAW 2) IMPLIED – WHEN PARTICULAR PERSONS, PROPERTY OR EXCISES ARE DEEMED EXEMPT AS THEY FALL OUTSIDE THE SCOPE OF THE TAXING PROVISION ITSELF.
3. AS TO EXTENT 1) TOTAL – ABSOLUTE IMMUNITY 2) PARTIAL – ONE WHERE A COLLECTION OF A PART OF THE TAX IS DISPENSED WITH
4. AS TO OBJECT 1) PERSONAL – GRANTED DIRECTLY IN FAVOR OF CERTAIN PERSONS 2) IMPERSONAL – GRANTED DIRECTLY IN FAVOR OF A CERTAIN CLASS OF PROPERTY

PRINCIPLES GOVERNING TAX EXEMPTION
a. EXEMPTIONS FROM TAXATION ARE HIGHLY DISFAVORED IN LAW AND ARE NOT PRESUMED.
b. HE WHO CLAIMS AS EXEMPTION MUST BE ABLE TO JUSTIFY HIS CLAIM BY THE CLEAREST GRANT OF ORGANIC OR STATUTE LAW BY WORDS TOO PLAIN TO BE MISTAKEN. IF AMBIGUOUS, THERE IS NO EXEMPTION.
c. HE WHO CLAIMS EXEMPTION SHOULD PROVE BY CONVINCING PROOF THAT HE IS EXEMPTED.
d. TAXATION IS THE RULE; TAX EXEMPTION IS THE EXCEPTION.
e. TAX EXEMPTION MUST BE STRICTLY CONSTRUED AGAINST THE TAXPAYER AND LIBERALLY IN FAVOR OF THE TAXING AUTHORITY.
f. TAX EXEMPTIONS ARE NOT PRESUMED.
g. CONSTITUTIONAL GRANTS OF TAX EXEMPTION ARE SELF-EXECUTING.
h. TAX EXEMPTIONS ARE PERSONAL.

THE FOLLOWING PARTAKE THE NATURE OF TAX EXEMPTION
1. DEDUCTIONS FOR INCOME TAX PURPOSES
2. CLAIMS FOR REFUND
3. TAX AMNESTY
4. CONDONATION OF UNPAID TAX LIABILITIES
NOTE: MUST BE STRICTLY CONSTRUED AGAINST THE TAXPAYER

WHEN EXEMPTIONS ARE CONSTRUED LIBERALLY IN FAVOR OF GRANTEE
1. WHEN THE LAW SO PROVIDES FOR SUCH LIBERAL CONSTRUCTION.
2. EXEMPTIONS FROM CERTAIN TAXES, GRANTED UNDER SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES TO SPECIAL CLASSES OF PERSONS.
3. EXEMPTIONS IN FAVOR OF THE GOVERNMENT, ITS POLITICAL SUBDIVISIONS OR INSTRUMENTALITIES.
4. EXEMPTIONS TO TRADITIONAL EXEMPTEES, SUCH AS THOSE IN FAVOR OF RELIGIOUS AND CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS.
5. IF EXEMPTIONS REFER TO THE PUBLIC PROPERTY

Q: MAY A TAX EXEMPTION BE REVOKED?
A: YES. IT IS AN ACT OF LIBERALITY WHICH COULD BE TAKEN BACK BY THE GOVERNMENT UNLESS THERE ARE RESTRICTIONS. SINCE TAXATION IS THE RULE AND EXEMPTION THEREFROM IS THE EXCEPTION, THE EXEMPTION MAY BE WITHDRAWN BY THE TAXING AUTHORITY. (MACTAN CEBU INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT AUTHORITY VS. MARCOS, 261 SCRA 667)

RESTRICTIONS ON REVOCATION OF TAX EXEMPTIONS
a. NON IMPAIRMENT CLAUSE. WHERE THE EXEMPTION WAS GRANTED TO PRIVATE PARTIES BASED ON MATERIAL CONSIDERATION OF A MUTUAL NATURE, WHICH THEN BECOMES CONTRACTUAL AND IS COVERED BY THE NON-IMPAIRMENT CLAUSE OF THE CONSTITUTION.
b. ADHERENCE TO FORM- IF THE TAX EXEMPTION IS GRANTED BY THE CONSTITUTION, ITS REVOCATION MAY BE EFFECTED THROUGH CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT ONLY
c. WHERE THE TAX EXEMPTION GRANT IS IN THE FORM OF A SPECIAL LAW AND NOT BY A GENERAL LAW EVEN IF THE TERMS OF THE GENERAL ACT ARE BROAD ENOUGH TO INCLUDE THE CODES IN THE GENERAL LAW UNLESS THERE IS MANIFEST INTENT TO REPEAL OR ALTER THE SPECIAL LAW (PROVINCE OF MISAMIS ORIENTAL VS CAGAYAN ELECTRIC POWER AND LIGHT CO. INC)

NATURE OF TAX AMNESTY
1. GENERAL OR INTENTIONAL OVERLOOKING BY THE STATE OF ITS AUTHORITY TO IMPOSE PENALTIES ON PERSONS OTHERWISE GUILTY OF EVASION OR VIOLATION OF A REVENUE OR TAX LAW.
2. Partakes of an absolute forgiveness of waiver of the government of its right to collect.
3. To give tax evaders, who wish to relent and are willing to reform a chance to do so.

RULES ON TAX AMNESTY
1. Tax amnesty a) like tax exemption, it is never favored nor presumed b) construed strictly against the taxpayer (must show complete compliance with the law)

2.Government not estopped from questioning the tax liability even if amnesty tax payments were already received. Reason: Erroneous application and enforcement of the law by public officers do not block subsequent correct application of the statute. The government is never estopped by mistakes or errors of its agents. Basis: Lifeblood Theory

3.Defense of tax amnesty, like insanity, is a personal defense. Reason: Relates to the circumstances of a particular accused and not the character of the acts charged in the information.

|Tax amnesty |Tax exemption |
| | |
|Immunity from all criminal,|Immunity from civil |
|civil and administrative |liability only |
|liabilities arising from | |
|non payment of taxes | |
| | |
|Applies only to past tax |Prospective application |
|periods, hence retroactive | |
|application | |

Doctrine Of Imprescriptibilty As a rule, taxes are imprescriptible as they are the lifeblood of the government. However, tax statutes may provide for statute of limitations. The rules that have been adopted are as follows:
a. National Internal Revenue Code The statute of limitation for assessment of tax if a return is filed is within three (3) years from the last day prescribed by law for the filling of the return or if filed after the last day, within three years from date of actual filling. If no return is filed or the return filed is false or fraudulent, the period to assess is within ten years from discovery of the omission, fraud or falsity. The period to collect tax is within three years from date of assessment. In the case, however, of omission to file or if the return filed is false or fraudulent, the period to collect is within ten years from discovery without need of an assessment.

b. Tariff and customs code It does not express any general statute of limitation; it provided, however, that ‘’ when articles have entered and passed free of duty or final adjustment of duties made, with subsequent delivery, such entry and passage free of duty or settlement of duties will, after the expiration of one (1) year, from the date of the final payment of duties, in the absence of fraud or protest, be final and conclusive upon all parties, unless the liquidation of import entry was merely tentative.” (Sec 1603,TCC)

c.) Local Government Code Local Taxes, fees, or charges shall be assessed within five (5) years from the date they became due. In case of fraud or intent to evade the payment of taxes, fees or charges the same may be assessed within ten (10) years from discovery of the fraud or intent to evade payment. They shall also be collected either by administrative or judicial action within five (5) years from date of assessment (Sec. 194. LGC)

Tax enforcement and Administration

SOURCES OF TAX LAWS (KEY: SPEC2TRA BLT)
1. STATUTES
2. PRESIDENTIAL DECREES
3. EXECUTIVE ORDERS
4. CONSTITUTION
5. COURT DECISIONS
6. TAX CODES
7. REVENUE REGULATIONS
8. ADMINISTRATIVE ISSUANCES
9. BIR RULINGS
10. LOCAL TAX ORDINANCE
11. TAX TREATIES AND CONVENTIONS

REQUISITES OF TAX REGULATIONS
1. REASONABLE
2. WITHIN THE AUTHORITY CONFERRED
3. NOT CONTRARY TO LAW
4. MUST BE PUBLISHED

NOTE: ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS MUST ALWAYS BE IN HARMONY WITH THE PROVISIONS OF THE LAW. IN CASE OF DISCREPANCY BETWEEN THE BASIC LAW AND THE IMPLEMENTING RULE OR REGULATION, THE FORMER PREVAILS.

NON-RETROACTIVITY OF BIR RULINGS
GENERAL RULE: RULINGS ARE NOT RETROACTIVE IF THEY ARE PREJUDICIAL TO THE TAXPAYER. (SEC. 246, NIRC)
EXCEPTIONS:
1. WHERE THE TAXPAYER DELIBERATELY MISSTATES OR OMITS MATERIAL FACTS FROM HIS RETURN OR ANY DOCUMENT REQUIRED OF HIM BY THE BIR.
2. WHERE THE FACTS SUBSEQUENTLY GATHERED BY THE BIR IS MATERIALLY DIFFERENT FROM THE FACTS ON WHICH THE RULING IS BASED.
3. WHERE THE TAXPAYER ACTED IN BAD FAITH.

PRINCIPLE OF LEGISLATIVE APPROVAL OF AN ADMINISTRATIVE INTERPRETATION THROUGH REENACTMENT WHERE A STATUTE IS SUSCEPTIBLE OF THE MEANING PLACED UPON IT BY A RULING OF THE GOVERNMENT AGENCY CHARGED WITH ITS ENFORCEMENT AND THE LEGISLATURE THEREAFTER REENACTS THE PROVISION WITHOUT SUBSTANTIAL CHANGE, SUCH ACTION IS TO SOME EXTENT CONFIRMATORY THAT THE RULING CARRIES OUT THE LEGISLATIVE PURPOSE.

RULE OF NO ESTOPPEL AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT
GENERAL RULE: THE GOVERNMENT IS NOT ESTOPPED BY THE MISTAKES OR ERRORS OF ITS AGENTS; ERRONEOUS APPLICATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF LAW BY PUBLIC OFFICERS DO NOT BAR THE SUBSEQUENT CORRECT APPLICATION OF STATUTES. (E. RODRIGUEZ, INC. VS. COLLECTOR, L-23041, JULY 31, 1969)
EXCEPTION: IN THE INTEREST OF JUSTICE AND FAIR PLAY, AS WHERE INJUSTICE WILL RESULT TO THE TAXPAYER. (SEE CIR VS. CA, GR NO. 117982, FEB. 6, 1997; CIR VS. CA, GR NO. 107135, FEB. 3, 1999)

AGENCIES INVOLVED IN TAX ADMINISTRATION
1. BUREAU OF INTERNAL REVENUE – INTERNAL REVENUE TAXES AGENTS OF THE CIR a. Commissioner of Customs with respect to taxes on imported goods B. HEAD OF THE APPROPRIATE GOVERNMENT OFFICE WITH RESPECT TO ENERGY TAX C. BANKS DULY ACCREDITED BY THE CIR (SEC. 12, 1997 NIRC)
2. BUREAU OF CUSTOMS – CUSTOMS LAW ENFORCEMENT
3. PROVINCIAL, CITY AND MUNICIPAL ASSESSORS AND TREASURERS – LOCAL AND REAL PROPERTY TAXES

ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTION OF THE
BUREAU OF INTERNAL REVENUE (BIR) BIR SHALL BE UNDER THE SUPERVISION AND CONTROL OF THE DEPT. OF FINANCE (SEC. 2, NIRC)

POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE BIR Assessment and collection of all national internal revenue taxes, fees, and charges
1. Enforcement of all forfeitures, penalties, and fines connected therewith
2. Execution of judgments in all cases decided in its favor by the Court of Tax Appeals (CTA) and the ordinary courts
3. Give effect to and administer the supervisory and police powers conferred to it by the Code or other laws

Assessment – a finding by the taxing authority that the taxpayer has not paid the correct taxes. It is also a written notice to a taxpayer to the effect that the amount stated therein is due as a tax and containing a demand for the payment thereof.
General rule: Taxes are self-assessing and thus, do not require the issuance of an assessment notice in order to establish the tax liability of a taxpayer.

Exceptions:

1. Tax period of a taxpayer is terminated [Sec. 6(D), NIRC]
2. Deficiency tax liability arising from a tax audit conducted by the BIR [Sec. 56(B), NIRC]
3. Tax lien [Sec. 219, NIRC]
4. Dissolving corporation [Sec. 52(c), NIRC]

Significance of Assessment
a. In the proper pursuit of judicial and extrajudicial remedies to enforce taxpayer liabilities and certain matters that relate to it, such as the imposition of surcharges and interests,
b. In the application of statute of limitations,
c. In the establishment of tax liens, and
d. In estimating the revenues that may be collected by government in the coming year. (Mamalateo, Victorino. Reviewer on Taxation, 2004)

Kinds
1. self- assessment- one in which the tax is assessed by the taxpayer himself
2. deficiency assessment- made by the tax assessor himself whereby the correct amount of the tax is determined after an examination or investigation is conducted. The liability is determined and assessed for the following reason: a. amount ascertained exceeds that which is shown as the tax by the taxpayer in his return b. no amount of tax is shown in the return c. taxpayer did not file any return at all
3. ILLEGAL AND VOID ASSESSMENT- assessment wherein tax assessor has no power to assess at all
4. ERRONEOUS ASSESSMENT- assessor has power to assess but errs in the exercise thereof

Burden of Proof in Pre-assessment Proceedings There is a presumption of correctness and good faith on the part of the CIR; thus, the burden lies on the taxpayer. Otherwise, the finding of the CIR will be conclusive and he will assess the taxpayer. The same is true even if the CIR is wrong, if the taxpayer does not controvert. (Cagayan Robina Sugar Milling Co. vs. Court of Appeals, GR. No. 122451, October 12, 2000)
Reasons: a. lifeblood theory b. presumption of regularity in performance of public functions
NOTE: Assessments by the BIR must have on its face the law and facts upon which the presumption is made.

Principles Governing Tax Assessments
1. Assessments are prima facie presumed correct and made in good faith.
2. It should be based on actual facts.
3. It is discretionary on the part of the Commissioner.

4. The authority of the Commissioner to assess taxes may be delegated, except the power to make final assessments.
5. It must be directed to the right party.

Authority of a Revenue Officer - pursuant to a Letter of Authority issued by the Regional Director a. To examine taxpayers within the jurisdiction of the district in order to collect the correct amount of tax; b. To recommend the assessment of any deficiency tax due in the same manner that the said acts could have been performed by the Revenue Regional Director.
General Rule: income tax returns are confidential.
Exception: inquiry into income tax returns may be authorized-

1. inspection is authorized upon written order of the President of the Philippines;
2. inspection is authorized under Finance Regulations No. 33 of the Secretary of Finance;
3. production of the tax return is material evidence in a criminal case wherein the government is interested in the result; or
4. production or inspection thereof is authorized by the taxpayer himself.

Networth Method- inventory method of income tax verification.

• Applies the accounting principle: assets – liabilities = networth
Condition for its use:
1. taxpayer’s books do not clearly reflect his income or the taxpayer has no books, or if he has books, he refuses to produce them;
2. there is evidence of possible source or sources of income to account for increases in networth;
3. there is a fixed starting point or opening networth; and
4. there must be proper adjustments to conform with the income tax laws.

Powers and Duties of the Commissioner
I. SECTION 4 (POWER TO INTERPRET TAX LAW AND DECIDE TAX CASES)

1. Interpret provisions of this Code and other tax laws subject to review of the Secretary of Finance (Quasi-legislative)
2. Decide: (Quasi-judicial) a) disputed assessment b) refunds of internal revenue taxes, fees and charges c) penalties imposed in relation thereto d) other matters arising from this Code or other laws or portions thereof administered by the BIR subject to the exclusive appellate jurisdiction of the CTA (Sec. 4)

II. Section 5 (power to obtain information, summon, examine and take testimony of persons)

3. For the Commissioner to ascertain: (a) correctness of any return or in making a return where none has been made (b) liability of any person for any internal revenue tax or in correcting such liability (c) tax compliance

The Commissioner is authorized:
1. to Examine any relevant Book, paper, record or other data
2. to Obtain any information (costs, volume of production, receipts, sales, gross income, etc), on a regular basis from: i. any person other than the person under investigation or ii. any office or officer of the national/local government, gov’t agencies and instrumentalities (Bangko Sentral, gov’t owned and controlled corporations) (e.g. LTO, Register of Deeds)
3. to Summon i. the person liable for tax or required to file a return or ii. any officer or employee of such person or iii. any person having in his possession/custody/care -- the books of accounts, -- accounting records of entries relating to the business of the person liable for tax or any other person -- to produce such books, papers, records, and other data and to give testimony
4. to take the Testimony of the person concerned, under oath as may be relevant to the inquiry
5. to cause revenue officers and employees to make a Canvass of any revenue district or region

Nothing in Section 5 shall be construed as granting the Commissioner the authority to inquire into bank deposits other than as provided for under sec. 6 (F) of the Code.

III. Section 6 (power to make assessments, prescribe additional requirements for tax administration and enforcement)

4. EXAMINATION OF RETURNS AND DETERMINATION OF TAX DUE A. After a return has been filed the Commissioner or his representative may authorize i. the Examination of any taxpayer and ii. the Assessment of the correct amount of tax; B. Failure to file a return shall not prevent the commissioner from authorizing the examination of any taxpayer; * Any tax or deficiency tax so assessed shall be paid upon notice and demand from the Commissioner or his representative * Any return, statement or declaration filed in any authorized office shall not be withdrawn; but within three years from date of filing, the same may be modified, changed or amended; provided that no notice for audit or investigation of such return, has in the meantime, been actually served upon the taxpayer.

5. Failure to submit required returns and other documents If a person i. fails to file a required return or report at the time prescribed or ii. willfully or otherwise files a false or fraudulent return, The Commissioner shall Make or Amend the return from i. his own knowledge or ii. from such information as he can obtain through testimony or otherwise which shall be prima facie correct and sufficient for all legal purposes

6. Inventory-taking, Surveillance, Presumptive Gross Sales A. Commissioner may, at any time during the taxable year a) order the inventory taking of goods of any taxpayer or b) may place the business operations of any person (natural/juridical) under observation or Surveillance, if there is reason to believe that such is not declaring his correct income, sales or receipts for tax purposes. The findings may be used as basis for assessing the taxes and shall be deemed prima facie correct.

B. Commissioner may prescribe a Minimum amount of gross receipts, sales and taxable base (taking into account the sales and income of other persons engaged in similar business): i. When a person has failed to issue receipts as required by sec.113 (Invoice requirements for VAT-registered persons) and Sec. 237 (Issuance of Receipts or Commercial Invoices) or ii. When the books of accounts or records do not correctly reflect the declarations made or required to be made in a return, Such minimum amount shall be considered correct. 7. Terminate taxable period Commissioner shall declare the tax period of a taxpayer Terminated and send notice to the taxpayer of such decision with a request for immediate payment of the tax when it has come to the knowledge of the Commissioner: a) that a taxpayer is retiring from business subject to tax or b) is intending to leave the Phils. or c) to remove his property therefrom or d) to hide or conceal his property or e) is performing any act tending to obstruct the proceedings for the collection of tax

8. Prescribe Real Property Values The Commissioner is authorized to: a. Divide the Phils. into different zones or areas and b. Determine the fair market value of real properties located in each zone or area

For tax purposes, the value of the property shall be whichever is higher of: a) Fair market value as determined by the Commissioner; or b) Fair market value as shown in the schedule of values of the provincial and city assessors.

9. Authority to Inquire into Bank Deposit Notwithstanding R.A. 1405 (Bank Secrecy Law) the Commissioner is authorized to inquire into the Bank deposits of: a) a decedent to determine his gross estate b) a taxpayer who has filed an application to compromise payment of tax liability by reason of financial incapacity

The taxpayer’s application for compromise shall not be considered unless he waives in writing his privilege under RA 1405 and other general or special laws. Such waiver shall authorize the Commissioner to inquire into his bank deposits.
10. Authority to Register tax agents (a) The Commissioner shall accredit and Register, individuals and general professional partnerships and their rep. who prepare and file tax returns and other papers or who appear before the BIR (b) The Commissioner shall create national and regional accreditation boards.

Those who are denied accreditation may appeal the same to the Sec. Of Finance who shall rule on the appeal within 60 days from receipt of such appeal. Failure to do so within the prescribed period shall be deemed as approval for accreditation.

11. Authority to Prescribe Additional Requirements The Commissioner may prescribe the manner of compliance with any documentary or procedural Requirement for the submission or preparation of financial statements accompanying tax returns.

IV. Section 7 (Authority to Delegate Power )
12. The Commissioner may delegate the powers vested in him to - subordinate officials with rank equivalent to Division Chief or higher, subject to limitations/restrictions imposed under the rules and regulations EXCEPT, (the following powers shall NOT be delegated) a) power to Recommend the promulgation of rules and regulations by the Sec. of Finance b) power to Issue rulings of first impression or to Reverse, revoke modify any existing rule of the BIR c) power to Compromise or Abate any tax liability

provided however that the regional evaluation board may compromise: 1. assessments issued by regional offices involving deficiency taxes of P500,000 or less and 2. minor criminal violations as may be determined by the rules and regulations 3. discovered by regional and district officials

Regional Evaluation Board is composed of: i. Regional Director as Chairman ii. Asst. Regional Director iii. Heads of the Legal, Assessment and Collection Div. iv. Revenue District Officer having jurisdiction over the taxpayer

d) power to Assign or reassign internal revenue officers to establishments where articles subject to excise tax are kept.

V. Sections 8, 14, 15, 16, 17 (Other Powers)
13. DUTY TO ENSURE THE PROVISION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FORMS, RECEIPTS, CERTIFICATES, AND APPLIANCES, AND THE ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF PAYMENT OF TAXES (SEC. 8)

14. Authority to administer oaths and to take testimony (Sec. 14)

15. Authority to make arrests and seizures (Sec. 15)

16. Authority to employ, assign or reassign internal revenue officers involved in excise tax functions to establishments where articles subject to excise tax are produced or kept (Sec. 16)

17. Authority to assign or reassign internal revenue officers and employees of the BIR to other or special duties connected with the enforcement or administration of the revenue laws (Sec. 17)

Are Legal Officers of the BIR authorized To Institute Appeal Proceedings Without The Participation Of The Solicitor General? NO. THE INSTITUTION OR COMMENCEMENT BEFORE A PROPER COURT OF CIVIL AND CRIMINAL ACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS ARISING UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT WHICH SHALL BE CONDUCTED BY LEGAL OFFICERS OF THE BIR IS NOT IN DISPUTE. AN APPEAL FROM SUCH COURT, HOWEVER, IS NOT A MATTER OF RIGHT. IT IS STILL THE SOLICITOR GENERAL WHO HAS THE PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY TO APPEAR FOR THE GOVERNMENT IN APPELLATE PROCEEDINGS. (COMMISSIONER VS. LA SUERTE CIGAR AND CIGARETTE FACTORY, GR NO. 144942, JULY 4, 2002)

Sources Of Revenue The following taxes, fees and charges are deemed to be national internal revenue taxes. (Sec. 21, NIRC)
1. Income tax
2. Estate and donor 's taxes
3. Value-added tax
4. Other percentage taxes
5. Excise taxes
6. Documentary stamp taxes
7. Such other taxes as are or hereafter may be imposed and collected by the Bureau of Internal Revenue.

NATIONAL TAXATION

A. INCOME TAXATION

Definitions
Income Tax – tax on all yearly profits arising from property, possessions, trade or business, or as a tax on a person’s income, emoluments, profits and the like (61 CJS 1559) – tax on income, whether gross or net. (27 Am. Jur. 308)

Income – all wealth, which flows into the taxpayer other than as a mere return of capital.

Capital – resource of person, which can be used in producing goods and services.
|Income |Capital |
| | |
|All wealth, which flows |Fund or property which can|
|into the taxpayer other |be used in producing goods|
|than as a mere return of |or services |
|capital. | |
| | |
|Flow of Wealth |Fund or property |
| | |
|Source of wealth |Wealth |

Requisites For Income To Be Taxable
1. There must be a gain or profit.
2. The gain must be realized or received.
3. The gain must not be excluded by law or treaty from taxation.

Tests On Taxability Of Income 1. Flow of Wealth Test – The determining factor for the imposition of income tax is whether any gain was derived from the transaction. 1. Realization Test - unless the income is deemed "realized," there is no taxable income. 2. Economic-Benefit Principle Test -flow of wealth realized is taxable only to the extent that the taxpayer is economically benefited.

Criteria in Imposing Income Tax
1. Citizenship Principle – A citizen of the Philippines is subject to Philippine income tax (a.) on his worldwide income, if he resides in the Philippines, or (b.) only on his income from sources within the Philippines, if he qualifies as nonresident citizen.
2. Residence Principle – resident alien is liable to pay income tax on his income from sources within the Philippines but exempt from tax on his income from sources outside the Philippines.
3. Source Principle – An alien is subject to Philippine income tax because he derives income from sources within the Philippines. Thus, a nonresident alien is liable to pay Philippine income tax on his income from sources within the Philippines such as dividend, interest, rent, or royalty, despite the fact that he has not set foot in the Philippines.
Classification of Taxpayers

Individuals
a. citizens 1) resident citizens (RC) 2) non-resident citizens (NRC)
b. aliens 1) resident aliens (RA) 2) non-resident aliens (NRA) a) engaged in trade or business within the Phils. (NRAETB) b) not engaged in trade or business within the Philippines (NRANETB)

Corporations a. Domestic (DC) b. Foreign 1) resident foreign corporation (RFC) 2) non-resident foreign corporation (NRFC)
Estates
Trusts
Partnerships

A. INDIVIDUALS

Who Are Taxable?
1. Resident Citizen
2. Non-resident Citizen A non-resident citizen means, a Filipino citizen: a. who establishes to the satisfaction of the Commissioner the fact of his physical presence abroad with a definite intention to reside therein; b. who leaves the Philippines during the taxable year to reside abroad, either as an immigrant or for employment on a permanent basis; c. who works and derives income from abroad and whose employment thereat requires him to be physically present abroad most of the time during the taxable year; d. who is previously considered as a non-resident and who arrives in the Philippines at anytime during the taxable year to reside thereat permanently shall be considered non-resident for the taxable year in which he arrives in the Philippines with respect to his income derived from sources abroad until the date of his arrival [Sec.22 (E), NIRC]

NOTE: An overseas contract worker (OCW) is taxable only on income derived from sources within the Philippines. [Sec. 23 (B)(C)] A seaman is considered as an OCW provided the following requirements are met: 1. receives compensation for services rendered abroad as a member of the complement of a vessel; and 2. such vessel is engaged exclusively in international trade.

Based on the above provisions, there are three (3) types of nonresident citizens, namely: (1) immigrants; (2) employees of a foreign entity on a permanent basis; and (3) overseas contract workers. Immigrants and employees of a foreign entity on a permanent basis are treated as nonresident citizens from the time they depart from the Philippines. However, overseas contract workers must be physically present abroad most of the time during the calendar year to qualify as nonresident citizens.
3. Resident alien - means an individual whose residence is within the Philippines and who is not a citizen thereof. [Sec.22 (F, NIRC)]
4. Non-resident alien engaged in trade or business within the Philippines. (NRAETB) A non-resident alien means an individual whose residence is not within the Philippines and who is not a citizen thereof. [Sec.22 (G)] The term trade or business includes the performance of the functions of a public office. [Sec. 22 (S)] The term trade, business or profession shall not include performance of services by the taxpayer as an employee. [Sec. 22 (CC)] A non-resident alien individual who shall come to the Philippines and stay therein for an aggregate period of more than 180 days during any calendar year shall be deemed a non-resident alien doing business in the Philippines Section 22(G) notwithstanding [Sec. 25(A)(1)]
5. Non-resident alien not engaged in trade or business within the Philippines. (NRANETB)

ONLY RESIDENT CITIZENS are taxable for income derived from sources within and without the Philippines. All other individual income taxpayers are taxable only for income derived from sources within the Philippines.

❖ Tax Rates: Please refer to Annex A.

B. CORPORATIONS

Who Are Taxable?
1. Domestic Corporation – created or organized in the Phils. or under its law [Sec. 22(C), NIRC]
2. Resident Foreign Corporation – engaged in trade or business within the Philippines [Sec. 22(H), NIRC]
3. Non-resident Foreign Corporation – not engaged in trade or business within the Philippines [Sec. 22(I), NIRC]
A Corporation Includes:
1. PARTNERSHIPS, NO MATTER HOW CREATED OR ORGANIZED;
2. Joint-stock companies;
3. Joint accounts (cuentas en participacion)
4. Associations; or
5. Insurance companies [Sec. 22(B), NIRC].

Excludes:
1. General professional partnerships;
2. Joint venture or consortium formed for the purpose of undertaking construction projects or engaging in petroleum, coal, geothermal and other energy operations pursuant to an operating or consortium agreement under a service contract with the Government.

Corporations Exempt From Income Taxation (For Income Realized As Such) Under Nirc
1. Those enumerated under Sec. 30. Exempt corporations are subject to income tax on their income from any of their properties, real or personal, or from any other activities conducted for profit, regardless of the disposition made of such income.
2. With respect to GOCCs, the general rule is that these corporations are taxable as any other corporation except: a. GSIS b. SSS c. PHIC d. PCSO e. PAGCOR [Sec. 27 (C)]
3. Regional or Area Headquarters under Sec. 22 (DD) – not subject to income tax

Regional operating headquarters under Sec. 22(EE) shall pay a tax of 10% of their taxable income.

ONLY DOMESTIC CORPORATIONS are taxable for income derived from sources within and without the Philippines. All other corporate income taxpayers are taxable only for income derived from sources within the Philippines.

❖ Tax Rates: Please refer to Annex B.

C. ESTATES AND TRUSTS

Estate – refers to the mass of properties left by a deceased person.

Rules On Taxability Of Estate When a person who owns property dies, the following taxes are payable under the provisions of the income tax law:
1. Income tax for individual under Sec. 24 and 25 (to cover the period beginning January to the time of death);
2. Estate income tax under Sec. 60 if the estate is under administration or judicial settlement.

Estates Under Judicial Settlement
A. During the Pendency of the Settlement General Rule: An estate under judicial settlement is subject to income tax in the same manner as individuals. Its status is the same as the status of the decedent prior to his death. Exceptions: 1. The entitlement to personal exemption is limited only to P20,000. 2. No additional exemption is allowed. 3. The distribution to the heirs during the taxable year of estate income is deductible from the taxable income of the estate. Such distributed income shall form part of the respective heirs’ taxable income. Where no such distribution to the heirs is made during the taxable year that the income is earned, and such income is subjected to income tax payment by the estate, the subsequent distribution thereof is no longer taxable on the part of the recipient.

B. Termination Of The Judicial Settlement (Where The Heirs Still Do Not Divide The Property) 1. If the heirs contribute to the estate money, property, or industry with intention to divide the profits between/among themselves, an unregistered partnership is created and the estate becomes liable for the payment of corporate income tax. (Evangelista vs. Collector, GR No. L-9996, October 15, 1957; Oña vs. Commissioner, GR No. L-19342, May 25, 1972) 2. If the heirs, without contributing money, property or industry to improve the estate, simply divide the fruits thereof between/among themselves, a co-ownership is created, and individual income tax is imposed on the income received by each of the heirs, payable in their separate and individual capacity. (Pascual vs. Commissioner, GR No. L-78133, October 18, 1988; Obillos vs. Commissioner, GR No. L-68118, October 29, 1985)

Estates Not Under Judicial Settlement Pending the extrajudicial settlement, either of the following situations may arise:
1. If the heirs contribute money, property, or industry to the estate with the intention of dividing the profits between/among themselves, an unregistered partnership is created and the estate becomes liable for the payment of corporate income tax; or
2. If the heirs, without contributing money, property or industry to the estate, simply divide the fruits thereof between/among themselves, a co-ownership is created and income tax is imposed on the income received by each of the heirs, payable in their separate and individual capacity.

Trust – A right to the property, whether real or personal, held by one person for the benefit of another.

When Trusts Are Taxable Entities
1. A trust, the income of which is to be accumulated
2. A trust in which the fiduciary may, at his discretion, either distribute or accumulate the income.

Rules On Taxability Of The Income Of A Trust
1. The income of the trust for the taxable year which is to be distributed to the beneficiaries – filing and payment of tax lie on the beneficiaries.
2. The income of the trust which is to be accumulated or held for future distribution whether consisting of ordinary income or gain from the sale of assets included in the "corpus" of the estate – filing of return and payment of tax become the burden of the trustee or fiduciary. Exceptions: a. In the case of a revocable trust, the income of the trust will be returned by the grantor. b. In a trust where the income is held for the benefit of the grantor, the income of the trust becomes income to the grantor. c. In the case of trust administered in a foreign country, the income of the trust; undiminished by any amount distributed to the beneficiaries shall be taxed to the trustee.

Irrevocable Trusts (irrevocable both as to corpus and as to income) –

Trust itself, through the trustee or fiduciary, is liable for the payment of income tax. Taxed exactly in the same way as estates under judicial settlement and its status as an individual is that of the trustor. It is entitled to the minimum personal exemption (P20,000) and distribution of trust income during the taxable year to the beneficiaries is deductible from the trust’s taxable income.

Revocable Trusts – the trustor, not the trust itself, is subject to the payment of income tax on the trust income.

Exemption Of Employees’ Trust
Provided:
1. the employee’s trust must be part of a pension, stock bonus or profit sharing plan of the employer for the benefit of some or all of his employees;
2. contributions are made to the trust by such employer, or such employees, or both;
3. such contributions are made for the purpose of distributing to such employees both the earnings and principal of the fund accumulated by the trust, and
4. that the trust instrument makes it impossible for any part of the trust corpus or income to be used for, or diverted to, purposes other than the exclusive benefit of such employees. (Sec. 60B, NIRC)

Tax exemption is likewise to be enjoyed by the income of the pension trust; otherwise, taxation of those earnings would result in a diminution of accumulated income and reduce whatever the trust beneficiaries would receive out of the trust fund. (Commissioner vs. Court of Appeals, Court of Tax Appeals and GCL Retirement Plans, GR No. 95022, March 23, 1992)

D. PARTNERSHIPS

Kinds Of Partnership For Tax Purposes Under The NIRC
1. General Professional Partnerships (GPP) - formed by persons for: a. the sole purpose of exercising a common profession and b. no part of the income of which is derived from engaging in any trade or business. [Sec. 22(B), NIRC].
2. Taxable or Business Partnership – All other partnerships except general professional partnerships no matter, how created or organized. It includes unregistered joint ventures and business partnerships. However, joint ventures are not taxables as corporations when it is; (a) undertaking construction projects (b) engaged in petroleum, coal and other energy operation under a service contract with the government General co-partnerships (GCP) are partnerships, which are by law assimilated to be within the context of, and so legally contemplated as, corporations. The partnership itself is subject to corporate taxation. The individual partners are considered stockholders and, therefore, profits distributed to them by the partnership are taxable as dividends. The taxable income for a taxable year, after deducting the corporate income tax imposed therein, shall be deemed to have been actually or constructively received by the partners in the same taxable year and shall be taxed to them in their individual capacity whether actually distributed or not. [Sec. 73(D), NIRC]

Liability Of A Partnership
1. General Professional Partnership .- They are not subject to income tax, but are required to file returns of their income for the purpose of furnishing information as to the share of each partner in the net gain or profit, which each partner shall include in his individual return. The partnership shall act as the withholding agent. The net income (income for distribution) shall be computed in the same manner as a corporation. Date of filing of the return is April 15 of each year.
2. Taxable or Business Partnership - The income tax of this type of Partnership is computed and taxed like that of a corporation. This kind of partnership, like a regular corporation, is also required to file a quarterly corporate income tax return. Filing and payment of quarterly return is within 60 days after the end of each quarter while the annual return is on or before April 15 of the following year.

Liability Of A Partner
Rules:
1. Share of a partner in general professional Partnership a. Each partner shall report as gross income (business income) his distributed share actually or constructively received in the net income of the partnership. (Sec. 26, NIRC) [The same share shall be subject to creditable withholding tax of 10%.] They are liable in their separate and individual capacity.

b. Share of a partner in the loss of a general professional partnership may be taken by the individual partner in his return of income.

c. Each partner in a general professional partnership shall, report as gross income his distributed share in the net income of the GPP, based on his agreed ratio, whether he, avails of itemized or optional standard deduction.

d. Payments made to a partner of a GPP for services rendered shall be considered as ordinary business income subject to Sec. 24A (Effective January 1, 1982)

2. Share of a partner in Taxable or Business partnership a. Share of a partner in the net income of a taxable or business partnership (dividend) shall be subject to a final tax as follows. • Resident Citizen, Non-resident Citizen and Resident Alien (2000 and onward) – 10% (Sec. 24B2) • Non-resident Alien engaged in trade or business – 20% (Sec. 25 A2) • Non-resident alien not engaged in trade or business – 25% (Sec. 25B) b. Share of a partner in the loss of a taxable or business partnership maybe taken by the individual partner in his return of income. c. Payments made to a partner of a business or taxable partnership for services rendered shall be considered as compensation income subject to sec. 24A.

KINDS OF INCOME TAXES
UNDER THE NIRC

1. Net Income Tax
2. Optional Corporate Income tax
3. Minimum Corporate Income Tax
4. Improperly Accumulated Earnings Tax
5. Preferential Rates or Special Rates of Income Tax
6. Gross Income Tax
7. Final Income Tax
8. Fringe Benefits Tax
9. Capital Gains Tax
(1) NET INCOME TAX

Definition: Means gross income less deductions and/or personal and additional exemptions (Sec. 31, NIRC)

Net Income Tax Formula Entire Income Less: Exclusions and Income subject to Final Tax (e.g. Passive Income) Gross Income Less: Deductions (and/or additional exemptions, if applicable) Net Taxable Income Multiply by: Tax Rate (%) Net Income Tax Due Less: Tax Credit, if any Tax Still due, if any

GROSS INCOME

Definition: Means all income derived from whatever source, including but not limited to the following (Sec. 32)
a. Compensation;
b. Gross income from profession, trade or business;
c. Gains form dealings in property;
d. Interests;
e. Rents;
f. Royalties;
g. Dividends;
h. Annuities;
i. Prizes and winnings;
j. Pensions;
k. Partner’s share in the net income of the general professional partnership

❖ See Annex D for detailed discussion of items.

Kinds Of Dividends
1. Cash and Property Dividends Individual Taxpayer a. From Domestic Corporations • RC, NRC, RA – 10% (Sec. 24A) • NRAETB – 20% (Sec. 25A2) • NRANETB – 25% on gross income (Sec. 25B) b. From Foreign Corporations • RC, NRC, RA, NRAETB – 5-32% (Sec. 24, 25A1) • NRANETB – 25% on gross income (Sec. 25B)

Corporate Taxpayer a. Foreign to Domestic Corp. – 32% (Sec. 32A) b. Domestic to Domestic Corp. – Exempt; intercorporate dividends (Sec. 27D) c. Domestic to Foreign Corp. - • Resident Foreign Corp. – Exempt (Sec. 28 [A] 7d) • Nonresident Foreign Corp. – 15% subject to the condition stated in Sec. 28 [B] 5. Otherwise, it shall be taxed at 32%. (See Commissioner vs. Procter and Gamble, GR No. 66838, December 2, 1991)

2. Stock Dividends General rule: Not subject to tax because it does not constitute income; it represents transfer of surplus to capital account. (Sec. 73B, 1997 NIRC) Exceptions: a. Sec. 73B, 1997 NIRC 1) there is redemption or cancellation 2) the transaction involves stock dividends, and 3) the “time and manner” of the transaction makes it “essentially equivalent to a distribution of taxable dividends”. (see Commissioner vs. Court of Appeals, Court of Tax Appeals & ANSCOR, GR No. 108576, Jan. 30, 1999) b. the recipient is other than the shareholder (Bachrach vs. Seifert, GR No. L-2659, October 12, 1950) c. change in the stockholder’s equity results by virtue of the stock dividend issuance.

3. Liquidating Dividends – When a corporation distributes all of its assets in complete liquidation or dissolution, the gain realized or loss sustained by the stockholder, whether individual or corporation, is taxable income or deductible loss, as the case may be. (Sec. 73A) A liquidating dividend is not a dividend income. The transaction is considered a sale or exchange of property between the corporation and the stockholder.

Exclusions From Gross Income note: Under the 1997 Tax Code, the term “exclusions” refers to items that are not included in the determination of gross income either because: (a) they represent return of capital or are not income, gain or profit; or (b) they are subject to another kind of internal revenue tax; or (c) they are income, gain or profit that are expressly exempt form income tax under the constitution, tax treaty, Tax Code, or a general or special law.

1. Proceeds of life insurance paid by reason of the death of the insured to his estate or to any beneficiary (individual, partnership, or corporation, but not a transferee for a valuable consideration), directly or in trust. NOTE: if the proceeds are retained by the insurer, the interest thereon is taxable;

2. Return of insurance premium; NOTE: if such amounts (when added to amounts already received before the taxable year under such contracts) exceed the aggregate premiums or considerations paid (whether or not paid during the taxable year), then the excess shall be included in the gross income. However, in the case of a transfer for a valuable consideration, by assignment or otherwise, of a life insurance, endowment or annuity contract, or any interest therein, only the actual value of such consideration and the amount of the premiums and other sums subsequently paid by the transferee are exempt from taxation. No loss is realized on surrender of a life insurance policy for its surrender value.

3. Gift, bequest or devise Gifts, bequests, and devises (which are subject to estate or gift taxes) are excluded, but not the income from such property. If the amount received is on account of services rendered, whether constituting a demandable debt or not, or the use of the opportunity to use of capital, the receipt is income (Pirovano vs. Commissioner, 14 SCRA 832)

4. Compensation for personal injuries or sickness, whether by suit or agreement NOTE: The phrase “personal injuries” should be given a restrictive meaning to refer only to physical injuries. The theory for this is that recoupment on account of such losses is not income, since it is not derived from capital, from labor or from both combined. And the fact that the payment of compensation for such loss was voluntary does not change its exempt status. It was in fact compensation for a loss, which impaired petitioner’s capital.

5. Income exempt under Treaty;

6. Retirement benefits, pension, gratuities, etc. a. those derived under R.A. 7641 (pertains to private firms without retirement trust fund); b. those received by officials and employees of private employers in accordance with a reasonable private benefit plan; Requisites: 1) in the service of the same employer for at least 10 years; 2) at least 50 years old; 3) must be availed of only once 4) plan approved by the BIR (R.R.2-98); c. separation pay because of death, sickness, or other physical disability or for any cause beyond the control of the official or employee (e.g. retrenchment, redundancy or cessation of business); “for any cause beyond the control of said official or employee” – connotes involuntariness on the part of the official or employee; separation must not be asked or initiated by the official or employee. d. social security benefits, retirement gratuities, pensions and other similar benefits received by citizens and aliens who come to reside permanently here from foreign sources private or public; e. benefits due to residents under the laws of the U.S. administered by the U.S. Veterans Administration f. SSS benefits; and g. GSIS benefits.

7. Miscellaneous items a. Passive income derived in the Philippines by: 1) Foreign governments; 2) Financing institutions owned, controlled or enjoying refinancing from foreign governments 3) International or regional financial institutions established by foreign governments b. Income derived from any public utility or from the exercise of any governmental function; c. Prizes and awards made primarily in recognition of religious, charitable, scientific, educational, artistic, literary, or civic achievement Requisites: 1) recipient was selected without any action on his part; and 2) recipient is not required to render substantial future services. d. Prizes and awards granted to athletes in sports competitions and sanctioned by their national sports association ; e. 13th month pay and other benefits up to P30,000.00; f. GSIS,SSS, Medicare and union dues of individuals; g. Gains derived from debt securities with a maturity of more than 5 years; h. Gains from redemption of shares in Mutual Fund.

Exclusions Vs. Deductions

|Exclusions |Deductions |
|[Sec. 32(B)] |[Sec. 34] |
| | |
|Refer to flow of wealth which|Refer to the amounts which |
|are not treated as part of |the law allows to be |
|gross income because: |subtracted from gross income|
|(1) exempted by the |in order to arrive at net |
|fundamental law; (2) exempted|income |
|by statute; (3) do not come | |
|within the definition of | |
|income | |
| | |
|Pertain to the computation of|Pertain to the computation |
|gross income |of the net income |
| | |
|Something earned or received |Something spent or paid in |
|by the taxpayer which do not |earning of gross income |
|form part of gross income | |

Deductions

Definition: Items or amounts which the law allows to be deducted from gross income in order to arrive at the taxable income.

Basic Principles Governing Deductions
a. The taxpayer seeking a deduction must point to some specific provisions of the statute authorizing the deduction; and
b. He must be able to prove that he is entitled to the deduction authorized or allowed. (Atlas Consolidated Mining & Dev. Corp. vs. Commissioner, GR No. L-26911, January 21, 1981)
c. Any amount paid or payable which is otherwise deductible from, or taken into account in computing gross income or for which depreciation or amortization may be allowed, shall be allowed as deduction only if it is shown that the tax required to be deducted and withheld therefrom has been paid to the BIR. [Sec. 34(K), NIRC]

NOTE: Deductions for income tax purposes partake of the nature of tax exemptions; hence, if tax exemptions are to be strictly construed, then it follows that deductions must also be strictly construed.

Taxpayers Who Cannot Avail Of Deductions From Gross Income
1. Citizens and resident aliens whose income is purely compensation income (except for premium payments on health and/or hospitalization insurance);
2. Non-resident aliens not engaged in trade or business in the Philippines; and
3. Non-resident foreign corporation

Classes Of Deductions 1. Individuals a. with gross compensation income from employer-employee relationship only 1) premium payments on health and/or hospitalization insurance 2) personal additional exemptions b. gross income from business or practice of profession 1) Optional Standard Deduction (OSD) 2) Itemized deductions 3) premium payments on health and/or hospitalization insurance 4) personal additional exemptions
2. Corporations • Itemized Deductions

Kinds Of Deductions
a. Optional standard deductions (OSD) –10% of the gross income. The OSD may be availed of only by individuals (except nonresident alien) who are not purely compensation income earners.
b. Personal and additional exemptions Available only to individuals (business income and compensation income earners).

NRAETB may be entitled to personal exemptions (only) subject to reciprocity, i.e., a. the country of which he is a subject or citizen has an income tax law; and b. the income tax law of his country allows personal exemption to citizens of the Philippines not residing therein, but deriving income therefrom and not to exceed the amount allowed in NIRC.

The personal exemption shall be equal to that allowed by the income tax law of his country to a citizen of the Philippines not residing therein, or the amount provided in the NIRC, whichever is lower.

Individuals not entitled to these exemptions: a. Non-resident Alien not engaged in trade or business b. Alien individual employed by Regional or Area Headquarters of Multinational Companies c. Alien individual employed by Offshore Banking Units d. Alien individual employed by Petroleum Service Contractor and Subcontractor

c. Itemized deductions a. ordinary and necessary expenses b. interests c. taxes d. losses e. bad debts f. depreciation of property; g. depletion of oil and gas wells and mines; h. charitable and other contributions; i. research and development; j. pension trust contributions of employees; and k. premium payments on health and/or hospitalization insurance. (This is the only deduction which a compensation income earner may claim as a deduction.)

d. Special deductions a. private proprietary educational institutions and hospitals that are non-profit (Sec. 34 A, 2) b. insurance companies (Sec. 37) c. estates and trusts (Sec. 61)

Personal Exemptions

A. Amounts of Personal Exemptions [Sec. 35, NIRC] 1. P 20,000 – Single individual or married individual judicially decreed legally separated without qualified dependent children. 2. P 25,000 – Head of the family or married individual judicially decreed legally separated with qualified dependent children. 3. P 32,000 – For each legally married individual.

Head of the Family 1. Unmarried or legally separated person with one or both parents, or one or more brothers or sisters, or one or more legitimate, recognized natural or legally adopted children living with and dependent upon the taxpayer for their chief support; and “Chief support” means more than one-half of the requirements for support. 2. Where such brother / sister or children are not more than 21 years of age, unmarried and not gainfully employed, or where such dependents regardless of age, are incapable of self – support because of mental or physical defect.

Parents, brothers, sisters and senior citizen with the tax payer, whether relative or not, may qualify the taxpayer, to the personal exemption of P25,000 as head of the family but not to the additional exemption of P8,000.

B. Additional Exemption for Dependents [Sec. 35, NIRC] P 8,000 – For each of the qualified dependent children not exceeding four (4) in number. The additional exemption refers only to qualified dependent children such as legitimate, recognized natural, illegitimate and legally adopted. The proper claimant of the additional exemption is the husband being the head of the family except under the following cases: 1. Husband is unemployed 2. Husband is working abroad like an OFW or a seaman 3. Husband explicitly waived his right of the exemption in favor of his wife in the withholding exemption certificate.

A Senior Citizen is: 1. any resident citizen of the Philippines 2. at least sixty 60 years old, including those who have retired from both government offices and private enterprises, and 3. has an income of not more than Sixty thousand pesos (60,000) per annum subject to the review of the National Economic Development Authority (NEDA) every three years.

Parents and dependents qualify the taxpayer, to the personal exemption of P25,000 as head of the family but not to the additional exemption of P8,000.

NOTE: NRAETB may deduct personal exemption (not additional exemption), but only to the extent allowed by his country to Filipinos not residing therein, and shall not exceed the aforementioned amounts. NRANETB cannot claim any personal or additional exemptions.

C. Change of Status [Sec. 35, NIRC] 1. If the taxpayer should marry or should have additional dependents during the taxable year, he may claim the corresponding exemptions in full for such year. 2. If the taxpayer should die during the taxable year, his estate may claim the corresponding exemptions as if he died at the close of such year. 3. If the spouse or any dependent should die or any dependent should marry or become twenty-one years old during the year, or should become gainfully employed, the taxpayer may claim the exemptions as if the spouse or dependent died or as if such dependent married, became twenty one years old or became gainfully employed at the close of such year. 4. For any other event and for which there are no specific rules applicable from the above-mentioned, the status of the taxpayer at the end of the year shall determine his exemptions. (strictly construed against the taxpayer) Examples: • became legally separated – can only claim P 20,000 • 25 years old child became incapacitated – cannot claim additional exemption

ITEMIZED DEDUCTIONS

a. Ordinary And Necessary Expenses

Necessary Expense – appropriate and helpful in the development of taxpayer 's business and are intended to minimize losses or to increase profits. These are the day-to-day expenses.
Ordinary Expense – normal or usual in relation to the taxpayer’s business and the surrounding circumstance.

Requisites Of Business Expense To Be Deductible
1. ordinary and necessary;
2. paid or incurred w/in the taxable year;
3. paid or incurred in carrying on a trade or business;
4. substantiated with official receipts or other adequate records.
5. if subject to withholding taxes proof of payment to the Bureau of Internal Revenue must be shown.
6. must be reasonable (when the expense is not lavish, extravagant or excessive under the circumstances)
7. must not be contrary to law, public policy or morals.

NOTE: While illegal income will form part of income of the taxpayer, expenses which constitute bribe, kickback and other similar payment, being against law and public policy are not deductible from gross income. (Subsec. A, 1, c)

Capital Expenditure – An expenditure that benefits not only the current period but also future periods. It is not deductible but depreciable, except, if the taxpayer is a non-profit proprietary educational institution which may elect either to deduct the capital expense or depreciate it.

❖ See Annex E – Business Expenses

❖ See Annex F – Ceiling on “Entertainment, Amusement and Recreational Expenses”

b. Interest

Interest – shall refer to the payment for the use or forbearance or detention of money, regardless of the name it is called or denominated. It includes the amount paid for the borrower 's use of, money during the term of the loan, as well as for his detention of money after the due date for its repayment.

Requisites For Deductibility (REV. REG. No. 13-2000)
1. There must be an indebtedness;
2. There should be an interest expense paid or incurred upon such indebtedness;
3. The indebtedness must be that of the taxpayer;
4. The indebtedness must be connected with the taxpayer 's trade, business or exercise of profession;
5. The interest expense must have been paid or incurred during the taxable year;
6. The interest must have been stipulated in writing;
7. The interest must be legally due;
8. The interest arrangement must not be between related taxpayers;
9. The interest must not be incurred to finance petroleum operations; and
10. In case of interest incurred to acquire property used in trade, business or exercise of profession, the same, was not treated as a capital expenditure.
11. The interest is not expressly disallowed by law to be deducted from gross income of the taxpayer.

Rules On Deductibility Of Interest Expense
General Rule - In general, the amount of interest expense paid or incurred within a taxable year of indebtedness in connection with the taxpayer 's trade business or exercise of profession, shall be allowed as a deduction from the taxpayer 's gross income.

Limitation - The amount of interest expense paid incurred by a taxpayer in connection with his trade, business or exercise of a profession from an existing indebtedness shall be reduced by an amount equal the following percentages of interest income earned which had been subjected to final withholding depending on the year when the interest income earned, viz: 38% - beginning January 1, 2000 and thereafter

Aim of Limitation: To discourage so-called “back-to-back” loans where a taxpayer secures a loan from a bank, turns around and invests the loan proceeds in money market placements. By imposing a limit as to the amount of interest expense that can be deducted from gross income, the previous practice of tax arbitrage was absolutely nullified.

Tax Arbitrage – is a method of borrowing without entering into a debtor/creditor relationship, often to resolve financing and exchange control problems. In tax cases, back-to-back loan is used to take advantage of the lower of tax on interest income and a higher rate of tax on interest expense deduction.

Illustration: On June 1, 2000 Company X has:
1. Obtained a loan from ABC Financing Corporation in connection with the operation of its business and its interest expense on the loan amounted to P 120,000.
2. Deposit account in DEF Bank and derived interest income thereof amounting to P200,000 on which the final tax of P40,000 has been withheld. Assume that Company X’s net income before the deduction of interest expense is P500,000.

The deductible expense shall be computed as follows:

Year 2000

Net Income before interest expense P500,000
Less: Interest Expense P120,000 Less: 38% of interest income from deposit (38% x P200,000) 76,000
Deductible Interest
Expense 44,000
Taxable Income P456,000

Deductible Interest Expense

1. Interest on taxes, such as those paid for deficiency or delinquency, since taxes are considered indebtedness (provided that the tax is a deductible tax, except in the case of income tax). However, fines, penalties, and surcharges on account of taxes are not deductible. The interest on unpaid business tax shall not be subjected to the limitation on deduction.
2. Interest paid by a corporation on scrip dividends
3. Interest-on deposits paid by authorized banks of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas to depositors, if it is shown that the tax on such interest was withheld.
4. Interest paid by a corporate taxpayer who is liable on a mortgage upon real property of which the said corporation is the legal or equitable owner, even though it is not directly liable for the indebtedness.

Non-Deductible Interest Expense
1. An individual taxpayer reporting income on the cash basis incurs an indebtedness on which an interest is paid in advance through discount or otherwise: • allowed as a deduction in the year the indebtedness is paid • if the indebtedness is payable periodic amortization on, the amount of interest which corresponds to the amount of the principal amortized or paid during the year shall be allowed as deduction in such taxable year.
2. Interest paid on indebtedness between related taxpayer
3. If the indebtedness is incurred to finance petroleum exploration
4. Interest on preferred stock, which in reality is dividend
5. Interest on unpaid salaries and bonuses
6. Interest calculated for cost keeping on account of capital or surplus invested in business which does not represent charges arising under interest-bearing obligation.
7. Interest paid when there is no stipulation for the payment thereof.

Optional Treatment Of Interest Expense At the option of the taxpayer, interest incurred to acquire property used in trade or business may be allowed as a deduction or treated as capital expenditure. [Sec 34 (B)(3), NIRC]

c. Taxes

Taxes mean TAXES PROPER, and therefore no deductions are allowed for:
1. interest
2. surcharges
3. penalties or fines incident to delinquency (Sec. 80, Rev. Reg. 2)

Requisites For Deductibility
1. must be in connection with taxpayer’s business;
2. tax must be imposed by law on, and payable by taxpayer (direct tax); and
3. paid or incurred during the taxable year.

Taxes Not Deductible
1. income tax;
2. estate and donor’s tax;
3. special assessments;
4. excess electric consumption tax;
5. foreign income tax, war profits and excess profits tax, if the taxpayer makes use of tax credit; and
6. final taxes, being in the nature of income tax.

NOTE: Taxes allowed as deductions, when refunded or credited, shall be included as part of gross income in the year of receipt to the extent of the income tax benefit of said deduction. (Tax Benefit Rule)

For NRAETB and RFC, taxes paid or incurred are allowed as deductions only if and to the extent that they are connected from income within the Philippines.

EXCEPTIONS to requirement that only such persons on whom the tax is imposed by law can claim deduction thereof:
1. Taxes of shareholder upon his interest as such and paid by the corporation without reimbursement from him, can be claimed by the corporation as deduction.
2. A corporation paying the tax for the holder its bonds or other obligation containing a tax-free covenant clause cannot claim deduction for such taxes paid by it pursuant to such covenant.

Tax Credit

Definition: right of an income taxpayer to deduct from income tax payable the foreign income tax he has paid to his foreign country subject to limitation.

WHO CAN CLAIM TAX CREDIT
1. RESIDENT CITIZENS OF THE PHILIPPINES
2. RESIDENT ALIENS UNDER THE PRINCIPLE OF RECIPROCITY
3. DOMESTIC CORPORATIONS WHICH INCLUDE PARTNERSHIPS EXCEPT GENERAL PROFESSIONAL PARTNERSHIP
4. BENEFICIARIES OF ESTATES AND TRUSTS
5. MEMBERS OF BENEFICIARIES OF LOCAL PARTNERSHIPS

WHO ARE NOT ENTITLED TO TAX CREDIT
1. NON-RESIDENT CITIZENS
2. RESIDENT ALIENS, IF WITHOUT RECIPROCITY
3. RESIDENT ALIENS WHOSE INCOME IS DERIVED SOLELY FROM SOURCES WITHIN THE PHILIPPINES
4. FOREIGN CORPORATIONS (RESIDENT AND NON-RESIDENT)

FORMULA FOR COMPUTING LIMITATION
1. PER COUNTRY LIMITATION Taxable income from foreign country X Phil. = Tax Credit
Taxable income income tax Limit from all sources

2. Over-all limitation Taxable income from outside sources X Phil. = Tax Credit
Taxable income income tax Limit from all sources

The allowable tax credit is the “lower amount” between the tax credit computed under No. 1 and No. 2.

When credit for taxes may be taken THE CREDIT FOR TAXES PROVIDED BY SECTION 30(C)(3) TO (9) MAY ORDINARILY BE TAKEN EITHER IN THE RETURN FOR THE YEAR IN WHICH THE TAXES ACCRUED OR ON WHICH THE TAXES WERE PAID, DEPENDENT UPON WHETHER THE ACCOUNTS OF THE TAXPAYER ARE KEPT AND HIS RETURNS FILED UPON THE ACCRUAL BASIS OR UPON CASH RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS BASIS.

LIMITATIONS ON CREDIT FOR FOREIGN TAXES
1) THE AMOUNT OF CREDIT IN RESPECT TO THE TAXES PAID OR ACCRUED TO ANY COUNTRY SHALL NOT EXCEED THE SAME PROPORTION OF THE TAX AGAINST WHICH SUCH CREDIT IS TAKEN, WHICH THE TAXPAYER’S NET INCOME FROM SOURCES WITHIN SUCH COUNTRY TAXABLE UNDER TITLE II (INCOME TAX) BEARS TO HIS ENTIRE NET INCOME FOR THE SAME TAXABLE YEAR; AND
2) THE TOTAL AMOUNT OF THE CREDIT SHALL NOT EXCEED THE SAME PROPORTION OF THE TAX AGAINST WHICH SUCH CREDIT IS TAKEN, WHICH THE TAXPAYER’S NET INCOME FROM SOURCES WITHOUT THE PHILIPPINES TAXABLE UNDER TITLE II (INCOME TAX) BEARS TO HIS ENTIRE NET INCOME FOR THE SAME TAXABLE YEAR.

d. LOSSES

Losses – refer to such losses which do not come under the category of bad debts, inventory losses, depreciation, etc., and which arise in taxpayer 's profession, trade or business.

Requisites For Deductibility
1. Actually sustained during the taxable year
2. Connected with the trade, business or profession
3. Evidenced by a close and completed transaction
4. Not compensated for by insurance or other form of indemnity
5. Not claimed as a deduction for estate tax purposes
6. Notice of loss must be filed with the Bureau of Internal Revenue within 45 days from the date of discovery of the casualty or robbery, theft or embezzlement.

NOTE: The taxpayer’s failure to record in his books the alleged loss proves that the loss had not been suffered, hence, not deductible. (City Lumber vs. Domingo and Court of Tax Appeals, GR No. L-18611, January 30, 1964)

Category And Types Of Losses
1. Ordinary Losses a. Incurred in trade or business, or practice of profession

1 Net operating loss carry-over (NOLCO)

➢ Refers to the excess of allowable deductions over gross income of the business for any taxable year, which had not been previously offset as deduction from gross income. ➢ Can be carried over as a deduction from gross income for the next 3 consecutive years immediately following the year of such loss. ➢ For mines, other that oil and gas well, net operating loss incurred in any of the first ten years of operation may be carried over for the next 5 years.

➢ Requirements: 1) The taxpayer was not exempt from income tax in the year of such net operating loss; 2) The loss was not incurred in a taxable year during the taxpayer was exempt from income tax; and 3) There has been no substantial change in the ownership of the business or enterprise. There is no substantial change in the ownership of the business when: a) not less than 75% in nominal value of the outstanding issued shares is held by or on behalf of the same persons; or b) not less than 75% of the paid up capital is held by or on behalf of the same person.

NOTE: The 3 year period shall continue to run notwithstanding that the corporation paid its taxes under MCIT, or that the individual availed the 10% OSD.

❖ See Annex S for illustration.

b. Of property connected, with the trade, business or profession, if the loss arises from fires, storms, shipwreck or other casualties, or from robbery, theft, or embezzlement. 1) Total destruction The replacement cost to restore the property to its normal operating condition, but in no case shall the deductible loss be more than the net book value of the property as a whole, immediately before casualty. 2) Partial Destruction The excess over the net book value immediately before the casualty should be capitalized, subject to depreciation over the remaining useful life of the property.

2. Capital Losses (Losses Are Deductible Only To The Extent Of Capital Gains) a. Losses from sale or exchange of capital assets b. Losses resulting from securities becoming worthless and which are capital assets. c. Losses from short sales of property. d. Losses due to failure to exercise privilege or option to buy or sell property.

3. Special Kinds Of Losses
a. Wagering losses - deductible only to the extent of gain or winnings. [Sec. 34 (D)(6)]; deemed to apply only to individuals
b. Losses on wash sales of stocks - not deductible because these are considered to be artificial loss.

Wash sales – a sale or other disposition of stock or securities where substantially identical securities are acquired or purchased within 61-day period, beginning 30 days before the sale and ending 30 days after the sale. [Sec. 38]

General rule: Losses from wash sales are not deductible. Exception: When the sale is made by a dealer in stock or securities and with respect to a transaction made in the ordinary course of the business of such dealer, losses from such sale is deductible.

Elements of Wash Sales:

1) The sale or other disposition of stock resulted to a loss; 2) There was an acquisition or contract or option for acquisition of stock or securities within 30 days before the sale or 30 days after the sale; and 3) The stock or securities sold were substantially the same as those acquired within the 61-day period.

c. Abandonment losses in petroleum operation and producing well. 1) In case a contract area where petroleum operations are undertaken is partially or wholly abandoned, all accumulated exploration and development expenditures pertaining thereto shall be allowed as a deduction. 2) In case a producing well is abandoned, the unamortized cost thereof, as well as the undepreciated cost of equipment directly used therein, shall be allowed as deduction in the year the well, equipment or facility is abandoned.

d. Losses due to voluntary removal of building incident to renewal or replacements - deductible expense from gross income.

e. Loss of useful value of capital assets due to charges in business conditions - deductible expense only to the extent of actual loss sustained (after adjustment for improvement, depreciation and salvage value)

f. Losses from sales or exchanges of property between related taxpayers -losses of this nature is not deductible but gains are taxable.

g. Losses of farmers - if incurred in the operation of farm business, it is deductible.

h. Loss in shrinkage in value of stock – if the stock of the corporation becomes worthless, the cost or other basis may be deducted by the owner in the taxable year in which the stock of its worthlessness is made. Any amount claimed as a loss on account of shrinkage in value of the stock through fluctuation in the market or otherwise cannot be deducted from gross income.

Bad Debts

Bad Debts – shall refer to those debts resulting from the worthlessness or uncollectibility, in whole or in part, of amounts due the taxpayer by others, arising from money lent or from uncollectible amounts of income from goods sold or services rendered.

Requisites For Deductibility
1. Existing indebtedness due to the taxpayer which must be valid and legally demandable;
2. Connected with the taxpayer 's trade, business or practice of profession;
3. Must not be sustained in a transaction entered into between related parties;
4. Actually ascertained to be worthless and uncollectible as of the end of the taxable year.; and
5. Actually charged off in the books of accounts of the taxpayer as of the end of the taxable year.

Equitable Doctrine Of Tax Benefit A recovery of bad debts previously deducted from gross income constitutes taxable income if in the year the account was written off, the deduction resulted in a tax benefit. (Tax Benefit Rule)

Illustration:
| |Case A |Case B |Case C |
|Net income | | | |
|(loss) before | | | |
|write off for | | | |
|bad debts | | | |
| | | | |
| |P10,000 |(P 9,000) |P 5,000 |
|Less: Accounts| | | |
|written off as| | | |
|bad debts | | | |
| | | | |
| |3,000 |2,000 |6,000 |
|Final Net | | | |
|Income | | | |
|(Loss) |P 7,000 |(P11,000) |(P1,000) |
|Bad debts | | | |
|recovery | | | |
|in a subse- | | | |
|quent year |3,000 |2, 000 |6, 000 |
|TAXABLE INCOME| | | |
|upon the bad | | | |
|debt recovery | | | |
| | | | |
| |P3,000 |P - 0 - |P5,000 |

Ascertainment Of Worthlessness
• Proof of Two Facts: 1. taxpayer did in fact ascertain the debt to be worthless, in the year for which deduction is sought, 2. that in so doing, he acted in good faith. (Collector vs. Goodrich International Rubber, GR No. L-22265, Dec. 22, 1967)
• Depends upon the particular facts and the circumstances of the case.
• Good faith does not require that the taxpayer be an “incorrigible optimist” but on the other hand, he may not be unduly pessimistic.

Depreciation

Depreciation – the gradual diminution in the service or useful value of tangible property due from exhaustion, wear and tear and normal obsolescence. The term also applies to amortization of intangible assets, the use of which in trade or business is of limited duration.

Requisites For Deductibility
1. The allowance for depreciation must be reasonable.
2. It must be for property use or employment in trade or business or out of its not being used temporarily during the year.
3. The allowance must be charged off within the taxable, year.
4. Schedule on the allowance must be attached to the return.

Property Held By One Person For Life With The Remainder To Another Person The deduction shall be computed as if the life tenant was the absolute owner of the property and, as such the expense shall accrue to him.

Property Held In Trust Allowable deduction shall be apportioned between the income beneficiaries, and the trustees in accordance with the pertinent provisions of the instrument creating or in the absence of such provisions, on the basis of the trust income allowable to each.

Methods Of Depreciation The term "reasonable allowance" shall include (but not limited to) an allowance computed in accordance, with the regulations prescribed by the Department of Finance, under any of the following methods.
1. Straight-line method
2. Declining-balance method
3. Sum of the years-digit method
4. Any other method which may be prescribed by the Department of Finance upon recommendation of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue.

Methods Of Depreciation
|Kind |Formula |
|1)Straight-line |cost- salvage value |
| |estimated life |
|2)Declining balance |cost – depreciation x Rate |
| |estimated life |
|3)Sum of the years |nth period x cost- salvage |
|digits (SYD) |SYD |

Illustration: A machine is used in the manufacturing department of Corporation A, compute the depreciation per annum with the following facts:
Cost = P15,000 Salvage Value= P5,000

1. Straight Line Method with estimated life = 5 years 15,000 – 5,000 = P2,000 5 years

2. Declining balance with rate of 200% Year 1: 15,000 – 0 x 200% = P6,000 5 Year 2:15,000–6,000 x 200% =P3,600 5

3. Sum of the years digits SYD for 5 years = 5+4+3+2+1 or 15 Year 1: 5/15 x (15,000 – 5,000) = P3,333.33 Year 2: 4/15 x (15,000 – 5,000) = P2,666.67

Agreement As To Useful Life On Which Depreciation Rate Is Based The Bureau of Internal Revenue and the taxpayer may agree in writing on the useful life of the property to be depreciated. The agreed rate may be modified if justified by facts or circumstances. The change shall not be effective before the taxable year on which notice in writing by certified mail or registered mail is served by the party initiating.
Special Types Of Depreciation
1. Petroleum Operations • Depreciation of all properties directly related to production of petroleum shall be allowed under straight-line (SL) or declining balance (DB) method • May shift from DB to SL method • Useful life: 10 years or shorter life as allowed by the Commissioner • Useful life of property not directly related to production: 5 years under straight line method
2. Mining Operations • Depreciation on all properties in mining operations other than petroleum operations at the normal rate if expected life is less than 10 years. • If expected life is more than 10 years, depreciation shall be any number of years between 5 years and the expected life.

3. Depreciation deductible by non-resident aliens engaged in trade/business or non-resident corporation a. Only when such property is located in the Philippines.

e. Depletion Of Oil And Gas
Wells And Mines

Depletion - exhaustion of natural resources as in mines, oil, and gas wells. The natural resources are called “wasting assets”. As the physical units representing such resources are extracted and sold, such assets move towards exhaustion. Known as cost of depletion allowance for mines, oil gas wells and other natural deposits starting calendar year 1976 and fiscal year beginning July 1,1975

To Whom Allowed Only mining entities owning economic interest in mineral deposits. Economic interest means interest in minerals in place investment therein or secured by operating or contract agreement for which income is derived, and return of capital expected, from the extraction of mineral. Mere economic or pecuniary advantage to be derived by production by one who has no capital investment in the mineral deposit does not amount to economic interest.

Features
1. Intangible Exploration and development drilling cost in petroleum exploration shall be treated either as:
a. revenue expenditures; or b. capital expenditures
2. The total amount deductible for exploration and development expenditures shall not exceed 50% of net income from mining operation. The excess shall be carried forward to the succeeding year until fully deducted.

f. Charitable And Other Contributions

Tax Treatment

|A. Deductible |B. Deductible Subject To |
|In Full |Limitation |
| | |
|1) Recipient is: |1) Recipient is: |
|Government of the |Government of the |
|Philippines; |Philippines; |
|Any of its agencies or |Any of its agencies or |
|political subdivisions; or |political subdivisions |
|Any fully-owned government | |
|corporation |For a non-priority activity |
| |in any of the areas |
|For priority |mentioned in A, and |
|activity in: |exclusively for a public |
|Science; |purpose. |
|Education | |
|Culture | |
|Health | |
|Economic Development | |
|Human Settlement | |
|7. Youth and Sports | |
|Development | |
| | |
|2) Recipient is a foreign |2) Non-government |
|or international |organizations |
|organization with an | |
|agreement with the | |
|Philippine Government on | |
|deductibility, or in | |
|accordance with special law.| |
| | |
|3) Recipient is an |3) Recipient is an |
|accredited non-government |accredited domestic |
|organization, organized/ |corporation or association |
|operated for (purposes): |organized/operated for |
| |(purposes): |

| | |
|Scientific; |Scientific |
|Educational; |Educational; |
|Cultural; |Cultural; |
|Character building/youth and|Youth and sports development |
|sports development |Charitable |
|Charitable |Social welfare |
|Social welfare |Religious |
|Health |Rehabilitation of Veterans |
|Research | |
| |If the conditions in Table A |
|And satisfying the following|is not complied with: |
|conditions: | |
|The donation must be |Subject to limitation: |
|utilized not later than the |Individual - 10% taxable |
|15th day of the 3rd month |income from trade business or|
|following the close of its |profession before |
|taxable year. |contribution |
|The administrative expense |Corporation - 5% taxable |
|must not exceed 30% of total|income from trade business or|
|expenses. |profession before |
|Upon dissolution, assets |contribution |
|must be distributed to | |
|another non-profit domestic | |
|corporation or to the state.| |

Requisites For Deductibility
1. The contribution or gift must be actually paid.
2. It must be given to the organizations specified in the code.
3. The net income of the institution must not inure to the benefit of any private stockholder or individual.

Valuation Charitable contribution of property other than money shall be based on the acquisition cost of said property.

g. Research And Development (R&D)

Tax Treatment Either as:
1. Revenue Expenditures Requisites: a. Paid or incurred during the taxable year b. Ordinary and necessary expenses in connection with trade business or profession c. Not chargeable to capital account
2. Deferred Expenses Requisites: a. Paid or incurred in connection with trade, business, or profession b. Not treated as expense c. Chargeable to capital account but not chargeable to property subject to depreciation or depletion.

Amount deductible: Amount ratably distributed over a period of 60 months beginning with the month taxpayer realized benefits from such expenditures.

Exclusion From Research And Development Expenditures
1. Any expenditure for the acquisition or improvement of land or for the improvement of property to be used in connection with research and development subject to depreciation and depletion.
2. Any expenditure paid or incurred for the purpose of ascertaining the existence, location, extent or quality of any deposit of ore or other mineral including oil or gas.

h. Pension trust contributions

Pension Trust Contributions – a deduction applicable only to the employer on account of its contribution to a private pension plan for the benefit of its employee. This deduction is purely business in character.

Requisites For Deductibility
1. The employer must have established a pension or retirement plan to provide for the payment of reasonable pensions to his employees;
2. The pension plan is reasonable and actuarially sound;
3. It must be funded by the employer;
4. The amount contributed must be no longer subject to the control and disposition of the employer;
5. The payment has not yet been allowed as a deduction; and
6. The deduction is apportioned in equal parts over a period of 10 consecutive years beginning with the year in which the transfer or payment is made.

Summary Of Rules On Retirement Benefits Plan / Pension Trust
1. Exempt from Income Tax – employees’ trust under Sec. 60(B)
2. Exclusion from Gross Income – amount received by the employee from the fund upon compliance of certain conditions under Sec. 32(B)(6)
3. Deduction from Gross Income – a. Amounts contributed by the employer during the taxable year into the pension plan to cover the pension liability accruing during the year – considered as ordinary and necessary expenses under Sec. 34(A)(1) b. 1/10 of the reasonable amount paid by the employer to cover pension liability applicable to the years prior to the taxable year, or so paid to place the trust in a sound financial basis – deductible under Sec. 34(J)

i. Premium payments on health and/or hospitalization insurance

Definition: It is an amount of premium on health and/or hospitalization paid by an individual taxpayer (head of family or married), for himself and members of his family during the taxable year.

Requisites For Deductibility
1. Insurance must have actually been taken
2. The amount of premium deductible does not exceed P2,400 per family or P200 per month during the taxable ear.
3. That said family has a gross income of not more than P250,000 for the taxable year.
4. In case of married individual, only the spouse claiming additional exemption shall be entitled to this deduction.

Who May Avail Of The Deduction
1. Individual taxpayers earning purely compensation income during the year.
2. Individual taxpayer earning business income or in practice of his profession whether availing of itemized or optional standard deductions during the year.
3. Individual taxpayer earning both compensation, and business or practice of profession during the year.

NON-DEDUCTIBLE EXPENSES

Reasons For Non-Deductibility
1. Personal expenses
2. Capital expenditures
3. Items not normally subject to income tax and therefore are not deductible.
4. Items taken advantage of by the taxpayer to avoid payment of income tax.

Specific Items (Section 36)
1. Personal, living or family expenses;
2. Amount paid out for new buildings or for permanent improvements, or betterment made to increase the value of any property or estate, Except that intangible drilling and development cost incurred in petroleum operations are deductible;
3. Amount expended in restoring property or in making good the exhaustion thereof for which an allowance has been made;
4. Premiums paid on any life insurance policy covering the life of any officer or employee, or of any person financially interested in any trade or business carried on by the taxpayer, individual or corporate, when the taxpayer is directly or indirectly a beneficiary under such policy. [Sec. 36]
5. Losses from sales or exchanges of property between related taxpayers. [S ec. 36]

Transactions Between Related Parties
1. BETWEEN MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY; “Family” includes only the brothers, sisters (whether by the whole or half blood), spouse, ancestors, and lineal descendants of the taxpayer.
2. Except in the case of distributions in liquidation: a. between an individual and a corporation more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of which is owned, directly or indirectly, by or for such individual; b. between two corporations more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of each of which is owned, directly or indirectly, by or for the same individual, if either one of such corporations, with respect to the taxable year of the corporation preceding the date of the sale of exchange was a personal holding company or a foreign personal holding company; or
3. Between the grantor and a fiduciary of any trust;
4. Between the fiduciary of a trust and the fiduciary of another trust if the same person is a grantor with respect to each trust;
5. Between a fiduciary of a trust and a beneficiary of such trust.

Tax Consequences The following are not deductible:
1. Interest expense [Sec. 34 (B)(2)]
2. Bad debts [Sec. 34 (E)(1)]
3. Losses from sales or exchanges of property [Sec 36 (B)]

(2) OPTIONAL CORPORATE
INCOME TAX
SECTION 27 (A)

Applies To:
1. Domestic corporations (DC)
2. Resident foreign corporations (RFC)

Rate Of Tax And Date Of Effectivity 15% of the Gross Income effective January 1, 2000

Conditions Or Requirements
1. A tax effort ratio of 20% of Gross National Product
2. A ratio of 40% income tax collection to total tax revenues
3. A VAT tax effort of 4% of GNP
4. A 0.9% ratio of Consolidated Public Sector Financial Position (CPSFP) to GNP

Other Features 1. Available only to firms whose ratio of:

|Cost of sales | |
| |

Cited: THE TEST OF EXEMPTION FROM TAXATION IS THE USE OF THE PROPERTY FOR THE PURPOSES MENTIONED IN THE CONSTITUTION. (ABRA VALLEY COLLEGE INC. VS. AQUINO, GR NO. L-39086, JUNE 15, 1988) EXCLUSIVE BUT NOT ABSOLUTE USE 6. Voting Requirement In Connection With The Legislative Grant Of Tax Exemption (Art. VI, Sec. 28(4), 1987 Constitution) 7 8. EXEMPTION FROM TAXES OF THE REVENUES AND ASSETS OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS, INCLUDING GRANTS, ENDOWMENTS, DONATIONS AND CONTRIBUTIONS. (ART. XIV, SEC. 4(3) AND (4), 1987 CONSTITUTION) OTHER SPECIFIC TAX PROVISIONS IN THE CONSTITUTION 1. Power of the President to veto any particular item or items in an appropriation, revenue, or tariff bill. (Art VI, Sec. 27(2), 1987 Constitution) 2 3. NON-APPROPRIATION OF PUBLIC MONEY OR PROPERTY FOR THE USE, BENEFIT, OR SUPPORT OF ANY SECT, CHURCH, OR SYSTEM OF RELIGION. (ART. VI, SEC. 29 (2), 1987 CONSTITUTION) 4 5. INTERNAL REVENUE ALLOTMENTS TO LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS. (ART. X, SEC. 6, 1987 CONSTITUTION) DOUBLE TAXATION

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