# Tax Hw 1

**Topics:**Tax, Tax exemption, Taxation in the United States

**Pages:**1 (355 words)

**Published:**April 15, 2015

DQ 1 Why is tax minimization different from efficient tax planning? Effective tax planning involves considering the role of taxes when implementing the decision rule of maximizing after-tax returns. Tax-minimization does not aim to maximize after-tax returns, so it may be undesirable. Tax minimization can introduce significant costs along nontax dimensions. Tax minimization may not consider risks and costs, so may not catch the some profitable chances. But, effective tax planning always consider the risks, costs, benefits, and other stuff to make a good decision in order to maximize after-tax returns.

Ex 1.1 Taxpayer A purchased $100,000 of corporate bonds yielding 12.5% per annum; the interest income from these bonds is taxed at a rate of 28%. Taxpayer B purchased $100,000 of municipal bonds yielding 9% per annum. The interest from these bonds is tax exempt. The bonds have similar maturities and risk. What is the after-tax rate of return earned by each taxpayer? Is taxpayer B paying taxes in any sense here? a. Who are the taxes being paid to?

b. What is the implied tax rate?

After-tax rate of return earned by Taxpayer A= 12.5%*(1-28%)=9% After-tax rate of return earned by Taxpayer B=1*9%=9%

Taxpayer B is paying taxes here in some sense, which is the implicit tax. Municipal bonds are tax-exempt investment, so the interest rate of municipal bonds is weight less than the corporate bonds (9%Taxpayer A and taxpayer B have the same after-tax rate of return, which is 9%, so...

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