System of international relations after the Peace of Westphalia and the Congress of Vienna: A Comparative Analysis. Introduction
It is common knowledge that human history can be viewed from different perspectives. So, in terms of economic, for example, it appears as a history of modes of production, the logic of which was deeply analyzed by Karl Marx. But in terms of geopolitical history can be thought of as a consistent change of power units "world order", or geo-political eras. Each era is characterized by a kind of balance geopolitical forces in the international arena, the unique configuration of borders and zones of influence, forming the global geopolitical field, which must be the main actors in history. Therefore the relevance of the topic now seems indisputable. This paper discusses the problems of growing scientific and political interest: the system, structure and process of the development of international relations. The purpose of this work is to reveal the key features of a modern system of States. Relations between States for centuries were constantly changing. It took a long time before relations were integrated into the world system. Many historians and theorists of international relations believe that the global system of international relations established only at the beginning of the 20th century. The system of international relations depends on the relations between States, which formed in a period of human development. But becoming an important factor of world politics, it in turn has an impact on the development of inter-State relations and the foreign policies of individual countries. Beginning of a new period in the history of international relations and diplomacy connected with the end of the 15th and beginning of the 16th century-a period when Europe was actively going on the genesis of a new type of socio-cultural, economic and political relations of capitalism. The great geographical discoveries, and, mainly, the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492 not only expanded the possibilities of economic expansion of the European countries, but also the intellectual horizons of perception of the Europeans, as themselves, and the rest of the world. There is a radical change in the spiritual paradigm associated with the Renaissance and the Reformation.
During this period, in the Netherlands we have the first bourgeois revolution, indicating some degree of development of capitalist relations in advanced regions of Europe. In the 17th century was the bourgeois revolution in England, which for its significance and scope of influence was European in nature. Fundamentally changed the balance of political power and greatly accelerated the socio-economic and political development of the French bourgeois revolution of the late 18th century the folding of capitalist relations and European bourgeois revolution was the development of the national movement for the liberation of the multinational Empires, which resulted in a number of new States in Europe and America. These changes had an impact, both on the internal and foreign policy of many countries, as well as on the nature of international relations as a whole.
The development of trade, the expansion of international relations and the establishment of centralized States at the end of the medium, and at the dawn of the new era were the cause of a new form of diplomacy that largely was inherited from the absolutism of the bourgeois States out of time. A new form of diplomacy was characterized by the presence of permanent missions in foreign countries, led by the Central Government through diplomatic offices. In the same period, making international law occurs as a science, the folding of the diplomatic and consular service, development of diplomatic ceremonies in European States. A permanent diplomatic mission in the middle in politics, in the diplomatic practice of the Holy See and the Republic of Venice, get the universal utility. Set...
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