Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease, which means the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. This leads to long-term (chronic) inflammation. Lupus nephritis is kidney inflammation caused by SLE. Up to 60% of people with SLE are diagnosed with Lupus nephritis which can lead to significant illness and even death. Signs and symptoms of lupus nephritis may include elevated blood pressure, foamy urine, edema. Lupus nephritis is diagnosed based on urinalysis, Blood test and biopsy. Lupus anticoagulant is an immunoglobulin that binds to phospholipids and proteins associated with cell membrane. These antibodies interfere with the normal function of blood vessels and can lead to narrowing of the blood vessels or blood clots. These complications can lead to stroke, heart attack, and miscarriage.
While lupus anticoagulants are typically discovered in systemic lupus erythematosus patients, they are also known to occur in people with other autoimmune diseases, certain infections, and tumors, as well as in people who take certain medications
Neuropsychiatric syndromes can result when SLE affects the central or peripheral nervous systems. The American College of Rheumatology defines 19 neuropsychiatric syndromes in systemic lupus erythematosus. The diagnosis of neuropsychiatric syndromes concurrent with SLE is one of the most difficult challenges in medicine, because it can involve so many different patterns of symptoms, some of which may be mistaken for signs of infectious disease or stroke. The most common neuropsychiatric disorder people with SLE have is headache, although the existence of a specific lupus headache and the optimal approach to headache in SLE cases remains controversial. Other common neuropsychiatric manifestation of SLE include cognitive dysfunction, mood disorder, cerebrovascular disease, seizures, polyneuropathy, anxiety disorder, and psychosis. It can rarely present with...
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