9 Apr. 2014
In the article The Addiction Paradox: Drug Dependence Has Two Faces - As A Chronic Disease And A Temporary Failure To Cope, the author talks about research that shows addiction as a disease or a temporary failure to cope. In the article Neurobiology Of Addiction Versus Drug Use Driven By Lack Of Choice, the authors talk about the study of neurobiology of addiction and how addiction and the different choices drug users can make. In the article New Medications For Drug Addiction Hiding In Glutamatergic Neuroplasticity, the authors talk about how addiction is needing more attention and they also talk about new treatment for addiction. In the article The Army Disease: Drug Addiction And The Civil War, the author talks about how addiction was a big problem during the civil war but in that time drug addiction was not fully understood. In the Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, under Drug addiction and drug abuse, it talks about general information on drug addiction and what drug abuse does the addict and the addict’s family. 2)
So far in the sources I have read I noticed that the main theme is about how drug abuse and addiction can affect the addict and his/her family and friends. Addicts make a lot of choices that not only affect them but also greatly affect the people around them. There can be many reasons why people start to use drugs and a lot of the time it’s because of peer pressure. These sources agree that there needs to be more ways to treat addiction and more research into finding new treatments or medications. I noticed that in the sources I read there was some disagreement in how people become addicted. Some people believe that addiction is a disease and needs to be treated as a disease. Other people disagree with that and say that it’s a choice. They say people use drugs to cope with everyday struggle but intern end up causing more struggles from the drug use. 3)
Quotes that may be used are “Follow-up investigations of people who attend treatment programs report that addicts never completely shake an urge to snort, inject, guzzle or otherwise consume their poisons of choice”, written by author Bruce Bower. “Prescription drugs are considered illegal when diverted from proper use. Some people shop until they find a doctor who freely writes prescriptions; supplies are sometimes stolen from laboratories, clinics, or hospitals.” (Drug addiction and Drug abuse). “Despite the impact of substance use disorders, there are very few medications currently available for the treatment of drug addiction, highlighting the urgent need for research and development in this area.” (Kakivas and Volkow, p.974). “Historians and politicians often blame two events for mass drug addiction in America. The first is the use of the hypodermic syringe, which allowed a quick and effective way to administer morphine. The second is the Civil War, which ostensibly introduced many Americans to drugs – opium and morphine – when treated for wounds incurred in battle.” (Lewy, p.102). “In line with most mental-health professionals at the time, Winick, affiliated with City University of New York, considered heroin addiction a disease. These findings suggested to him that addictions, like some infections, can be resisted successfully.” (Bower). 4) Drug abuse is a huge problem in America as Kalivas and Volkow report that, “It is estimated that substance use disorders (term proposed by DSM- V) affect 20.4 million Americans or 8.3% of the population aged X12 years” (974). Drug abuse can happen to anyone and according to the Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, “People take drugs for many reasons: peer pressure, relief of stress, increased energy, to relax, to relieve pain, to escape reality, to feel more self-esteem, and for recreation.” (Drug addiction and drug abuse). Drug abuse not only affects the user but as Kalivas and Volkow points out, “Substance use disorders also have a major negative...
Cited: Ahmed, Serge H, Magalie Lenoir, and Karine Guillem. "Neurobiology Of Addiction Versus Drug Use Driven By Lack Of Choice." Current Opinion In Neurobiology 23.4 (2013): 581-587. EBSCO MegaFILE. Web. 7 Apr. 2014
Bower, Bruce. "The Addiction Paradox: Drug Dependence Has Two Faces - As A Chronic Disease And A Temporary Failure To Cope." Science News 185.6 (2014): 16-20. EBSCO MegaFILE. Web. 7 Apr. 2014.
Drug addiction and drug abuse. Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition [serial on the Internet]. (2013, Sep), [cited April 7, 2014]; 1-4. Available from: EBSCO MegaFILE.
Kalivas, P. W., and N. D. Volkow. "New Medications For Drug Addiction Hiding In Glutamatergic Neuroplasticity." Molecular Psychiatry 16.10 (2011): 974-986. EBSCO MegaFILE. Web. 7 Apr. 2014.
Lewy, Jonathan. "The Army Disease: Drug Addiction And The Civil War." War In History 21.1 (2014): 102-119. EBSCO MegaFILE. Web. 7 Apr. 2014.
Sturgess, Jessica E., et al. "Pharmacogenetics Of Alcohol, Nicotine And Drug Addiction Treatments." Addiction Biology 16.3 (2011): 357-376. EBSCO MegaFILE. Web. 7 Apr. 2014.
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