Journal of Environmental Management 90 (2009) 2601–2611
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Journal of Environmental Management
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jenvman
Sustainable use of water in the Aegean Islands
Petros Gikas a, b, c, d, *,1, 2, George Tchobanoglous a,1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Engineering III, Davis, CA 95616, USA Hellenic Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works, General Secretariat of Public Works, Special Service of Public Works for Greater Athens Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, Varvaki 12, Athens 11474, Greece c Hellenic Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works, Central Water Agency, Patission 147, Athens 11251, Greece d Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 17300, Greece b a
a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history: Received 24 July 2008 Received in revised form 27 December 2008 Accepted 21 January 2009 Available online 24 February 2009 Keywords: Water reclamation Water reuse Wastewater Water recourses management Desalination Water importation Water economics
a b s t r a c t
Water demands in the Aegean Islands have increased steadily over the last decade as a result of a building boom for new homes, hotels, and resorts. The increase in water demand has resulted in the disruption of past sustainable water management practices. At present, most freshwater needs are met through the use of the limited groundwater, desalinated seawater, and freshwater importation. Wastewater reclamation, not used extensively, can serve as an alternative source of water, for a variety of applications now served with desalinated and imported water. Three alternative processes: desalination, importation, and water reclamation are compared with respect to cost, energy requirements and longterm sustainability. Based on the comparisons made, water reclamation and reuse should be components of any long-term water resources management strategy. Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction The Mediterranean climate near the coasts is characterized by mild winters with relatively low water precipitation, followed by dry summers. The average annual water precipitation at the Aegean Islands is about 585 mm (based on data for Aegean Islands that belong to the Greek Prefectures of Lesvos, Chios, Samos, Cyclades and Dodecanese – see Fig. 1a). Of the precipitation, less than 14 percent percolates into the ground. Evaporation and surface runoff to the sea accounts for 53 and 33 percent, respectively (Hellenic Ministry of Development, 2006). Typical hydrological data for the Aegean Islands are presented in Table 1. More than 50 inhabited islands are included in the aforementioned Prefectures. The total area of the Aegean Islands is 9104 km2, with a combined population of 508,807 people (census 2001) (ESYE, 2002). The Aegean Islands are visited by a large number of tourists during the summer season, with over 15,000,000 overnight stays per year (Dedian et al., 2000). In addition to the tourists, a large number of non-permanent residents, with holiday
* Corresponding author. Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania, Greece. E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (P. Gikas). 1 Tel.: þ1 530 752 6757; fax: þ1 530 752 7872. 2 Tel.: þ30 282 1037781; fax: þ30 282 1037846. 0301-4797/$ – see front matter Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.01.020
homes on the islands, return every summer, or during holiday periods. As a result during August the population of the Aegean Islands is typically 10 times greater than the winter population, whilst in some islands it exceeds 30 times (Dedian et al., 2000). In most of the Aegean Islands, where the freshwater sources are limited, people depended traditionally on rain water collection for most of their needs,...
References: Al-Barwani, H.H., Purnama, A., 2007. Re-assessing the impact of desalination plants brine discharges on eroding beaches. Desalination 204 (1–3), 94–101. EuroMed 2006-Conference on Desalination Strategies in South Mediterranean Countries. American Water Works Association, 2006. Desalination of Seawater and Brackish Water, 1st edition. AWWA, Denver, Co. Anderson, J., Adin, A., Crook, J., Davis, C., Hultquist, R., Jimenez-Cisneros, B., Kennedy, W., Sheikh, B., van der Merwe, B., 2001. Climbing the ladder: a step by step approach to international guidelines for water recycling. Water Science and Technology 43 (10), 1–8. Angelakis, A.N., Bontoux, J., 2001. Wastewater reclamation and reuse in EUREAU countries. Water Policy 3 (1), 47–59. Angelakis, A.N., Koutsoyannis, D., Tchobanoglous, G., 2005. Urban wastewater and stormwater technologies in the ancient Greece. Water Research 39 (1), 210–220. Angelakis, A.N., Marecos do Monte, M.H.F., Bontoux, L., Asano, T., 1999. The status of wastewater reuse practice in the Mediterranean Basin: need for guidelines. Water Research 33 (10), 2201–2217. Angelakis, A.N., Spyridakis, S.V., 1996. The status of water resources in Minoan Times – a preliminary study. In: Angelakis, A.N., Issar, A. (Eds.), Diachronic Climatic Impacts on Water Resources with Emphasis on Mediterranean Region. Spriner-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 161–191. Asano, T., 2001. Wastewater reuse for non-potable applications: an introduction. International Water Irrigation 21 (3), 24–33. Asano, T., Burton, F.L., Leverenz, R., Tchobanoglous, G., 2007. Water Reuse: Issues, Technologies, and Applications, McGraw-Hill, New York. Avlonitis, S.A., 2002. Operational water cost and productivity improvements for small-size RO desalination plants. Desalination 142, 295–303. Avlonitis, S.A., Kouroumbas, K., Vlachakis, N., 2003. Energy consumption and membrane replacement cost for seawater RO desalination plants. Desalination 157, 151–158.
P. Gikas, G. Tchobanoglous / Journal of Environmental Management 90 (2009) 2601–2611 Kanaris, S., Koutsauvis, A., Mamais, D., Margaritis, N., 2004. Advanced Wastewater Treatment for Reuse at the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Chalkis. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Implementation and Operation of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Reuse Plants, Thessaloniki, Greece. Karagiannis, I.C., Soldatos, P.G., 2007. Current status of water desalination in the Aegean islands. Desalination 203, 56–61. Kitagawa, M., Takatoshi, O., Tanaka, S., 1998. Study on hydrogen sulﬁde generation rate in pressure mains. Water Science and Technology 37 (1), 77–85. Koutsoyannis, D., Zarkadoulas, N., Angelakis, A.N., Tchobanoglous, G., 2008. Urban water management in ancient Greece: legacies and lessons. ASCE, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 134 (1), 45–54. Kyriakou, E., 2007. General Manager, ‘‘ S.K. Euromarket, Ltd’’, Limassol, Cyprus. Personal communication. Latorre, M., 2005. Environmental impact of brine disposal on Posidonia seagrasses. Desalination 182 (1–3), 517–524. Lazarova, V., Bahri, A., 2005. Water Reuse for Irrigation: Agriculture, Landscapes and Turf Grass. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA. Lazarova, V., Levine, B., Sack, J., Cirelli, G.L., Jeffrey, P., Muntau, H., Salgot, M., Brissaud, F., 2001. Role of water reuse for enhancing integrated water management in Europe and Mediterranean countries. Water Science and Technology 43 (10), 25–33. Masciopinto, C., Carrieri, C., 2002. Assessment of water quality after 10 years of reclaimed water injection: the Nardo Fractured Aquifer (Southern Italy). Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation 22 (1), 88–97. Matsuura, T., 2001. Progress in membrane science and technology for seawater desalination – a review. Desalination 134 (1–3), 47–54. Okun, D.A., 1997. Distributing reclaimed water through dual systems. Journal of American Water Works Association 89 (11), 52–64. Okun, D.A., 2000. Water reclamation and unrestricted nonpotable reuse: a new tool in urban water management. Annual Review on Public Health 21, 223–245. Padgett, J.P., Steinemann, A.C., Clarke, J.H., Vandenberch, P., 2008. A comparison of carbon calculations. Environmental Impact Assessment Reviews 28, 106–115. Papadopoulos, I., Savvides, S., 2002. Optimisation of the use of nitrogen in the treated wastewater reused for irrigation. IWA Regional Symposium on Water Recycling in Mediterranean Region, Iraklio, Greece, 451–455. Porter, M.C., 1990. Handbook of Industrial Membrane Technology. Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, NJ. Prefecture of Dodecanese, 1981. [Regulations about Sewage and Industrial Wastewater Discharge into the Sea around the Islands of Rhodos, Kos, Kalymnos, Leros and Patmos]. Legislation No. 2254/9-4-81. FEK B 209 (in Greek). Richard, D., Asano, T., Tchobanoglous, G., 1992. The Cost of Wastewater Reclamation in California Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA. Sala, L., Serra, M., 2004. Towards sustainability in water recycling. Water Science and Technology 50 (2), 1–7. Serra, M., Sala, L., 2003. Energy Balance in Several Municipalities on the Costa Brava (Girona, Spain). Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference of Efﬁcient Use and Management of Water in Urban Areas, Tenerife, Canary islands, Spain.
Shannon, M.A., Bohn, P.W., Elimelech, M., Georgiadis, J.G., Marinas, B.J., Mayes, A.M., 2008. Science and technology for water puriﬁcation in the coming decades. Nature 452, 301–310. Sheikh, B., Cort, R.P., Kirkpatrik, W.R., Jaques, R.S., Asano, T., 1990. Monterey wastewater reclamation study for agriculture. Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation 62 (3), 216–226. Sheng, Z., 2005. An aquifer storage and recovery system with reclaimed wastewater to preserve native groundwater resources in El Paso, Texas. Journal of Environmental Management 75 (4), 367–377. Spiegler, K.S., El-Sayed, Y.M., 2001. The energetics of desalination processes. Desalination 134 (1–3), 109–128. Spilotro, G., Canora, F., Caporale, F., Leandro, G., Viniola, N., 2002. Hydrogeology and Groundwater Salination in the Ionian Coastal Plane of Basilicata Region. 17th Salt Water Intrusion Meeting, Delft, The Netherlands, 445–455. Tanaka, N., Hvitved-Jacobsen, T., 2002. Anaerobic transformations on wastewater organic mater and sulﬁde production-investigations in a pilot plant pressure sewer. Water Science and Technology 45 (3), 71–79. Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, F.L., Stensel, H.D., 2003. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse, Metcalf and Eddy, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. Tsagarakis, K.P., Tsoumanis, P., Charzoulakis, K., Angelakis, A.N., 2001. Water resources status including wastewater treatment and reuse in Greece-related problems and prospectives. International Water Resources Association. Water International 26 (2), 252–258. Tsagarakis, K.P., 2005. Recycled water valuation as a corollary of the 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive. Agricultural Water Management 72, 1–14. United Nations, 1992. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. United Nations, 1998. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Kyoto, Japan. Us-Epa, 2002. Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet. Ofﬁce of Water. EPA. 832-F-02–006. Vakondios, G., 2008. General Manager, Municipal Company for Water Supply and Sewerage for the Municipality of Ermoupolis, Syros. Personal communication. WHO, 1989. Health Guidelines for the Use of Wastewater in Agriculture and Aquaculture: Report of a WHO Scientiﬁc Group, WHO Technical Report Series, Geneva, Switzerland. Xu, P., Valette, F., Brissaud, F., Fazio, A., Lazarova, V., 2001. Technical-economic modelling of integrated water management: wastewater reuse in a French island. Water Science and Technology 43 (10), 67–74. Zavoda, M., 2005. The Solaire, a High-Rise Residential Reuse Case Study. Proceedings, 20th Annual WateReuse Symposium, Alexandria, VA. Zessner, M., Blaschke, A.P., Farnleithner, A.H., Fenz, R., Kavka, G.G., Kroiss, H., 2007. Risks for groundwater contamination from domestic waste water: traces, model applications and quality criteria. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 7 (3), 121–131.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document