ZAMBIAN OPEN UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
DEPARTMENT OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES
BACHELOR OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES (BDS)
FOUNDATIONS OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES
Define the Concept of Sustainable. Why do we need Sustainanable Development for acountry like Zambia? And is it attainable?
C/O MR MWILA G. KAKUNGU
INDO ZAMBIA BANK
P.O BOX 73283
16TH MARCH 2012
Initially the discussion will look at concepts of the development before concentrating on the issues of sustainable development and its relevance to a country like Zambia.
Economics is concerned with the efficient, least cost allocation of scarce productive resources and with their sustained growth over time. it also deals with economic social, political and institutional mechanisms both public and private necessary to bring about rapid and large scale improvement in levels of living for the masses of poverty stricken, malnourished and illiterate people of developing countries. It is concerned with the economic cultural and political requirements for effecting rapid structural and institutional transformations of entire societies in a manner that will most efficiently bring the fruits of economic progress to the broadcast segments of their population. Todaro and Smith (2008:43).
Bannock et al (1984:136-137) define economic development as “the process of growth in total and per capita income of developing countries accompanied by fundamental changes in the structure of their economies… emphasis is being on industrial rather than agricultural activity, lessening dependence on imports for the more awarded producer and consumer goods and on agricultural or mineral products as main exports and finally a diminishing reliance on aid from other countries to provide funds for investment and thus a capacity to generate growth themselves.” In relation to this they also define economic growth as “the steady process of increasing productive capacity of the economy and hence of increasing national income.”
Given the above definitions of economics, economic growth and economic development, what can one learn from these definitions.” The relationship between these concepts means that understanding economics, that is “the use of scarce resources to produce and distribute goods and services in the satisfaction of human wants.” Bannock et al (1984:140), will help to understand economic growth, which is the statistical annual increase in gross domestic product or national income. This shows that as economic activities increases in the nation, they lead to an increase in the monetary value of the nation. A higher economic growth rate will lead to economic development, that is the visible increase in capital formation – increase in educational and health facilities and services, roads and railways, improvements in gross national income per capita, reductions in diseases, hunger and malnutrition, improvement in sanitation and access to clean water, reductions in pollution, and a general increase in the standard of living of the people.
According to Todaro and Smith, sustainable development or sustainability refers to “meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of future generations.” (2008: 499). This means, according to them, is that a development path is sustainable, “if and only if the stock of overall capital assists remains constant or rises over time.” This provides the view that in fact the future growth and overall quality of life is critically dependant on the quality of the environment. Thus the...
References: 1. Todaro M. P, Smith S.C. Economic Development (2008) 8th Edition- Pearson Education
2. Samuelson P.A, Nordhans WD-Economics (2011) 19th Edition- McGraw- Hill International Edition.
3. Bannock G. Baxter R.E, Rees R- Dictionary of Economics (1986) 3rd Edition- Denguin
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