In the past 2 decades, there has been a spectacular change in the field of reproductive technologies. Reproductive sciences have come in with techniques like donor insemination, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer methods which have completely revolutionized the reproductive environment. These techniques have infused hope into many infertile couples, who long to have a child of their own. Unfortunately, complications have arisen once these methods were combined with surrogacy arrangements. Basic Concepts:
Before one explores the conflict zones of surrogacy arrangements, it is necessary to understand certain concepts. Meanings:
❖ Surrogacy is the practice by which a woman bears a child for another with the intention of handing over the child to the commissioning parents, once born. ❖ The Surrogate Mother is the one who gestates the child. ❖ The Genetic Mother is the one who donates her ovum. ❖ The Commissioning Parents are the ones who receive the child from the surrogate after the birth of the child.
History Of Surrogacy:
Surrogacy is a method of assisted reproduction. The choices for childless couples were made easier by two men who joined forces in the early 1980's. An attorney named Noel Keane is generally recognized as the mastermind behind surrogate motherhood. However, it was not until he developed an association with a physician named Warren J. Ringold, MD in the city of Dearborn, Michigan that the program was suddenly perceived with much more legitimacy. Prior to the association of these two men, couples were doing their own artificial insemination procedures with items such as turkey basters. Dr. Ringold agreed to perform all of the artificial inseminations, and the clinic grew rapidly thus catching the eye of Morley Safer and "Sixty Minutes" in the early part of 1981. Even though Keane and Ringold took a great deal of criticism from the more conservative elements of the press and politicians, they eventually prevailed and were instrumental in the passage of laws that protected the entire concept of surrogate mothers. They went state by state seeking political acceptance. Now less than 25 years later, the idea of a surrogate mother is totally acceptable for most people. More importantly laws protecting the contractual relationships exist in almost every state. Although Mr. Keane died a few years ago, he and Ringold remained close friends and associates until the end and Dr. Ringold remains very proud of his role in advancing this very important area of reproductive science. Research carried out by the Family and Child Psychology Research Centre at City University, London, UK in 2002 showed surrogate mothers rarely had difficulty relinquishing rights to a surrogate child and that the commissioning mothers showed greater warmth to the child than mothers conceiving naturally. Methods Of Surrogacy:-
← Gestational or Total Surrogacy,
← Traditional or Partial Surrogacy.
• What Is Gestational Surrogacy?
Gestational Surrogacy is an Assisted Reproduction method when the embryo created using the sperm and ovum of a couple (or donor's ovum) is implanted in the uterus of the surrogate mother (gestational carrier), who carries the child and relinquish it to the biological parents upon birth. A gestational carrier is a woman who carries a pregnancy for another woman. She does not provide a genetic contribution (ovum) to the pregnancy but provides strictly a pregnancy carrier service ("a rented womb") and hands the baby over to the genetical mother at the conclusion of the pregnancy. Thus, gestational carrying is a form of assisted reproductive technology. Gestational carrier services may be needed in women who have...
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