(B) Supra-national Organizations
Choose ONE specific supra-national organization (not necessarily from the above list) and discuss the following issues (these are only random suggestion. You may define your own. (i) What is the nature of this organization? Who are its members? (ii) What influence does it have on your own country?
(iii) What influence does it have on other nations?
Supranational organizations are international bodies that have power and influence that transcend national boundaries and are usually formed by members that share geographical proximity. The first notion of supranationalism surfaced in 1951 during the Treaty of Paris, which eventually became the founding stone for the European Union. In light of rapid globalization, deregulation and privatizations, there is little wonder why so many more supranational organizations have formed in the past 60 years. Examples of newer supranational organizations are the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) in 2008 and the African Union in 2002, where member countries group together to achieve common economic, political or cultural goals. This paper will examine the case of ASEAN -a supranational nation that is made up of all the Southeastern Asian Countries with the exception of recently independent Timor Leste. The study of ASEAN will be split into studying its emergence and history coupled with the impact that it has had on individual member countries and the world at large in hopes of giving a holistic and objective view of the effectiveness of ASEAN as a supranational organization. This paper will also analyze the cultural impacts of Southeast Asian influences and how this has shaped and molded the practices and relationships within ASEAN as compared to Western Supranational organizations such as the European Union. ASEAN: the beginning
ASEAN was founded on the 9th of August 1967 with the signing of the ASEAN declaration by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Brunei Darussalam joined ASEAN in 1984, six days after gaining independence, Viet Nam in 1995, Laos and Myanmar in 1997 and its newest member, Cambodia in 1999. One unifying factor other than geographical proximity that ASEAN countries had in common was the intrusion of Western colonial powers and their domination in all Southeast Asian countries apart from Thailand. The long period of colonial rule meant that under colonial tutelage, the underlying legal and administrative systems and development of each country was vastly different. Individuals in each country were trained to serve their colonial masters and inter-regional cooperation was virtually unheard of. This political condition however gradually changed with the onset of WWII and the decline of Western Supremacy, which fostered a spirit of political awareness and yearning for independence in Southeast Asia. The struggle for independence within Southeast Asia was different in each country; the Philippines had to fight against Spain and subsequently America for liberation whereas Malaya, which was made up of Singapore and Malaysia, had a relatively more peaceful agreement with their British colonial masters. The price for independence came largely though ideological revolutions, insurgencies coupled with internal tensions and civil strife. This contributed greatly to the turbulent post-war conditions among Southeast Asian nations. Conflict was usually internalized within newly independent nations however there was also some friction between neighboring countries in the region. One example of this was the Konfrantasi between Indonesia and Malaysia, where Indonesia sent military forces to hijack and harm citizens in Malaysia due to conflict over the territories of British north Borneo. The need for coming together was evident amidst tensions of the cold war and the rise of military power of the Soviet Republic and the Peoples Republic...
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