M. Deniz Gunes
October 11, 2010
Summary of Strategies
The writers firstly mention that using different strategies makes students’ learning better and they provide several references to support their claim (Echevarria, Vogt & Short, 2004, p.82). Learning strategies could be defined as mental processes which are used during learning. According to research there are three types of strategies as follows: meta-cognitive strategies, cognitive strategies and social/affective strategies (Echevarria, et.al., 2004, p.82). Meta-cognitive strategies make use of awareness, interaction, and reflection in a way which is interrelated, integrated, and recursive. Cognitive strategies are directly related to each student’s learning and help students in organizing information during self-regulated learning. Social/Affective Strategies are known as social influences and affective on learning (i.e. group work).
Echevarria, et.al. (2004) mention a continuum of strategies which is suggested by Muth and Alvermann (1999, p. 233) and occurs during teaching and learning process from teacher-centered, teacher-assisted, peer-assisted, and student-centered (p.82-83). Developing independence in self-regulation and self-monitoring are the main goals of student-centered and peer-assisted strategies. But as ELs are required to focus their mental energy on language skills development they might have difficulties in initiating an active role in using these strategies. Because of that it SI teachers should help ELs by providing different opportunities to use a variety of proven and effective strategies.
As an example of use of different opportunities in a SI classroom a teacher could model and teach several important processing strategies by engaging students in the SQP2RS (Surveying, Questioning, Predicting, Reading, Responding, Summarizing) activity for the expository text selection (including evaluation, self-questioning, prediction, monitoring