ANCIENT PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION PRACTICES
IN GREECE, IN ROME, IN ENGLAND AND IN INDIA
➢ Greece and Judea (a Roman province) introduced basic concepts and values on government and public life. Politics, philosophy and law were also first developed here. However, administrative culture was yet to be developed. (1) ➢ Because of the increase in the complexity of government activity, the administrative culture we associate with our contemporary world emerged in the Alexandrian Era (AD 412, before Byzantine) and in the Roman Empire. (1) ➢ Homer’s epics Iliad and the Odyssey served as primary source for the education and socialization of successive generations of citizens in Ancient Greece. (1) ➢ The practice of humility and moderation of the Greeks were learned from the Homer, Pindar and Hesiod, the three great epic poets of pre-Classical Greece. (1) ➢ Law was inseparable from religion in ancient Greece and Rome. The origins of laws were believed to be the legacy of mythical lawgivers. (1) ➢ The ancient city-state was a military and religious organization before it took and economic and industrial dimensions. In Rome, the campus martius (most populous area of Rome) and the comitius (had major religious and prophetic significance) were distinguished from the forum (gov’t buildings at the center of the city). In Greece, the agora remained as a political and administrative meeting place long after it became a marketplace. (1) ➢ Love of country was paralleled with respect for and obedience to the laws of the city-state both in Greece and Rome. (1) ➢ Law and administration took very little notice of economic activity. For Plato, business transactions and collection of customs need not require city legislators. Also, Aristotle likened the idea that for an ideal state, an education of gymnastics, rhetoric and music, but not of economics or management. (1) ➢ In 19th century England before the tide of reforms transformed the administrative system to the road of...
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