Summary from L1 to L5

Topics: Advertising, Public relations, Mass media Pages: 5 (1110 words) Published: April 25, 2015
CRCM4007 Introduction to Mass Communication - Summary of concepts from Lecture 1 to Lecture 5

Lecture 1: Mass Communication Overview
Defining communication and mass communication
Mass Communication: A process in which a SHARED MESSAGE is transmitted between the MASS MEDIA ORGANIZATIONS and their AUDIENCE (collected in groups) Pervasiveness of Mass communication (Types of Mass Media: e.g. TV, Radio, Movie, Newspaper, Magazine) Hong Kong Mass Media

Functions of Mass Communication
Macro level:
a. Surveillance (Beware surveillance, Instrumental surveillance) b. Interpretation
c. Linkage
d. Transmission of values
e. Entertainment
Micro level:
a. Cognition
b. Diversion (Stimulation, Relaxation, Emotional Release)
c. Social utility and conversational currency
d. Affiliation
Dysfunctions of mass communication (see supplementary note)

Lecture 2: Media effects
Lasswell formula in study media events
Who says what in what channels to whom with what effect?
Powerful effect perspective: Magic Bullet Theory
Mass media have DIRECT, IMMEDIATE, UNIFORM and POWERFUL effects to the audience Media message reached every audience in the same way, bring about same changes of thought and behavior in the entire audience. Factors that make Magic Bullet Theory applicable: Audiences are less educated; Audience are less informed; Weaker social ties; Higher attention on media content Limited effect perspective: 2-step flow of communication theory Mass media effects are LIMITED and SELECTIVE

Medium is only ONE OF FACTORS that affect people
Media content moves to OPINION LEADERS, who then pass it on to others OPINION LEADERS provide the information from media, also their interpretation. Qualities of OPINION LEADERS (see handout)
Media exert effect through:
a. Activation: trigger audience to recall current belief
b. Reinforcement: reinforce current belief of audience
Delayed effect perspective: Cultivation theory
Media effects do exist, but only in delayed ways, because of repeated exposure of mass media content to the audience Media “cultivates” or constructs a reality of the world for heavy viewers Media cultivate distorted perceptions of the real world

Similar “mainstream” set of attitudes, beliefs, values, and practices are shared among audiences Cultivation occurs in 2 ways:
i. Mainstreaming: for heavy media users, media symbols dominate other sources of information about the world. ii. Resonance: mass media users see things on mass media that are most congruent with their own everyday realities.

Lecture 3: Measuring Media Effects
We can measure three kinds of media influences to the audience: a. Cognitive: Audiences’ AWARENESS, KNOWLEDGE and how to PROCESS information on a topic given by the medium b. Affective: Audiences’ FEELINGS, ATTITUDES, BELIEFS, VALUES on a topic given by the medium c. Behavioral: What audiences DO after attending to the media content

Lecture 4: Advertising, Public Relations and Commercial Culture I. Brief introduction on Advertising
Defining Advertising
“Advertising is the PAID, NONPERSONAL communication of information about products or ideas by an IDENTIFIED SPONSOR through the MASS MEDIA in an effort to PERSUADE or INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR.” Advertising Agency vs. In-house Department

Structure of Full-service Advertising Agency
Account-servicing department
Creative department
Media planning department
Advertising Channels
i. ATL: TV & radio advertising, print advertising, outdoor advertising, and cinema advertising ii. BTL: Direct mail, brochures, leaflets, sales & promotion and public relations iii. Online: Internet advertising, mobile and other new media advertising iv. TTL: Mixed use of all different kinds of advertising

Functions of Advertising
i. serves as marketing function
ii. as educational tools
iii. plays an economic role
iv. reduce the cost of personal selling and distribution
v. performs definite social function (e.g. linkage between various elements of society)...
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