5 quantitative and qualitative research
6 sampling strategies
7 survey research
8 secondary data and archival sources
9 case studies, qualitative interviews and focus groups
11 content analysis and other qualitative approaches
Chapter 5 quantitative and qualitative research
5.1 qualitative and quantitative studies
Quantitative studies rely on quantitative information (numbers and figures) and qualitative studies rely on qualitative information (words, sentences and narratives). There are no predeterminates for the appropriateness of either a qualitative or a quantitative study. A new investigation often starts with qualitative studies exploring new phenomena and, later on, quantitative studies follow to test the validity of propositions formulated in previous qualitative studies. Consequently, quantitative methods are more common in the positivist tradition, while qualitative methods are more common in interpretivism. There are now general guidelines as to when a qualitative or quantitative method is more appropriate.
5.2 research design classifications
The essentials of research design: * Activity- and time-based plan; * Always based on the research question; * Guides the selection of sources and types of information; * A framework for specifying the relationships among the study’s variables; * Outlines procedures for every research activity.
The major descriptors classifying research design: * Degree of research question crystallization; * Exploratory study; tends toward loose structures with the objective of discovering future research tasks. The purpose is usually to develop hypotheses or questions for further research. * Formal study; begins where the exploratory study ends. It begins with a descriptive account of the current situation followed by the hypotheses or research question, and involves precise procedures and data