Table of Contents Introduction Over the years, our demand for better tasting food has given rise to the development of artificial additives. One of the most popular artificial sweeteners ever toreplace natural sugar is sucralose. The high demand for sucralose is very much due to its calorie-free property, enhanced sweetness and stability. Currently, sucralose holds the biggest market share (approximately 62%)  in the artificial sugar market and is widely used in more than 4500 food and beverages. The development of sucralose is seemingly a wonderful ‘invention’, giving consumers a new reason to indulge without fear of weight gain or toothaches. Manufacturers affirm that sucralose have passed through many rigorous lab safety tests and it is certainly safe to consume sucralose. However, in recent years, many studies (some as recent as 2009) reporting ill effects of sucralose surfaced and this in turn raises concerns over its safety. Such contrasting sayings have caused confusion and uncertainties. Notably, since the approval by FDA in 1998, there have been 6 researches claiming that sucralose can be harmful. One such finding is that sucralose affects the P-glycoprotein in our body such that crucial health-related drugs could be rejected. However, no response was ever made to withdraw sucralose from the market. If sucralose is indeed harmful, the general health of the public would be at high risk given the fact that sucralose is so widely used across the F&B industry. The damage would certainly be collateral hence there is a need to reconcile the differences in findings and embark on this project to evaluate, analyze and compare sources so as to determine whether sucralose is indeed safe for human consumption. This review will not only help to raise awareness but also reduce unnecessary uncertainties if there is any. The scope of our research paper focuses on the review of sucralose’s effects on human health and its case study as a possible migraine trigger. It is done by evaluating and comparing sources ranging from journals to books and websites. We seek to verify the information found and objectively put forth our conclusion based on the findings we have made. Our research paper is organised as follows: Chapter 2 discusses the chemical properties of sucralose and why it is considered safe. Chapter 3 describes the negative findings about sucralose and chapter 4 evaluates the contrasting findings. Lastly, the conclusion will be covered in chapter 5. Proofs of safety This chapter evaluates the guidelines of FDA’s approval of food additives and goes on to explain why it was approved of and used widely today. Safety Standards of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on sucralose appended under Appendix A. Harmful effects of sucralose were also determined by evaluating studies on carcinogenetic and reproductive effects. S. W. Mann, M. M. Yuschak, S. J. G. Amyes, et al considered the occurrence of tumors in healthy rats after the rats has been treated to daily intake of sucralose. J. W. Kille, W. C. L. Ford, P.McAnulty, et al also performed experiments on rats to establish if there existed a relationship between sucralose intake and sperm concentrations during suspensions in the epididymides. Both these studies revealed that sucralose had no harmful carcinogenetic and reproductive effects. Comments: The above highlight in red: Should we include the results of the studies here? Stability of sucralose under high temperatures and pH'. range In a study conducted by Gertrude E. Morlock and Shashi Prabha,  the high potency sweetener was tested in a milk-based confection known as burfi. Burfi is an ethnic milk delicacy which is produced by heat desiccation of milk in an open pan under high temperatures. Normally, 30% sugar is added to the concentrated mass. In the study however, sucralose was used in place of sugar. The burfi samples were then packed in polyethylene pouches at 45 °C, 30°C and 5°C, for 1, 2, and 4 weeks to...
References:  Alan M. Rulis and Joseph A Levitt. FDA’S Food ingredient approval process : Safety assurance based on scientific assessment. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology. 2009, 53, Pages 20-31  http://www.d-et.com/articlePool/sucraloseTechnologicalJustification.pdf  A. Roberts, A. G. Renwick, J. Sims, D. J. Snodin. Sucralose metabolism and pharmokinetics in man. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2000, 38, Pages 31-41  Mann S.W., M.M. Yuschak, S.J.G. Amyes, P. Aughton, J.P. Finn. A carcinogenicity study of sucralose in the CD-1 mouse. Food and Chemical Toxicology (2000) 38, 91-97  John B. A., Wood S. G. and Hawkins D. R. The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of sucralose in the mouse. Food and Chemical Toxicology 38 (Suppl. 2), 2000, S107-S110.  Roberts A., Renwick A. G., Sims J. and Snodin D. J. Sucralose metabolism and pharmacokinetics in man. Food and Chemical Toxicology 38 (Suppl. 2), 2000, S31-S41.  Sims J., Roberts A., Daniel J. and Renwick A. G. The metabolic fate of sucralose in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 38 (Suppl. 2), 2000, S115-S121.  Wood S. G., John B. A. and Hawkins D. R. The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of sucralose in the dog. Food and Chemical Toxicology 38 (Suppl. 2), 2000, S99-S106.  McNeil Specialty Products Food Additive Petition 7A3987, 1987, (Sucralose).  Hughes H. M., Powell G. M., Snodin D. J., Daniel J. W., Crawford A., Sanders J. K. M. and Curtis C. G. Glutathione-dependant dechlorination of 1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxyfructose. Biochemical Journal 259, 1989, Pages 537-543.  Marcelo E. Bigal, Abouch V. Krymchantowski. Migraine Triggered by Sucralose - A Case Report. American Headache Society, 2006, Pages 515-527.  Rajendrakumar M. Patel, Rakesh Sarma, Edwin Grimsley. Popular Sweetner Sucralose as a Migraine Trigger. American Headache Society, 2006, Pages 1303-1308.  http://www.rense.com/general63/SPLENte.htm Appendices Appendix A Safety Standards of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on Sucralose Sucralose was first discovered in 1976. Although it has a similar structure to sucrose, the two compounds have vastly different properties. In the United States, one of the main operating divisions under the department of health and human services is the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It is a largely influential body and once it approves of a chemical compound or drug, international countries tend to find these products acceptable as well. The two main aims of FDA are to protect public health by ensuring safety of products and to advance public health with effective innovations. The guideline FDA follows to determine whether an additive is safe for consumption is shown below. A panel of chemists reviews the chemical identity and information on the additive. Specialized toxicologists study and evaluate the safety tests, experimenting mainly on animals and even healthy individuals under controlled conditions. “Consumer safety officers” (CSO’s) are scientists responsible for reviewing the overall process and ensuring satefy tests are up to standard.  After thoroughly reviewing the data from over 110 studies in animals and humans, sucralose was granted approval in April 1998.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document