Annotated Bibliography of Subsistence Farming
Christie M. Bravo
ITT Tech Institute
August 15, 2013
* Subsistence Farming: An Annotated Bibliography
Freedman, B. (2004). "Slash-and-Burn Agriculture.". The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. 3rd ed. Vol. 5, 3649-3650. The slash-and-burn is an agricultural system used in tropical countries, in which a forest is cut, the debris is burned, and the land is then used to grow crops. Slash-and-burn conversions are relatively stable and long-term in nature, and they are the leading cause of tropical deforestation. There is a type of slash-and-burn system that is used when extensive areas of tropical forest are converted into large scale, industrial agriculture, usually intended to supply commodities for an export market, rather than for local use. The slash-and-burn method differs from a much more ancient system known as shifting cultivation. Shifting cultivation has long been used by humans for subsistence agriculture in tropical forests worldwide. The major difference between the slash-and-burn system and shifting cultivation is in the length of time for which the land is used for agriculture. In the slash-and-burn system, the conversion is long-term, often permanent. Shifting cultivation is a more short-term use of the land for cultivation so therefore, the slash-and-burn system would be somewhat more profitable. Tropical deforestation also carries other important environmental risks. Tropical deforestation and the use of fossil fuels have been the major causes of the increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, which may have important implications for global climatic warming (Freedman, 2004).
Norris, T. G. (2013, August 22). "Agricultural Environmental Management.". Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library:...
Bibliography: Freedman, B. (2004). "Slash-and-Burn Agriculture.". The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. 3rd ed. Vol. 5, 3649-3650.
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