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Stylistic Semasiology as a Part of Stylistics

By VeronikaAleksandrovna Apr 14, 2015 6921 Words
Lecture 1
Stylistic Semasiology
1. Stylistic Semasiology as a part of stylistics.
Stylistic semasiology is a part of stylistics which investigates stylistic phenomena in the sphere of semantics, i.e. in the sphere of meanings, regardless of the form of linguistic units. As distinct from stylistic lexicology or stylistic syntax which deal with words and sentences, stylistic semasiology makes meaning the object of its investigation; But some limitations to the object are to be bome in mind. Non-stylislic semasiology studies meanings. As concerns stylistic semasiology it is not so much the meaning itself that is investigated but the rules and laws of shifts of meanings; the patterns according to which meanings are shifted or either various combinations thus producing a certain stylistic effect. Stylistic semasiology also studies stylistic functions of shifts of meanings and of certain combinations of meanings. Stylistic phenomena effected by various shifts of meanings are usually termed «figures of speech».

2. Classification of figures of speech
How shall we classify figures of speech? Shifts of meanings can be divided into two large groups, namely: 1) there are cases when the disparity of the actual denomination of the referent with the usual, traditional denomination of it can be understood as quantitative, i.e. the referent is simply exaggerated or underestimated; 2) in some cases the disparity between the traditional and actual denominations is qualitative. Hence, the corresponding figures of speech may be subdivided accordingly into figures of quantity (hyperbole, understatement, litotes) and figures of quality (metonymy, metaphor, irony). Both figures of quantity and figures of quality may be called figures of replacement since they are based on replacement of the habitual name of a thing by its situational substitute. We can give the name of figures of co-occurence to those stylistic phenomena which are based on combination of meanings in speech. The difference between the figures of replacement and those of co-occurence is as follows. In the former, it is one meaning that produces stylistic effect; in the latter, it is a combination of at least two meanings that produces stylistic effect. Thus, figures of replacement break down to figures of quantity and figures of quality. Figures of quantity: hyperbole, understatement, litotes. Figures of quality are subdivided into metonymical group (transfer by contiguity) consisting of metonymy, synecdoche, periphrasis; metaphorical group (transfer by similarity): metaphor, personification, epithet; and irony (transfer by contrast). Figures of co-occurence are subdivided into three groups: figures of identity (simile, synonymic repetition); figures of inequality (gradation, anti-climax); figures of contrast (antithesis, oxymoron).

3. Figures of replacement (Figures of Quantity, figures of quality) Hyperbole is the use of a word, a word-group or a sentence which exaggerates the real degree of a quantity of the thing spoken about. It is a distortion of reality for the purpose of visualization or strengthening the emotional effect. Litotes is a specific variety of understatement consisting in expressing the lessened degree of quantity of a thing by means of negation of the antonym. The negation of the antonym expresses the positive idea but in a somewhat lessened degree. E.g., «not bad» in the meaning of «good», or «little harm will be done by that». Figures of Quality Figures of quality, called «tropes» in traditional stylistics, are based on transfer of names. We must distinguish three types of transfer: 1) transfer by contiguity, 2) transfer by similarity; 3) transfer by contrast. Transfer by contiguity is based upon some real connection between the two notions: that which is named and the one the name of which is taken for the purpose. Metonymy is applying the name of an object to another object in some way connected with the first. The metonymic connections between the two objects are manifold: a) source of action instead of the action: «Give every man thine ear and few thy voice»; b) effect instead of the cause: «He (fish) desperately takes the death»; c) characteristic feature instead of the object itself: «He was followed by a pair of heavy boots»; d) symbol instead of the object symbolized: «crown» for «king». Synecdoche is a variety of metonymy. It consists in using the name of a part to denote the whole, or vice versa. E.g.: «To be a comrade with a wolf and owl...». In this example «wolf» and «owl» stand for wild beasts and birds in general. Periphrasis is in a way related to metonymy. It is a description of an object instead of its name. E.g.: «Delia was studying under Rosenstock - you know his repute as a disturber of the piano keys» (instead of «a pianist»). Metaphor is a transfer of the name of an object to another object on the basis of similarity, likeness, affinity of the two objects. At the same time there is no real connection between them, as in the case with metonymy. The stylistic function of a metaphor is not a mere nomination of the thing in question but rather its expressive characterization. E.g.: «The machine sitting at the desk was no longer a man; it was a busy New York broker...» (O ’Henry). Personification is a particular case of metaphor. It consists in attributing life and mind to inanimate things. Besides the actual objects of Nature abstractions of the mind, such as life, death, truth, wisdom, love, evil, hope, etc. are frequently personified. Thus, personification is ascribing human properties to lifeless objects. Personification is an important device used to depict the perception of the outer world by the lyrical hero. Lecture 2

Stylistic Semasiology ( part 2)
1. Figures of co-occurence (figures of identity, figures of inequality, figures of contrast) The figures of co-occurence are formed by the combination in speech of at least two independent meanings. They are divided into figures of identity, figures of inequality and figures of contrast. Figures of Identity To this group of figures simile and synonymic repetition are referred. Simile. It is an explicit statement concerning the similarity, the affinity of two different notions. The purpose of this confrontation of the names of two different objects is to characterize vividly one of the two. The existence of common features is always explicitly expressed in a simile, mostly by mean of the words «as», «like» and others. There are two type of simile. In one of them the common feature of the two objects is mentioned: «He is as beautiful as a weathercock». In the second type the common feature is not mentioned; the hearer is supposed to guess what features the two objects have in common: «My heart is like a singing bird». Care should be taken not to confuse the simile and any sort of elementary logical comparison. A simile presupposes confrontation of two objects belonging to radically different semantic spheres; a comparison deals with two objects of the same semantic sphere: «She can sing like a professional actress» (logical comparison); «She sings like a nightingale» (simile). Synonymic repetition. To figures of identity we may refer the use of synonyms denoting the same object of reality and occurring in the given segment of text. We should distinguish: a) the use of synonyms of precision, b) the use of synonymic variations. Synonyms of precision. Two or more synonyms may follow one another to characterize the object in a more precise way. The second synonym expresses some additional feature of the notion; both synonyms permit a fuller expression of it. E.g.: «Joe was a mild, good-natured. sweet-tempered, foolish fellow» (Dickens). Synonymic variations. Frequently synonyms or synonymic expressions are used instead of the repetition of the same word or the same expression to avoid the monotonousness of speech, as excessive repetition of the same word makes the style poor. E.g.: «He brought home numberless prizes. He told his mother countless stones every night about his school companions» (Thackeray). Figures of Inequality

A very effective stylistic device is created by special arrangement in the text of words or phrases, or sentences which differ from one another by the degree of property expressed or by the degree of emotional intensity. In accordance with the order of strong and weak elements in the text two figures of inequality are distinguished: climax, or gradation, and anti-climax, or bathos. Climax (gradation) means such an arrangement of ideas (notions) in which what precedes is inferior to what follows. The first element is the weakest; the subsequent elements gradually rise in strength. E.g.:«I am sorry. I am so very sorry. I am so extremely sorry» (Chesterton). Anti-climax (bathos). By anti-climax any deviation of the order of ideas found in climax is usually meant. E.g.: «The woman who could face the very devil himself - or a mouse - loses her grip and goes all to pieces in front of a flash of lightning» (Twain). Figures of Contrast

These figures are formed by intentional combination in speech of ideas, incompatible with one another. The figures in question are antithesis and oxymoron. Antithesis is a confrontation of two notions which underlines the radical difference between them. Two words or expressions of the opposite meanings may be used to characterize the same object E.g.: «It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness...» (Dickens). Oxymoron. Oxymoron consists in ascribing a property to an object incompatible, inconsistent with that property. It is a logical collision of words syntactically connected but incongruent in their meaning. E.g.: «О brawling love! О loving hate!» (Shakespeare)

Lecture 3
Stylistic Lexicology
1. Stylistic Lexicology as a part of stylistics.
It is known that words are not used in speech to the same extent. Since certain words occur less frequently than others, it is natural to presume that the difference between them is reflected upon the character of the words themselves. Those words that are indispensable in every act of communication have nothing particular about them - cause no definite associations. On the contrary, words used only in special spheres of linguistic intercourse have something attached to their meaning, a certain stylistic colouring. Indispensable words are stylistically neutral. Words of special spheres are stylistically coloured. This is the main division of words from the stylistic viewpoint. Thus, words pertaining to special spheres of linguistic intercourse possess some fixed stylistic tinge of their own. Regardless of the context, they reveal their attachment to one linguistic sphere or another. An English speaking person needs no context to state that such synonyms as chap - man - individual or dad - father - sire are stylistically different. But this differentiation does not remain stable. The stylistic value undergoes changes in the course of history, with the lapse of time. Therefore, stylistic classifications must be confined to synchronic aspect. So, all the words are divided into neutral and non-neutral. The general stylistic classification must show the relations of nonneutral words to neutral ones. It is evident that certain groups of stylistically coloured words must be placed, figuratively speaking, above the neutral words. These groups are formed by words with a tinge of officially or refinement about them, poetic words, high flown words in general. Other groups are to be placed below the neutral words. Their sphere of use is socially lower than the neutral sphere. We can name them «super-neutral» (elevated) and «subneutral» words of lower ranks), respectively.

2. Super-neutral words
Among elevated words we can find those which are used in official documents, diplomatic and commercial correspondence, legislation, etc. Such words have a tinge of pomposity about them. Their colouring is that of solemnity, and the words are termed «solemn words». The other variety of words is the poetic diction -words used in poetry and lyrical prose. They are «poetic words». True, it is hardly possible to deliminate strictly solemn words from poetic words. The stylistic colouring of elevation also occurs in archaisms, bookish words and foreign words. Archaisms. This term denotes words which are practically out of use in present-day language and are felt as obsolete. Archaisms may be subdivided into two groups. The first group is represented by «material archaisms», or «historical archaisms» -words whose referents have disappeared. The second group is formed by archaisms proper - those words which have been ousted by their synonyms. In the works of fiction the use of archaic words serves to characterize the speech of the bygone epoch, to reproduce its atmosphere. It should be noted that archaisation does not mean complete reproduction of the speech of past epochs; it is effected by the use of separate archaic words. In official form of speech the function of archaisms is the same as in poetry (to rise above the ordinary matters of everyday life), but the colouring produced is different It is the colouring of solemnity. Bookish words. These words belong to that stratum of the vocabulary which is used in cultivated speech only - in books or in such special types of oral communication as public speeches, official negotiations, etc. They are mostly loan-words, Latin and Greek. They are either high-flown synonyms of neutral words, or popular terms of science. Consider the following example: A great crowd came to see - A vast concourse was assembled to witness. Began his answer - commenced his rejoinder. A special stratum of bookish words is constituted by the words traditionally used in poetry («spouse» - husband or wife, «woe» - sorrow, «foe» - enemy). Some of them are archaic: «aught» - anything, «naught» - nothing, others are morphological variants of neutral words: «oft > - often, «list» - listen, «morn» - morning. Foreign words. Foreign words should not be confused with borrowed words. Foreign words in English are for the most part late borrowings from French - those words which have preserved their French pronunciation and spelling. For example, the French formula «Au revoir» used in English by those ignorant of French has something exquisite. In the French word «chic» the same tinge of elegance is felt. 3. Sub-neutral Words

Among the sub-neutral words the following groups are distinguished: a) words used in informal speech only - the colloquial words; b) jargon words and slang, as well as individual creations (nonce-words); c) vulgar words. The first group lies nearest to neutral words. In their use there is no special stylistic intention whatever on the part of the speaker. The words of the second group have been created, so to speak, on purpose with a view to intentional stylistic degradation. The lowest place is taken by vulgarisms, i.e. words which due to their indecency are scarcely admissible in a civilized community. Colloquial words. They are words with a tinge of familiarity or inofficiality about them. There is nothing ethically improper in their stylistic coloring, except that they cannot be used in official forms of speech. To colloquialisms may be referred: a) colloquial words proper (colloquial substitutes of neutral words), e.g., chap; b) phonetic variants of neutral words: baccy (tobacco), fella (fellow); c) diminutives of neutral words: daddy, piggy, as well as diminutives of proper names - Bobby, Becky, Johny; d) words the primary meaning of which refer them to neutral sphere while the figurative meaning places them outside the neutral sphere, making them lightly colloquial. E.g., spoon as a colloquial word means «a man with a low mentality». e) most interjections belong to the colloquial sphere: gee! Er? Well, etc. Jargon words appear in professional or social groups for the purpose of replacing those words which already exist in the language. Jargon words can be subdivided into two groups: professional jargonisms and social jargonisms. The first group consists of denominations of things, phenomena and process characteristic of the given profession opposed to the official terms of this professional sphere. Thus, professional jargonisms are unofficial substitutes of professional terms. They are used by representatives of the profession to facilitate the communication. The group of social jargonisms is made up of words used to denote non-professional thing relevant for representatives of the given social group with common interests (e.g., music fans, drugaddicts and the like). Slang is the part of the vocabulary made by commonly understood and widely used words and expressions of humorous kind - intentional substitutes of neutral and elevated words and expressions. The psychological source of its appearance and existence is striving for novelty in expression. Many words and expressions now referred to slang originally appeared in narrow professional groups; since they have gained wide currency, they must be considered as belonging to slang. In creation of slang various figures of speech take part: the upper storey (head) - metaphor; skirt (girl) - metonymy; killing (astonishing) - hyperbole; whistle (flute) - understatement; clear as mud - irony. 4. Dialect Words

Against the background of the literary language dialect words as dialect peculiarities of speech are stylistically relevant. They show the social standing of the speaker. Nowadays it is only in the speech of the people deprived of proper school education forms of speech are signs of provincialism. On the whole dialects differ from the literary language most of all in the sphere of phonetics and vocabulary. Of special significance for English literature is the so-called Cockney - the dialect of the uneducated people in London. The characteristic features of the Cockney pronunciation are as follows: a) the diphthong [ei] is replaced by [ai]: to sy, topy instead of «to say», «to pay»; b) the diphthong [au] i is replaced by monophthong [a:]: nah then instead of «now then»; c) words like «manners», «thank you» are pronounced as menners, thenkyou.

Lecture 4
Stylistic Syntax
1. Stylistic Syntax as a part of stylistics.
Stylistic syntax is the branch of linguistics which investigates the stylistic value of syntactic forms, stylistic functions of syntactic phenomena their stylistic classifications as well as their appurtenance to sub-languages or styles. The very .forms of sentences and word-combinations may be either expressive or neutral. What is commonplace, ordinary, normal must be stylistically neutral. On the other hand, any perceptible deviation from the normal and generally accepted structure of the sentence changes stylistic value of the utterance, making the sentence stylistically significant - expressive emotionally or belonging to some special sphere of one sub-language or another. It is not only syntactical forms of separate sentences that possess certain kinds of stylistic value, but the interrelations of contiguous syntactical forms as well. Thus, the expressive means of syntax may be subdivided into the following groups: 1. Expressive means based upon absence of logically indispensable elements. 2. Expressive means based upon the excessive use of speech elements. 3. Expressive means consisting in an unusual arrangement of linguistic elements. 4. Expressive means based upon interaction of syntactical forms.

2. Absence of Syntactical Elements
The phenomena to be treated here are syntactically Heterogeneous. Thus, the lack of certain words may be stated in: a) elliptical sentences; b) unfinished sentences; c) nominative sentences; d) constructions in which auxiliary elements are missing. Ellipsis. Elliptical are those sentences in which one or both principal parts (subject and predicate) are felt as missing since, theoretically, they could be restored. Elliptical sentences are typical, first and foremost, of oral communication, especially of colloquial speech. The missing elements are supplied by the context (lingual or extra-lingual). The brevity of the sentences and abruptness of their intonation impart a certain'tinge of sharpness to them: «Please, sir, -will you write to me to the post office. I don't want my husband to know that I ’m- I'm-» (Galsworthy). While in colloquial speech ellipsis is the natural outcome of extra-lingual conditions, in other varieties of speech it is used with certain stylistic aims in view. Thus it imparts a kind of emotional tension to the author’s narration. Sometimes the omission of subjects contribute to the acceleration of the tempo of speech: «He became one of the prominent men of the House. Spoke clearly and modestly, and was never too long. Held the House where men of higher abilities «bored» it» (Collins). Ellipsis is also characteristic of such special spheres of written speech as telegraphic messages and reference books (in both of them it is used for the sake of brevity)'. Unfinished sentences (aposiopesis). Aposiopcsis (which means «silence») refers to cases when the speaker stops short in the very beginning or in the middle of the utterance, thus confining his mode of expression to г mere allusion, a mere hint at what remains unsaid. Aposiopesis is a deliberate abstention from bringing the utterance up to the end: «She had her lunches in the department-store restaurant at a cost of sixty cents for the week; dinners were one dollar five cents. The evening papers... came to six cents; and Sunday papers... were ten cents. The total amounts to 4 dollars 76 cents. Now, one had to buy clothes, and-» (0 'Henry). Nominative sentences. Their function is speech consists in stating the existence of the thing named: «London. Fog everywhere. Implacable November weather». The brevity of nominative sentences renders them especially Excess of Syntactical Elements The general stylistic value of sentences containing an excessive number of component parts is their emphatic nature. Repetition of a speech element emphasizes the significance of the element, increases the emotional force of speech. Repetition is an expressive stylistic means widely used in all varieties of emotional speech - in poetry and rhetoric, in everyday intercourse. The simplest variety of repetition is just repeating a word, a group of words, or a whole sentence: «Scroodge went to bed again, and thought, and thought, and thought it over and over and over». Framing is a particular kind of repetition in which the two repeated elements occupy the two most prominent positions – the initial and the final: «Never wonder. By means of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, settle everything somehow, and never wonder» (Dickens). Polysyndeton. Stylistic significance is inherent in the intentional recurrence of form-words, for the most part conjunctions. The repetition of the conjunction and underlines close connection of the successive statements, e.g.: «It (the tent) is soaked and heavy, and it flogs about, and tumbles down on you, and clings round your head, and makes you mad» (Jerome). Occasionally, it may create a general impression of solemnity, probably, due to certain association with the style of the Bible. E.g.: «And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew and beat upon the house; and it fell; and great was the fall of it» (Matthew).

Lecture 5
Stylistic Syntax (part 2)
1. Order of speech elements.
The English sentence is said to be built according to rigid patterns of word order. It means that any deviation from usual order of words which is permissible is very effective stylistically. Stylistic inversion. Any kind of deviation from the usual order of words in the sentence is called inversion. Stylistic inversion is placing a part of the sentence into a position unusual for it for the purpose of emphasis. Compare: «They slid down» - «Down they slid». The initial position of a word or a word-group which do not usually occupy this position makes them prominent and emphatic. The initial position may be occupied by various members of the sentence: predicative, verbal predicate, adverbial modifier, direct object, prepositional object. Other kinds of inversion produce similar stylistic effect. Thus, if a sentence-member stands in the final instead of the initial position it also becomes prominent. This device is often used in poetry, e.g.: «Now this gentleman had a younger brother of still better appearance than himself, who had tried life as a comet of dragoons, and found it a bore; and had afterwards tried it in the train of an English minister abroad, and found it a bore...» (Dickens).

2. Interaction of Syntactical Structures

Sentences consisting a coherent nanation are logically connected. This circumstance brings about certain structural connection, structural influence of one sentence upon the neighbouring one. Structural assimilation of sentences is stylistically relevant. Parallelism means a more or less complete identity of syntactical structures of two or more contiguous sentences or verse lines: « The cock is crowing,

The stream is flowing,
The small birds twitter,
The lake doth glitter» (Wordsworth)
Parallelism is often accompanied by the lexical identity of one or several members of each sentence. In this case parallelism serves as a syntactical means of making the recurring parts prominent, more conspicuous than their surroundings. Chiasmus is a special variety of parallelism. It is a reproduction in the given sentence of the general syntactical structure as well as of the lexical elements of the preceding sentence, the syntactical positions of the lexical elements undergoing inversion: «The jail might have been the infirmary, the infirmary might have been the jail...» (Dickens). Anaphora is the use of identical words at the beginning of two or more contiguous sentences or verse lines. Sometimes it is combined with parallelism, The expressive purpose of anaphora is to imprint the elements, emphasized by repetition, in the reader’s memory, to impart a peculiar kind of rhythm to the speech and to increase the sound harmony. Epiphora is recurrence of identical elements in the end of two or more contiguous utterances, e.g.: «Now this gentleman had a younger brother of still better appearance than himself, who had tried life as a comet of dragoons, and found it a bore; and had afterwards tried it in the train of an English minister abroad, and found it a bore...» (Dickens). Epiphora contributes to rhythmical regularity of speech, making prose resemble poetry. It may be combined with anaphora and parallelism. There are two polar types of syntactic connection in the sentence: subject-predicate relation and secondary relation, i.e. relations between secondary paijs of a sentence. The subject predicate relation serves to convey a piece of information, to inform the hearer about something. The secondary parts of the sentence make, together with their head-words, mere word combinations, i e. composite denominations, functionally equivalent to simple words. Between the two polar types of syntactical connection there exists an intermediate type • a semi-predicative connection which occurs when a secondary part of the sentence becomes «detached»! Detachment means that a secondary member a) becomes phonetically separated, b) obtains emphatic stress, c) sometimes, though not necessarily, changes its habitual position. This secondary part of the sentence, remaining what it has been (an attribute, an adverbial modifier, etc.), at the same time assumes the function of an additional predicative; it comes to resemble the predicate. Detachment makes the word prominent. Thus, from the point of view of stylistics, detachment is nothing but emphasis. Theoretically, any secondary part of the sentence can be detached: «Smither should choose it for her at the stores - nice and dappled» (Galsworthy) - detachment of the attribute. «Talent, Mr.Micawber has, capital, Mr. Micawber has not» (Dickens) - detachment of the direct object. Parenthetic Elements, i.e. words, phrase.

Lecture 6
Functional styles
1. The Belles-Lettres Style

Each style of the literary language makes use of a group of language means the interrelation of which is peculiar to the given style. It is the coordination of the language means and stylistic devices that shapes the distinctive features of each style, and not the language means or stylistic devices themselves. Each style can be recognized by one or more leading features, which are especially conspicuous, the use of special terminology is a lexical characteristic of the style of scientific prose, and one by which it can easily be recognized. The definition of a functional style resembles very much the one given in the first chapter of the present manual. A functional style can be defined as a system of coordinated, interrelated language means intended to fulfill a specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect. The English language has evolved a number of functional styles easily distinguishable one from another. They are not homogeneous and fall into several variants all having some central point of resemblance. Thus, I.R.Galperin distinguishes five classes: 1. The Belles-Lettres Style

1) Poetry;
2) Emotive Prose;
3) The Drama.
2. Publicistic Style
1) Oratory and Speeches;
2) The Essay;
3) Articles.
3. Newspapers
1) Brief News Items;
2) Headlines;
3) Advertisements and Announcements
4) The Editorial.
4. Scientific Prose
5. Official Documents.
The Belles-Lettres Style
• Poetry
• Emotive Prose
• The Drama
Each of these substyles has certain common features, typical of the general belles-lettres style. The common features of the substyles may be summed up as follows. First of all, comes the commqp function, which may broadly be called «aesthetical-cognitive». Since the belles-lettres style has a cognitive function as well as an aesthetic one, it follows that it has something in common with scientific style, but the style of scientific prose is mainly characterized by an arrangement of language means which will bring proofs to a theory. Therefore we say that the main function of scientific prose is proof. The purpose of the belles-lettres style is not to prove but only to suggest a possible interpretation of the phenomena of life by forcing the reader to see the viewpoint of the writer. The belles-lettres style rests on certain indispensable linguistic features, which are: 1. The use of words in contextual and very often in more than one dictionary meaning, or at least greatly influenced by the lexical. 2. A vocabulary which will reflect to a greater or lesser degree the author evaluation of things or phenomena. 3. A peculiar individual selection of vocabulary and syntax, a kind of lexical and syntactical idiosyncrasy. 2. Poetry

The first differentiating property of poetry is its orderly form, which is based mainly on the rhythmic and phonetic arrangement of the utterances. The rhythmic aspect calls forth syntactical and semantic peculiarities which also fall into more or less strict orderly arrangement. Both the syntactical and semantic aspects of the poetic substyle may be defined as compact, for they are held in check by rhythinic patterns. Both syntax and semantics comply with the Restrictions imposed by the rhythmic pattern, and the result is brevity of expression, epigram-like utterances, and fresh, unexpected imagery. Syntactically this brevity is shown in elliptical and fragmentary sentences, in detached constructions, in inversion, asyndeton and other syntactical peculiarities. Rhythm and rhyme are distinguishable properties of the poetic substyle provided they are wrought into compositional patterns. They are typical only of this one variety of the belles-lettres style. Emotive Prose Emotive prose has the same features as have been pointed out for the belles-lettres style in general; but all these features are con-elated differently in,emotive prose. The imagery is not so rich as it is in poetry, the percentage of \yords with contextual meaning is not so hijjh as in. poetry, the idiosyncrasy of the author is not so clearly discernible. Apart'fcrom irietre and rhyme, what most of all distinguishes emotive prose from the poetic style is the combination of the literary variant of the language, both in words and syntax, with the colloquial variant. It would perhaps be more exact to define tins as a combination of the spoken and written varieties of the language. Present-day emotive prose is to a large extent characterized by. the breaking-up of traditional syntactical designs of the preceding periods. Not only detached constructions, but also fragmentation of syntactical models, peculiar, unexpected ways of combining sentences are freely introduced into present-day motive prose. The Drama. The third subdivision of the belles-lettres style is the language of plays. Unlike poetry, which, except for ballads, in essence excludes direct speech and therefore dialogue, and unlike emotive prose, which is dialogue, the language of plays is entirely dialogue. The author’s speech is almost entirely excluded except for the playwright’s remarks and stage directions, significant though they may be.

3. Publicistic Style
Publicistic style also falls into three varieties, each having its own distinctive features. Unlike other styles, the publicistic style has spoken varieties, in particular, the oratorical substyle. The development of radio and television has brought into being a new spoken variety, namely, the radio commentary. The other two are the essay (moral, philosophical, literary) and articles (political, social, economic) in newspapers, journals and magazine?. Book reviews in journals and magazines and also pamphlets are generally included among essays. The genera] aim of the publicistic style, which makes it stand out as a separate style, is to exert a constant and deep influence on public opinion, to convince the reader or the listener that the interpretation given by the writer or the speaker is the only correct one and to cause him to accept the point of view expressed in the speech, essays or article not merely logical argumentation, but by emotional as well. Due to its characteristic combination of logical argumentation and emotional appeal, the publicist style has features common with the style of scientific prose Oratory and Speeches. Oratorical style is the oral subdivision of the publicistic style. Direct contact with the listeners combination of the syntactical, lexical and phonetic peculiarities of both the written and spoken varieties of language. In its leading features, however, oratorical style belongs to the written vanity of language. Certain typical features of the spoken variety of speech present in this style are: direct address to the audience («ladies and gentlemen», «honorable members», the use of the 2nd person pronoun «you»), sometimes contractions (I'll, won't, haven't, isn'l) and the use of colloquial words. This style is evident in speeches on political and social problems of the day, in orations and addresses on solemn occasions as public weddings, funerals and jubilees, in debates. The Essay

The essay is a literary composition of moderate length on philosophical, social, aesthetic; subjects. Personality in the fitment" of theme and naturalness of expression are two of the obvious characteristics of the essay. This literary genre has definite linguistic traits which shape the essay as a variety of the publicistic style. The most characteristic language features of the essay are: Articles

Irrespective of the character of the magazine and the divergence of subject' matter whether it is political, literary, popular-scientific or satirical - all the already mentioned features of the publicistic style are to be found in any article. The character of the magazine as well as the subject chosen affects the choice and use of stylistic devices. Words of emotive meaning, for example, are few, if any, in popular scientific articles. Their exposition is more consistent and the system of connectives more expanded than, say, in a satirical style. The language of political magazines articles differs little from that of newspaper articles. But such elements of the publicistic style and bookish words, neologisms (which sometimes require explanation in the text), traditional words combinations and parenthesis are more frequent here than in newspaper articles. Literary reviews stand closer to essays both by their content and by their linguistic form. More abstract words of logical meaning are used in them, they more often resort to emotional language and less frequently to traditional set expressions.

3. Newspaper Style
English newspaper style may be defined as a stem of interrelated lexical, phraseological and grammatical means which is perceive by the community speaking the language as a separate unity that basically serves the purpose of informing and instructing the leader. Since the primary function of the newspaper style is to impart information the four basic newspaper features are: 1. Brief news items and communiques; 2. Advertisements and announcement; 3. The headline; 4. The editorial. Brief News Items. The function of a brief news is to inform the reader. It states only facts without giving comments. This accounts' for the total absence of any individuality of expression and the almost complete lack of emotional coloring. It is essentially matter-of-fact, and stereotyped forms of expression prevail. The newspaper style has its specific features and is characterized by an extensive use of: 1. Special political and economic terms. 2. Non-teim political vocabulary. 3. Newspapers cliches. 4. Abbreviations. 5. Neologisms. Besides, some grammatical peculiarities may characterize the style: 1. СопуЛех sentences with a developed system of ciailses. 2. Verbal constructions. 3. Syntactical complexes. 4. Attributive noun groups. 5. Specific word order. The Headline. The headline is the title given to a news item or a newspaper article. The main function of the headline is to inform the reader briefly of what that follows is about. Sometimes headlines contain elements of appraisal i.e. they show the reporter’s or paper’s attitude to the facts reported. The basic language peculiarities of headlines lie in their structure. Syntactically headlines are very short sentences or phrases of a vane£y o£patterns: 1. Full derivative sentences. 2. Interrogative sentences. 3. Nominative sentences. 4. Elliptical sentences. 5. Sentences with articles omitted. 6. Phrases with verbals 7. Questions in the form of statements. 8. Complex sentences. 9. Headlines including direct speech. Advertisements and Announcements. The function of advertisements and announcements, like that of brief news, is to inform the reader. There are two basic types of advertisements and announcements in the modern English newspaper: classified and non-classified. The Editorial. Editorials are intermediate phenomenon bearing the stamp of both the newspaper style and the publicistic style. The function of the editorial is to influence the reader by giving an interpretation of certain facts. Editorials comments on the political and other events of the day. Their purpose is to give the editor’s opinion and interpretation of news published and suggest to the reader thatjt is the correct one. Like any publicistic writing, editorials appeal not only to the reader’s mind but to his feelings as well. 4. Scientific Prose

The language of science is governed by the aim functional style of scientific to prove and to create new concepts, to describe internal laws of existence) The first and most noticeable feature of the style in question is the logical sequence of utterances with clear indication of their interrelation and interdependence. The second and no less important one is the use of terms specific to a certain branch of science. The characteristic features enumerated above do not cover all the peculiarities of scientific prose, but they are the most essential ones. 5. Official Documents

The Style of official documents, like other styles, is not homogeneous and is represented by the following substyles or variants: 1. The language ofbusmess document; 2. The language ofTegal documents; 3. That of diplomacy; 4. That of military documents. This style has a definite communicative aim and accordingly | has its own system of interrelated language and stylistic means, i The main aim of |his type of communication is to state the: condition binding two parties in an undertaking. In other words thg aim о/ communication in this style of language is to reach argument "between two contracting parties. Even protest against violations of tatutes, contracts, regulations, etc., can also be regarded as a form by which normal cooperation is sought on the basis of previously attained concordance. As in the case with the above varieties this style also has some peculiarities: 1. The use of abbreviations, conventional symbols, contractions; 2. The use of words in their logical dictionary meaning; 3. Compositional patterns of the variants of this style. 4. Absence of any emotiveness. Lecture 7

Stylistics and translation
As we already know, stylistic that can be used in a text are manifold and various. That, certainly, does not mean that the problems a translator will have to solve while dealing with stylistic peculiarities of the text being translated from the source language (SL) into the target language (TL). Surprisingly, despite the Obvious diversity Of stylistic means, in reality we can speak of only two stylistic aspects of translation. First, a translator is supposed in the target text those stylistic features of the original that the appurtenance of the source text to a certain functional style. Yet, one reservation is to be made here: preserving properties characteristic of the given functional style in SL in the final text, i.e. the text of translation, must conform to the requirements to the same functional style in TL. One should bear that one and the same functional style may have somewhat different features in SL and TL. That means that it would not be too wise just to transfer stylistic features from the source text into the target text. As a rule, some stylistic transformations are necessary to make the target text comply requirements of the genre and style in TL. Second, there always exists a problem of rendering a certain stylistic device (mainly figures of speech and stylistically coloured lexical units) from one language into another. Not all of them have correspondences in other languages. And even when they do have them, those correspondences may be found to be inappropriate in the target text as they are not in conformity with the requirements of the given functional style in TL or they may be just incoherent for the reader of the final text. As the saying goes, «What's good for a Russian kills a German». Thus, in each particular case a translator is expected to come to a decision as to what means he would use to preserve in translation the stylistic colouring created It is noteworthy, though, that texts belonging to different functional styles different' sets if not quite identical stylistic devices, which simplifies the process of translation in some cases and makes it more difficult in other cases. Appurtenance of a text to a certain functional style is a factor of great importance in translation. Du£ to bus factor the two stylistic aspects of translation get interrelated to such an extent that in practice it is just impossible to separate them. The following exercises will help a student of translation to understand how the two tasks mentioned above may be solved in practice.

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