Study of passive filter characterization for PCB application Chapter 1: Introduction
Passive filters are relatively simple electronic part that consists with resistors, capacitors, and inductors. The function of the passive filter is to allow a certain range of frequencies to pass, can be used to separate signals, passing those of interest, and also can reject noise and attenuating the unwanted frequencies.
In this project, there are three type of passive filters that will be built on printed circuit board (PCB), to investigate the different result when applied as real circuit with the software design simulate as in theory. There are low pass filter, high pass filter and band pass filter. The design would be in second order Butterworth low pass, high pass and band pass filter using pi section/parallel at the first branch, with varies corner frequency from 1 kHz to 1 MHz (1 KHz, 10 KHz, 50 KHz, 100 KHz, 500 KHz, 1 MHZ). In addition, different types of PCB will be used to study the effects of different PCB characteristic on filters response.
The objectives of these projects are:
To study the passive filter characteristic with more detail.
To design passive filter circuit using software and PCB application.
To investigate the different result when applied as real circuit.
Resources and limitations
There are some limitations for this project. Firstly, the design of the passive filter circuit using of electronic part that are not exactly as the calculated value in theory. To find the part will taking time and more cost. Chapter 2: Literature Review
For the few past years, there are several works and researches that have been done by researchers all over the world regarding the passive filter. In this chapter, some previous studies on passive filter will review. 2.2 Literature review
Subhashish Bhattacharya, Student Member, IEEE, Po-Tai Cheng, Student Member, IEEE, and Deepak M. Divan, Senior Member, IEEE (1997) have carried out a research on the hybrid solutions for improving passive filter performance in high power applications presents a new control scheme for a parallel hybrid active filter system intended for harmonic compensation of large nonlinear loads up to 50 MVA. The controller also provides a “current limiting” function to prevent passive filter overloading under ambient harmonic loads and supply voltage distortions. Three implementation variations of a parallel hybrid active filter system are presented. The paper also propose the use of power factor correction capacitors as low cost passive filters for a parallel hybrid active filter system, which are controlled to provide either single or multiple tuned harmonic sinks and to increase cost effectiveness for high power applications. Simulation results with small rated pulsewidth modulated (PWM) and square-wave active filter inverters validate the proposed variable inductance controller operation for mistuned passive filters, to provide single and multiple frequency tuning to achieve harmonic compensation of a 325 kVA harmonic load under supply voltage harmonics and ambient harmonic loads.  Fouad Bouchriha, David Dubuc, Katia Grenier and Robert Plana (2006) carried out research on integrated circuits compatible low loss passive circuits for millimeter-wave applications. The paper reports a novel low-loss and integrated circuits compatible technological solution to improve coplanar passive circuit’s performances on low-resistivity silicon substrate (LRS) in order to demonstrate the feasibility of tailoring locally the Silicon substrate to speed up the performance of a system. Both EM-simulations and high-frequency characterizations have shown an important benefit in CPW circuits performances by combining bulk silicon micromachining technique and low-k polymer membrane. An attenuation coefficient of 0.57 dB/cm is obtained at 20 GHz with this technique in the case of a CPW line on 20-30...
 Subhashish Bhattacharya, Po-Tai Cheng and Deepak M. Divan, IEEE Hybrid Solutions for Improving Passive Filter Performance in High Power Applications, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 33, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 1997
 Fouad Bouchriha, David Dubuc, Katia Grenier and Robert Plana, LAAS-CNRS, Universite de Toulouse, IC-Compatible Low Loss Passive Circuits for Millimeter-Wave Applications September 2006, Manchester UK
 Alexandru Takacs, Dan Neculoiu, Dan Vasilache, Alexandru Muller, Institute for Microtechnologies (IMT) Bucharest, Design Of Tunable MEMS (Radio Frequency Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) Filters For Millimeter Wave Systems Applications, IEEE MELECON 2006, May 16-19, Benalmádena (Málaga), Spain
 Zobel, O. J.,Theory and Design of Uniform and Composite Electric Wave Filters, Bell Systems Technical Journal, Vol. 2 (1923), pp. 6.
 Zobel, O. J.,Theory and Design of Uniform and Composite Electric Wave Filters, Bell Systems Technical Journal, Vol. 2 (1923), pp. 3-4.
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