difficulty in choosing college course
Undergraduate Thesis Proposal Submitted to the Faculty of English Department Lakan Dula High School Juan Luna St,Gagalangin.Tondo,Manila.
In partial fulfillment of the Requirements for High School Undergraduate
Guillermo,Patricia Ann D. IV-Excellent
The Problem and Its Background
Education is a process to develop the intellectual faculties of the man.It makes the civilized,refined,cultured and educated.For a civilized and social ized society,education is the only means .It makes a man perfect.It is systematic through which a child or a man acquires knowledge ,experience ,skill and sound attitude.Every society gives importance to education because it is a panacea for all evils.It is the key to solve all problems of life. College can be intimidating for high school seniors.The regorous elimination process that many aspiring students endure after applying to colleges often leaves them feeling inadequate and unqualified even after they are accepted into a university.Students who arrive equipped with an abundance of potencial and an egerness to succed find taht they are more than prepared to handle the challenges that await them at college. Choosing the right course and school in college is one of the most important steps in every student’s life.This prepares us in our future,our chosin careers,etc.This is the one of the hardest part of the student’s life especially when he\she does not sure of what she\he wants to be somebody or he\she does not know what he\she loves to do.Many students trive hard to be the best that they can be and college is there to help them the best of who they are,but the problem is,what college and course would really bring the best in them ?College is a fun and exciting time in the person’s life.Even though you will be on your own,meeting new people ,going to parties ,and experiencing new things ,it is important to keep a handle on what college is really about.It is about choosing the right college courses so that the end result will be obtaining your desired degree.It is not easy as it may appear,choosing the right college courses,bit there are some things you can do to make it a simpler process. If you end up choosing a major in college when you first enter school and continue with that major throughout your time at the college or university.you may find that you are able to obtain more than just a degree in one area.Because this students can plan their college career from the beginning,they are often to meet their degree requirements erlier in their college careers.Therefore many students find themselves Chapter 2
Review of Related Literature
This chapter is a presentation of related literature and studies which provided direction in the conduct of the study. Among the topics presented in this chapters are the related literature, foreign literature, local literature, related studies, foreign studies, and local studies. Related Literature
College is different from high school in many important ways, some obvious, some not so obvious. College is the first place where we expect young people to be adults, not large children Almost all of the rules of the game that students have so carefully learned and mastered over the preceding 10 years of schooling are either discarded or modified drastically. The pupil-teacher relationship changes dramatically as do expectations for engagement, independent work, motivation, and intellectual development All of this occurs at a time when many young people are experiencing significant independence from family and from the role of child for the first time. No wonder that the transition from high school to college is one of the most difficult that many people experience during a lifetime. Because college is truly different from high school, college readiness is fundamentally different than high school competence. Detailed analyses of college courses reveal that although a college course may have the same name as a high school mcourse, college instructors pace their course more rapidly, emphasize different aspects of material taught, and have very different goals for their courses than do high school instructors. A. Foreign Literature
According to Jean Kingsley in his book “Uses of the Expanded Conception of College Readiness” (2008), Students fresh out of high school may think a college course is very much like a similarly named high school class taken previously only to find out that expectations are fundamentally different. The college instructor is more likely to emphasize a series of key thinking skills that students, for the most part, do not develop extensively in high school. They expect students to make inferences, interpret results, analyze conflicting explanations of phenomena, support arguments with evidence, solve complex problems that have no obvious answer, reach conclusions, offer explanations, conduct research, engage in the give-and-take of ideas, and generally think deeply about what they are being taught. In short, the differences in expectations between high school and college are manifold and significant. Students must be prepared to use quite a different array of learning strategies and coping skills to be successful in college than those developed and honed in high school. Current measures of college readiness do not necessarily capture well these many dimensions of readiness.
Consequent to Peter Neumann in his book entitled “What students can do to make a better decision in choosing a college course” (2007), In particular, students need to understand what it really means taking the course you really want. They need to understand what they must do as well as what the system requires or expects of them. They must, first and foremost, understand that college admission is a reasonable and realistic goal that can be attained through planning and diligent attention to necessary tasks. Because colleges judge students based on the sum total of their performance in high school (although many omit the freshman year and some functionally ignore the second semester of senior year), it is critical that students begin their journey toward college readiness immediately before they arrive in high school. While this paper will not explore the role of the middle school inmaking students college-ready, it is worth noting that, at the least, the connection between middle school and high school math and English programs is worth careful scrutiny. Students, for their part, need to be making the right decision as they prepare their very first high school schedule as incoming ninth graders. A wrong decision at this point can have ramifications throughout high school and beyond.
According to Erik Nielson in his book entitled “Providing Support” (2007), A definition of college readiness must also address the issue of how students combine the various facets of college readiness. For students, the combination is more complex because it includes the elements under the school’s control along with those that are not. Students need to take the responsibility to utilize the information presented to them on college academic and financial requirements and to discuss this information with adults in their lives who may be able to help them. Not all students have supportive family environments, but support can come from other quarters as well, and students need to be encouraged to reach out to and interact with adults who can help them navigate the college readiness gauntlet, whether these adults are relatives, community service staff, or adults at the school who may be paid staff or volunteers. Young people need personal contact and guidance to know how to become, and believe they are capable of being, college-ready. B. Local Literature
However, Timothy de Leon (Philippine Foundation, 2010), states that selecting which college to attend is a big decision and choosing a major is just as important. Many students select a major based on the job prospects it provides. Unfortunately, a lot of them end up being unhappy in their careers. To experience the most career satisfaction and success, students should base their college majors on their interests. Students should not rush to select a major early in their college careers because few know what they want to do for the rest of their lives. Instead, they should take classes in different subjects during their first one or two years and then make a choice. At the same time, they should realize that wasting too much time choosing a major can be an expensive decision based on tuition costs. Many colleges and universities offer free assessment tools to help students find suitable majors. Students and parents should also not hesitate to ask questions about the majors offered by the school. Staff in career services and subject area departments can provide information and insights about a particular major. After exploring the different areas of study, students typically find one more appealing than others. This is the subject that they should select as their major even if they are unsure about starting salary and career path. College advisors say it is more important for students to study a subject that they enjoy. Students should not worry about having a specific vocational goal in mind. In an article by Maritess Valdez (Prepare for the Future: Educate Yourself) 2006, High schools in particular need to be organized to develop more systematically each of the elements contained in choosing a college major. Students should be exposed to the definition of their chosen course and provided tools to self-assess what they are going to need to do to make themselves ready. Admissions offices need to emphasize in their communications with prospective applicants the importance of achieving all the components of the definition. Entry-level college courses can be designed to build upon the elements of the definition and not to reproduce high school–level expectations that lead college freshmen to believe college is just like high school, a perception that leads them to adopt work habits that quickly become problematic. Admissions and placement testing methods need to evolve to capture more information about student proficiency on all the aspects of the definition. Consequent to Rene Bautista, (Soaring High: It’s Easy Being a College Student), 2005, student contextual knowledge of the entire process of choosing a college course, financial aid, and successful functioning in college can be gauged relatively simply through questionnaires. However,the larger issue is how this information is used. The most important use for the information is as a more general indicator of the quality of the preparation program itself. While information on individual students is quite useful in a diagnostic fashion to identify areas where additional information is necessary, the overall profile of student contextual skill and awareness suggests very clearly the changes that high school programs need to make to improve student competence and confidence in this area. Related Studies
ACT’s research (2007c) has shown repeatedly that students benefit from participating in a longitudinal college readiness system that includes EXPLORE, PLAN, and the ACT. Data from this system show that using these programs: ■ increases educational achievement,
■ encourages students to take more college-preparatory courses in high school, ■ increases students’ college readiness,
■ promotes educational and career planning,
■ promotes college readiness of underrepresented minority students, and ■ promotes educational achievement in college, college enrollment, and persistence in college. ■ Considering postsecondary education
■ Deciding to attend college
■ Selecting high school courses to prepare for postsecondary training ■ Maintaining good grades
■ Gathering information about the college admissions process (includingcollege admissions tests) ■ Discussing educational and career goals with counselors, teachers, and parents ■ Obtaining information about colleges and academic programs ■ Obtaining information about financial aid opportunities
■ Exploring college major and career interests
Moreover, more states are providing feedback reports from colleges to high schools that examine how well prepared each high school’s graduates were for college. These reports are being used to strengthen high school curricula. A. Foreign Studies
Moreover, John L. Winn stated in his College Readiness Among First Time in College (FTIC) Students Edition 2011-04 that in recent years, education reform relating to college and career readiness has topped the priority lists of many states. The weakened economic conditions within Florida and throughout the nation haven placed the current education system under considerable scrutiny, resulting in the creation of numerous initiatives that are intended to provide students with the necessary knowledge and skills that are not only crucial for college success but also relevant in the 21st century workforce. According to Winn, an independent, bipartisan, nonprofit education reform organization based in Washington, D.C., (1) low high school graduation rates, (2) high college remediation rates, (3) increased education and skill requirements of new and growing occupations, and (4) the decrease in well‐paying jobs for which a high school education alone is sufficient, are all contributing factors to the revamping of high school graduation requirements. However, modernizing and improving the education system requires cross‐sector collaboration to achieve alignment between high school academic standards and requirements of college and careers. To this end, the state of Florida and The Florida College System (FCS) have been proactive in enhancements to education quality at all levels. The FCS has been an active participant in initiatives such as Achieving the Dream, American Diploma Project, Complete College America, and Race to the Top, all of which are aimed at improving student readiness and success.
Furthermore, Willis N. Holcombe of the Chancellor, 2009, mentioned that ACT research (2007c) indicates that even when students take substantial numbers of additional courses, no more than threefourths of them are ready for first-year college coursework in mathematics, social science, or natural science. Only in English does the percentage of students who are ready for college-levelwork after taking additional courses in high school exceed 75 percent. Nearly half of ACT-tested 2005 high school graduates who earned a grade of A or B in high school Algebra II did not meet the ACT College Readiness Benchmark for Mathematics, and more than half of the graduates who earned a grade of A or B in high school Physics did not meet the ACT College Readiness Benchmark for Science (ACT, 2007c). How can 43 percent of the students who received an A or B in Algebra II not be ready for College Algebra? Whether as a result of grade inflation or a lack of challenging course content, it is clear that course grades are not accurately reflecting what is needed to meet the challenges of a college education. It is time to define essential course outcomes so that teachers can teach to these outcomes and student grades can more accurately reflect how well students are learning the knowledge and skills that are necessary for college readiness. B. Local Studies
In a study of KABATAAN 2006, states that they identified characteristics of college readiness partnership programs in Philippines using gathered data. Of the 133 programs we found, federally funded programs accounted for 72 percent, state programs for 16 percent, and locally developed and funded programs for 12 percent. Because federally funded programs follow a fairly uniform model and are already well described, we focused on state and local program models. We identified 37 state and local programs in the online scan, and we observed a range of programs during our site visits. All programs were offered through a partnership between a high school and a college. College readiness partnership programs could often be classified as academic-focused or college knowledge–focused. Those that focused primarily on academic subjects (most often reading, writing, and mathematics) generally served small groups of students who were at risk of placing into developmental education in college. While their primary goal was to provide academic content, many also included instruction on college
Consequent to KAMPIL-EDUKASYON, 2011, As a major component of the state’s broader P-16 initiatives, College Readiness Standards (CRS) were designed to articulate what students should know and be able to do to succeed in entry-level college courses. These standards were created by teams of higher and secondary education faculty and have been approved by the Department of Education and the Commission on Higher Education. CRS emphasize content knowledge as a means to an end: content stimulates students to engage in deeper levels of thinking. While college courses ask students to use knowledge to weigh and analyze important issues and questions, high school standards typically provide a broader set of core knowledge and skills, a foundation in literacy and basic mathematics. Even a high-quality college preparatory curriculum is unlikely to prepare students to pursue a specific major in college. It can, however, help students develop a foundation of skills that they can employ to successfully pursue hundreds of college majors. The CRS are designed to represent a full range of knowledge and skills that students need to succeed in entry-level college courses, as well as in a wide range of majors and careers. According to research, over 80% of the jobs of the 21st century require some post-secondary education. By implementing these standards, secondary school and higher education faculty in all academic disciplines will advance the mission of Philippine students ready for college.
This chapter presents the research design including the method of collecting data, data gathering procedure, sampling procedure, selection of respondents, instruments used, statistical treatment of data and development of the research instrument. Research Design
The descriptive analysis method of research will be used in this study. Descriptive research, as defined by Lorenzo and Jimenez (2008), is a method that involves description, recording, analysis, and interpretation of the present nature, composition or process of phenomena. This focuses on prevailing conditions, or how a person, group, or thing behaves or functions in the present. It often involves some type of comparison or contrast. Furthermore, Adas and Sison (2007) defines descriptive research as a purposive process of gathering, analyzing, classifying and tabulating, data about prevailing conditions, practices, beliefs, processes, trends, and cause-effect relationships and then making adequate and accurate interpretations about such data with or without the aid of statistical methods. Since the present study is concerned with the perception of the Junior and Senior students in Lakan Dula High School towards the difficulty of graduating students in choosing a college course, the descriptive method of research will be the most appropriate method to use. Data Gathering Procedure
For the fulfillment of the purpose of the study, the researcher will secure the permission of the management of Lakan Dula High School where her respondents belong. This was done through the letter of referral that was prepared by the researcher signed by her research adviser.
Upon approving the letter of referral, the researcher administered the distribution of the questionnaire to their respondents as well as helping and assisting them for further understanding of questions under the questionnaire. Upon collecting the answered questionnaire, the researches secured whether the information was enough and all the questions were filled up. The method of collecting data that will be used in the study is the normative survey. Ada and Sison (2007) explains that the normative survey is concerned with looking into the commonality of some elements. It is used in collecting demographic data about people’s behavior, practices, intentions, beliefs, attitudes, opinions, judgments, interests, perceptions, and the like and then such data are analyzed, organized, and interpreted. Since the present research is a status study, the normative survey would be the most appropriate method to use in gathering data. The instrument that will be used to collect data is a questionnaire. This will be used because it gathers data faster than any other method. Besides, the respondents will be the junior and senior students in Lakan Dula High School, so they can relate on the study. They could read and answer the questionnaire without difficulty. The questionnaire will be used to gather feedback of the graduating students of the said school. The researcher will also use the interview method in gathering necessary data from the Department of Education. This will help the researcher arrive at a more complete and valid information wherein greater complex questions can be asked by the researcher to be provided by greater complex data which shall be vital to the study. Sampling Procedure
The sampling procedure will explain the sampling technique that will be employed in the study. This will also determine the study population that will be used by applying certain criteria. The researcher will make use of the purposive sampling technique. Purposive sampling also commonly called a judgmental sample, as defined by Esber and Carpio (2009), is one that is selected based on the knowledge of a population and the purpose of the study. The subjects are selected because of some characteristic. It is a sampling technique where the researchers select a particular group or groups based on certain criteria, purposes, or variables. Purposive sampling will be used in this research because the data that is needed shall come from a part of the population that belong to certain criteria that are absent from others. Selection of Respondents
In selection of respondents, the researcher will be identifying the target population of the study and will be computing for the actual sample. Since the feedback from the people should come from the junior and senior students, the respondents should be chosen by considering certain criteria such as the following:
The respondents must be enrolled in Lakan Dula High School which is located at Juan Luna St., Tondo, Manila.
The respondents must have the will to enter a college institution or university in the near future.
The researcher choose respondents enrolled in Lakan Dula High School for the purpose of availability and since the students of the said school are well suited for the study, they will be able to answer the questionnaire without difficulty. Instruments Used
The researcher will utilize the following as measuring instrument in gathering and collecting the needed data. The researcher also read articles from internet, newspaper, journals and dissertations. After finalizing the concept, the researcher will formulate a statement of the problem title for approval. After the approval the questionnaire will answer the statement of the problem. Provided below are the instruments or tools for gathering data in research that the researcher will use as a basis for drawing conclusions or making inferences. Some of these tools are questionnaires, interviews, empirical observations, and analysis that will be applied for the proposed study. Interview is defined as a meeting of two people face to face to confer about something or an act of questioning to receive a desired answer that is necessary in solving a specific problem. This is where data gathering occurs by asking questions for much needed information from the interviewee verbally and directly. Observation, this technique will also use when the researcher cannot secure adequate or valid data through the use of the questionnaire or some other technique. It is considered to be the most direct means of studying people in so far as their overt behavior is concerned. Observation of a current operating procedure is another data gathering tool seeing the system in action gives you additional perspective and better understanding of system procedures. Questionnaire, a pre-written series of questions will use in gathering important information’s from one or more persons. This will be given to the individual who have a direct bearing of the study and in order to satisfy the proponent’s goal that is to get and measure the opinions, polls and attitude of the respondents of the study. Analysis is the process of breaking-up the whole study into its constituent parts of the categories according to the specific questions under the statement of the problem. This is to bring out into focus the essential feature of the study. Statistical Treatment of Data
Once the data are crossed-tabulated and summarized, contingency tables will be constructed for statistical testing. The following statistical tools were used:
Percentage will be used for the response of the respondents. The formula for percentage:
% = f/nx 100
n =total number of respondents
To measure the subject’s response to the self-made questionnaire the weighted mean will be utilized. Each value will be multiplied by each value with appropriate weight factor and the products will be summed up and divided by the total respondents. The formula for weighted mean
Mean = (∑fx)/N
f=frequency of respondents
n=total number of respondents
This is used to determine the significant difference of the perception of assessment between the Junior and Senior students of Lakan Dula High School. t =(" " 1 - " " 2)/√(S_(1^2 )/(n1 ) +S_(2^2 )/n2)
1= mean of the first group of respondents
2=mean of the second group of respondents
S12=standard deviation of the first group of respondents
S22=standard deviation of the second group of respondents
n1=number of sample of first group of respondents
n2= number of sample of second group of respondents
Development of the Research Instrument
After reading and studying samples of questionnaire and interview guide from related studies, the researcher prepared their own questionnaire and interview guide. They also consulted some knowledgeable people about how to prepare one. The researcher saw to it that there were enough items to collect data to cover all aspects of the problem and to answer to all the specific questions under the statement of the problem. Attached hereto is a sample of the questionnaire and the interview guide that will be used in the collection of data.
General Direction: Please accomplish this questionnaire very carefully and honestly and return it as soon as possible. Please rest assured that any information that you supply will be treated with the greatest confidentiality and anonymity. I. Personal Profile
Please supply the information asked for.
Name: _____________________________________________________ Date of Birth: _________________________________________
( ) 13-15 ( ) 19-21
( ) 16-18 ( ) 22=24
Gender: ( ) Female ( ) Male
( ) Junior Student( ) Master’s Degree
Direction: Please put a check mark to the number that corresponds to your answer with the code indicates below:
5 - Strongly Agree
4 - Moderately Agree
3 - Agree
2 - Disagree
1 - Strongly Disagree
II. Awareness and Prepareness in Choosing a College Course
1. Find out the specific unit requirements of your college. It's important to know how many classes are requirements and how many are electives. 2. Thumb through the course catalog and make a list of courses that interest you. Divide them into 3 categories: major, core and elective. 3. Choose core classes and classes for your major first, as these offers the least flexibility. Consider meeting with your advisor to find out which core classes you must take for the major or majors that interest you. 4. Make a self assessment of what do you want and what do you want to be in the future. 5. Get requirements out of the way
III. Financial Instability
1. Avoid unnecessary spending
2. Plan ahead for expenditures
3. Consider being a working student if your family cannot support you in your chosen course 4. Try to applying for an academic scholarship
5.consider applying for a non-academic scholarship
IV. Academic Grades
1. Study harder
2. Make rooms for a study habit betterment
3. Strive to meet the required general weighted average of your chosen course 4. Learn to do good in exams
5. Overcoming problems in school