The History of Crime and Corrections
After reading this chapter, students should be able to: 1. Define the term "corrections," and know how correctional agencies fulfill their mission of protecting society. 2. Identify how corrections can impact the crime rate by understanding the concept of the correctional funnel. 3. Outline the growth of corrections over the past two decades, and describe why the scope of correctional budgets, staffing, and clients makes it important for students to study corrections. 4. Contrast the Classical School with the Positive School of Criminology. 5. Describe the role of William Penn and the Pennsylvania Quakers in the development of the use of prisons in the United States. 6. Specify the operations of the Walnut Street Jail as the first American prison. 7. Compare the Pennsylvania System with the Auburn System of imprisonment. 8. Explain how the Irish Penal System contributed to the development of the Reformatory Era of prison operations in the United States. 9. List the Acts of Congress and describe their impact on the end to the Industrial Era of prison operations. 10. Describe the Rehabilitative Era and the medical model of corrections, and explain how this era evolved into the Reintegrative Era. 11. Identify and explain the five goals of corrections. 12. Define the theories of specific and general deterrence.
The purpose of this chapter is to create a foundation of history and theory, so that as current policies and practices are described, students can link those to theories and goals, in order to critically consider the overall effectiveness and public value of correctional policy. In this chapter, students receive an overview of what corrections is, how it links to the rest of the criminal justice system, and why it is important to study corrections. As the criminal justice system has