Study Guide for Exam 1

Topics: Asthma, Respiratory system / Pages: 5 (1106 words) / Published: Dec 4th, 2012
Fluid and Electrolytes
Know the causes, nursing assessment findings and treatments for:
Fluid Volume Excess (Overload): heart failure, renal failure, abnormal fluid shift, treat with diuretics and fluid restriction or sodium restrictions, record i&o’s, bounding pulse, JDV, crackles in lungs (from PE), SOB, PITTING EDEMA
Fluid Volume Deficit (Hypo-Volemia): shift from plasma into ICF with sodium loss, treat with isotonic fluids, blood products for blood loss, low BP, increase HR, weak thready pulse, no JVD, increase RR, decreased LOC, cool skin POOR SKIN TURGOR
SIADH: decrease in plasma osmalility and urine output, too much ADH, hyponatremia
Diabetes Insipidus: polyuria, polydipsia, alert LOC, 800-1200ml/hr, decrease in ADH
Hypokalemia: caused by excessive diuresis and mag deficiency UWAVE PRESENT LETHAL VENTRICULAR RHYTHMS , SUPPLEMENTS SHOULD NEVER EXCEED 60MEQ/L AND RATE SHOULD NEVER EXCEED 10-20 MEQ/HR
Hyperkalemia: potassium sparing diuretics, ACE inhibitors, impaired renal excretion, cramping leg pain PEAKED TWAVE PROLONGED PR INTERVAL WHICH LEADS TO VFIB , effect cardiac electrical receptor cells, treat with lasics and kayexalate, force k+ into ECF to ICF with glucose and insulin
Hyponatremia : sodium loss or water gain SIADH, irritability confusion seisures, treat with hypertonic or sodium fluids or vasopresson which blocks ADH, COLD, CLAMMY SKIN
Hypernatremia: causes are DI, mannitol, diuretics. Hypertonic fluids, sodium gain or water loss, weakness, intense thirst, agitation, seisures, coma, treat with hypotonic solutions, FLUSHED DRY SKIN
Hypomagnesemia: prolonged fasting, starvation, chronic alcoholism , diuretics, hyperactive DTR, tremors, seisures,
Hypermagnesemia: renal insufficiency/failure, lethargic, drowsiness, n&v, loss od DTR, treat with calcium gluconate
Hypercalcemia: calcitonin stimulated in response, hyperparathyroidism, malignancies, KIDNEY STONES fatigue, constipation, reduced excitability of muscles/nerves , treat

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Exam 1 Study Guide
  • Exam 1 Study Guide
  • Study Guide For Exam 1
  • exam 1 study guide
  • Exam 1 study guide
  • Exam 1 Study Guide
  • Exam 1 Study Guide
  • Study Guide Exam 1 1
  • study guide exam 1
  • Exam 1 Study Guide