CHAPTER 16 Respiratory system (~20)
1) The atmosphere is composed of which gases? 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, .04 carbon dioxide Which gas is most abundant in the air you breath? Nitrogen
2) Define dypsnea – difficult or labored breathing, air hunger hyperventilation – breathing rapidly and deeply hypoventilation, cyanosis – a blueish color of the skin and mucous membranes and hypoxia – deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues (oxygen levels are too low)
3) Trace the path of air flow through the respiratory tract from the nose to the alveolus.
Nose Pharyx Trachea Bronchi (lungs start here) Bronchioles Alveoli
4) Describe the anatomy of the larynx. Made out of 3 cartilages Name the three largest laryngeal cartilages and the bone involved in swallowing. Epiglottic cartilage, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, hyoid bone Which cartilage keeps food from entering the glottis? Epiglottis
5) What is the pharynx? The throat What role does it play in respiration? for air passing between the nasal cavity and the larynx In digestion? Passageway for food traveling from the oral cavity to esophagus
6) Name at least 3 roles of the nose/nasal cavity. Warms, cleanes, humidifies inhaled air, detects odor, chamber that amplifies the voice, mucus traps bacteria and the bacteria is destroyed by lysozyme
7) What keeps the food that we swallow from going down our ‘windpipes’? The epiglottis covers the trachea
8) What type of epithelial tissue lines the nose? Ciliated pseudostratified epithelium The trachea – stratified squamous epithelium The alveoli? Smooth muscle or simple squamous?
9) Oxygen needs hemoglobin to travel through the cardiovascular system. Why? Because oxygen binds to the iron containing protein in red blood cells while the remainder of the oxygen dissolves in r.b.c.s How does hemoglobin transport oxygen? Oxygen binds to hemoglobin and moves from higher concentration to lower concentration How