Study Guide Exam 4

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Study Guide 4

CH. 21

Genomics – the study of whole sets of genes and their interactions.

Bioinformatics – is the application of computational methods to the storage and analysis of biological data

Linkage Map – maps the location of several thousand genetic markers on each chromosome

Physical Map – Expresses the distance between genetic markers, usually as the number of base pairs along the DNA

Metagenomics – DNA from a group of species (a metagenome) is collected from an environmental sample and sequenced

Gene Annotation – identification of protein coding genes within DNA sequences in a database

Proteomics – the systematic study of all proteins encoded by a genome

Pseudogenes – former genes that have accumulated mutations and are nonfunctional

Repetitive DNA – present in multiple copies in the genome, ¾ of Repetitive DNA is made up of transposable elements and sequences related to them

Transposable elements – first evidence for mobile DNA segments came from geneticist Barbara McClintocks breeding experiments from Indian Corn, She identified changes in the color of corn kernals that made sense only by postulating that some genetic elements move from other genome locations into the genes for kernel color. These Transposable elements move from one site to another in a cell’s DNA; they are present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes

Transposons – Euckaryotic transposable element, moves by means of a DNA intermediate

Retrotransposons – Eukaryotic transposable element, moves by means of an RNA intermediate

Simple Sequence DNA – contains many copies of tandemly repeated short sequences

Short tandem repeats (STR) series of repeating units of 2-5 nucleotides, repeat number can vary among sites or individuals

Multigene Families – collections of identical or very similar genes, some consist of identical DNA sequences, usually clustered tandemly, such as those that code for rRNA products

Evo-devo- evolutionary developmental

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