study guide anatomy

Topics: Bone, Skeletal system, Muscle Pages: 27 (10877 words) Published: November 1, 2014

Skeletal System, Muscular System
Exam Monday Oct 13
Bones and Skeletal Tissue
Skeletal Cartilages
Basic Structure, Types, and Location
Skeletal Cartilage
Consist primarily of water which accounts for its resilience Contains no nerves or blood vessels
Surrounded by a layer of dense irregular connective tissue – pericardium Hyaline cartilage
Provide support, flexibility, resilience
Most abundant
Elastic Cartilage
Resembles hyaline cartilage
Has elastic fibers
Highly compressible with great tensile strength
Collagen fibers
Growth of Cartilage
Appositional growth – cells secrete matrix against the external face of existing cartilage Interstitial growth – chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix expanding the cartilage from within Bones of the Skeleton

Axial Skeleton:
Forms the long axis of the body and includes the bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage. These bones protect, support, or carry other parts.
Appendicular Skeleton:
Consist of the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the girdles (shoulder bones and hip bones) that attach the limbs to the axil skeleton. The bones of the limbs help us move from place to place (locomotion) and manipulate our environment. The Hyloid bone is included in the Appendicular Skeleton.

Classification of bones
Long bones:
Are longer than they are wide.
Has a shaft plus two ends which are often expanded.
All limb bones except to patella and the wrist and ankle bones are long bones Named for their elongated shape, not their overall size
EX. Humorous
Short bones:
Roughly cube shape
Bones of the wrist and the ankles
Sesamoid bones are a special type of short bone that form in a tendon Ex. Patella
Act of alter the direction of pull of a tendon
They vary in size and number in different individuals
Irregular bone:
Have complicated shapes that fit none of the preceding classes Vertebra
Flat bones:
Thin, flattened, and usually a bit curved.
The sternum (breastbone), scapulae (shoulder blades), ribs, and most skull bones are flat bones) Functions of Bones
Bones provide a framework that supports the body and cradles its soft organs Ex. Bones of the lower limbs act as pillars to support the body trunk when we stand, and the rib cage supports the thoracic wall Protection

The fused bones of the skull protect the brain.
The vertebrae surround the spinal cord, and the rib cage helps protect the vital organs of the thorax. Movement
Skeletal muscles, which attach to bones by tendons, use bones as levers to move the body and its parts Storage
Bone is a reservoir for minerals, most importantly calcium, and phosphate. The stored minerals are released into the bloodstream in their ionic forms as needed for distribution to all parts of the body Blood Cell formation

Most blood cell formation or hematopoiesis
Occurs in the red marrow cavities of certain bones
Triglyceride (fat) storage: fat, a source of energy for the body, is stored in the bone cavities Hormone Production: Bones produce osteocalcin (regulates bone formation) Bone Structure
Bone Tissue
Spongy bone: a honey comb of small needle-like or flat pieces called trabeculae Matrix has a lot of space in it
In the open spaces between trabeculae are filled with red or yellow bone marrow Compact bone:
Cells packed together
Compact bone is superficial
Medullary Cavity:
Yellow bone marrow (fat)
Location of spongy bone
Proximal/ distal ends of bones
Shaft or diaphysis in the middle
Typical Structure of a Long Bone
Diaphysis: a tubular diaphysis or shaft, forms the long axis of the bone. It is constructed of a relatively thick collar of compact bone that surrounds a central medullary cavity Contains fat (yellow marrow) and is called the yellow marrow cavity Epiphyses: are the bones ends

Exterior is formed of compact bone while interior is formed of spongy bone Hyaline cartilage is...
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