Arranging, revising, and preparing a written, audio, or video material for final production, usually by a party (called an editor) other than the creator of the material. The objectives of editing include (1) detection and removal of factual, grammatical, and typographical errors, (2) clarification of obscure passages, (3) elimination of parts not suitable for the targeted audience, and (4) proper sequencing to achieve a smooth, unbroken flow of narrative. Principles of Video Editing
Before discussing all the individual techniques, I would like to introduce several principles, or guide lines, first. Although they are not unbreakable rules, but you will not go deadly wrong if you take them into consideration while editing. For some people, these are rather old, traditional principles. For beginners, and also for experienced video editors in her daily work, these principles are good starting point. Once they would have become your second nature, you can forget about them and start trying to break them. In a sense, these are the big pictures rather than detailed techniques. 1. Continuity
2. Make the edit invisible
3. There should be a motivation for every edit
4. Always deliver a certain message
5. Bear audio in mind
6. Editing is creating
7. Don’t overuse technique or visual effect
What is Editing?
Editing is the process of organizing and transforming recorded material into a document that delivers a message. At its simplest, video editing means placing one shot after another to create an organization that makes sense while it presents information or a story. At the next level of complexity, editing achieves that organization and presentation invisibly. The audience perceives the program as a simple continuous flow, without noticing that it is carefully built up, one piece at a time, of many separate units of picture and sounds. At it most sophisticated, editing does more than organize information and present it invisibly. It does those jobs with style, with an emotional character that touches viewer’s feelings as well as their minds.
Video editing is part of the creative process that includes writing and directing. In general there are two approaches to editing video. The first of these processes is Subtractive Editing in which a program is assembled by removing unwanted or duplicative sequences. Subtractive editing resembles the way one might assemble a photo album one roll at a time. First you look at all the pictures and discard the ones that contain obvious errors or duplicates. Then you place them in the album according to when they were taken. The problem with this approach is that although it presents a cleaner album than the unedited version, there is no control over when and what occurs because you are limited to the sequence or order the pictures were taken. Additive Editing is the process in which a video program is assembled on tape using pictures, sounds, graphics, titles and effects in a predetermined sequence to create a coherent story.
Editing Principles Editing Principles determine the qualities that you want in your finished program. Editing operations are what you do while editing principles are what you want to achieve by doing it. Editing principles include: 1. Continuity -- the art of organizing and sequencing a program so that it makes sense to the audience. 2. Performance -- the action on the screen must appear believable and should create the intended effect on the audience. 3. Emphasis -- information should be presented with an impact proportional to its importance. A big bang follows a big event and should serve to direct the audience’s attention to a critical event. Special effects done for effect are not relevant. 4. Pace -- Pace is the sense of forward movement through the story. It is not related to time but rather of understanding and interest. Variety and rhythm are key elements in pacing a story so...
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