Students’ Views on Filipino Historians’ Articles About Jose Rizal as the National Hero of the Philippines

Topics: Philippines, Philippine Revolution, José Rizal Pages: 20 (6774 words) Published: October 15, 2011

A Paper Submitted to:
Dr. Minerva V. Apita

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in:
Philippine History with Politics and Governance

Laylo, Anelle Nica M.
September 7, 2011


The Filipinos have a rich archive of history, from the prehistoric era, to the Spaniards rule in the Philippines, followed by the Americans and the Japanese, followed by the Marcos regime, up to the present situation of the country. All these events have a significant contribution to who the Filipinos are today. We have been honed for so long a time and still are being molded in this present generation. This study is important in order to awaken the Filipinos of today on whether or not the Philippine national hero should be called as such. Renato Constantino wrote in his article, “Veneration Without Understanding,” that 1) Rizal denied the revolution-- stressing primacy of education and his general regard to the revolution is not as high as expected 2) he was an American- sponsored hero and 3) was a limited Filipino and has loved the country in his own ilustrado way. On the other hand, Floro Quibuyen, another respected historian of his generation commented in his book, “A Nation Aborted,” 1) that there is a wrong dichotomy in formulating the ideas in Constantino’s article, 2) that there is an ideological conflict in any type, 3) that in politics, the conflict is among those who are in authority and 4) reform and revolution cannot be totally separated from each other. The results of the study are as follows: of the 50 respondents, 41 of them have read Jose Rizal’s Writings while 9 of them have not, 28 students say that Jose Rizal’s writings wake up their nationalism, 7 say they are good literature, and 15 say they are essential for every Filipino to read, 14 are aware of the issues regarding Jose Rizal as the national hero while 36 are not, 17 say that he still is suitable as a national hero while 33 say that he is not suitable to be a national hero, and 44 of the respondents say that reading the issues concerning Jose Rizal has helped them a lot while 6 say that nothing has changed. It is therefore recommended that the students should have a thorough study on the history of the Philippines to develop a much critical thinking as citizens of the country.


Title Page1
Statement of the Problem5
Scope and Delimitation of the Study5
Review of Related Literature6
Methods and Procedures17
Results and Discussion18
Summary and Conclusions20

Success consists of going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm—Winston Churchill. After several centuries of being under the rule of the Spaniards and the numerous attempts to escape bondage, Philippines has finally sought the freedom it had yearned for. A lot of heroes have carved a part in Philippine history through their ardent desire to free the country from oppression: Diego Silang, Macario Sakay, Francisco Dagohoy, Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto, and Marcelo del Pilar to name some. But one of the heroes outshines the others, and he is Jose Rizal. Jose Rizal is known as the national hero of the Philippines, and is considered to have contributed a lot to the sovereignty of the country.

Let hero be defined first: it is a prominent or central personage taking admirable part in any remarkable action or event—which for some Filipino historians is a lame definition of a hero. There are some reasons why Jose Rizal is considered as the national hero: he took part in the propaganda movement, wrote the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo which have formed the Filipino nationality, was praised by Antonio Ma. Regidor, a Filipino exile in London, and Prof. Ferdinand Blumentritt....
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