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Topics: Population growth, Economic growth, Sustainability Pages: 11 (1669 words) Published: June 18, 2013
Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development

Chapter 2: Towards

Sustainable Development

Academic Year : 2012

1

Chapter 2: Towards Sustainable Development
I. The Concept of Sustainable Development II. Equity and the Common Interest III. Strategic Imperatives 1. Reviving Growth 2. Changing the quality of Growth 3. Meeting Essential Human Needs 4. Ensuring a Sustainable Level of Population 5. Conserving and Enhancing the Resource Base 6. Reorienting Technology and Managing Risk 7. Merging Environment and Economics in Decision Making Conclusion

Gro Brundtland
Chair of WCED, 1987

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Chapter 01 : A Threatened Future


Symptoms and Cause : Poverty Growth Survival The Economic Crisis

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What is

Sustainable Development?



Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. 2 Key concepts:  The concept of ‘needs’  The idea of limitations Thus the goals of economic and social development must be defined in terms of sustainability in all countries : developed or developing, market-oriented or centrally planned. 4



Why do we need sustainable development?
Pressing global realities:  The rapid growth of the world’s population and its changing distribution  The persistence of widespread poverty  The growing pressures on the natural world  The continuing denial of democracy and human rights  The very notion of “development” itself, what it has come to mean and how it is measured. 5

I- The Concept of Sustainable Development
* The satisfaction of human needs and aspirations in the major objective of development. The essential needs of vast numbers of people in developing countries (basic needs) for food, clothing, shelter, jobs - are not being met

* Sustainable development requires meeting the basic needs of all and extending to all the opportunity to satisfy their aspirations for a better life. 6

I- The Concept of Sustainable Development (Con.)


Economic growth can cause high levels of productive activity and widespread poverty can coexist, and can endanger the environment A: sustainable development requires that societies meet human needs both by increasing productive potential and by ensuring equitable opportunities for all. 7



I- The Concept of Sustainable Development (Con.)


An expansion in population size can increase the pressure on resources and slow the rise in living standards in areas. Sustainable development can only be pursued if demographic developments are in proportion with the changing productive potential of the ecosystem. 8 8



I- The Concept of Sustainable Development (Con.)


Human intervention in natural systems during the course of development can lead to more and more serious in scale and impact, and more threatening to life-support systems both locally and globally.



At a minimum, sustainable development must not endanger the natural systems that support life on Earth: the atmosphere, the waters, the soils, and the living beings. 9

I- The Concept of Sustainable Development (Con.)


As for non-renewable resources, like fossil fuels and minerals, their use reduces the stock available for future generations. With minerals and fossil fuels, the rate of depletion and the emphasis on recycling and economy of use should be calibrated to ensure that the resource does not run out before acceptable substitutes are available.



Sustainable development requires that the rate of depletion of non-renewable resources should foreclose as few future options as possible. 10

I- The Concept of Sustainable Development (Con.)


Development tends to simplify ecosystems and to reduce their diversity of species.



Sustainable development requires the conservation of plant and animal species. 11

II- Equity and the Common Interest
How are individuals in the real world to be persuaded or made to act in the...
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