Preview

Student

Best Essays
Open Document
Open Document
4111 Words
Grammar
Grammar
Plagiarism
Plagiarism
Writing
Writing
Score
Score
Student
Residential Schools in Canada Research Paper

Residential schools were seen by the Canadian government as a way to civilize the native population and keep their children from continuing in their native traditions. In 1895 Rev Fr A.M Carion stated in a report from a residential school in Kamloops, British Columbia that the purpose of the residential school is to civilize the Indian and to make them good, useful and law abiding members of society with strict punishments for any wrong doings. 1 Richard Pratt, who founded the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, one of the first of the reservation schools in the United States, preached “you must kill the Indian in him; to save the man”. These ideals were later adopted by the Canadian government. 2 The goal of residential schools was to assimilate Aboriginals into white society through children since they were much more susceptible to influence. This research paper will focus on the residential school system and will argue that the Canadian government and churches committed genocide amongst the indigenous populations in an attempt to eliminate the native culture. It will focus on the history of residential schools in Canada, their intended targets, the health and quality of life of the Aboriginals attending these schools, the sterilization of Aboriginal women, those who succeeded in the school system, and what has changed since the opening of the schools.
0F 1F

Up until the mid 1850’s, churches were in full control of the residential schools. The Bagot Commission Report of 1842 and the Gradual Civilization Act of 1857 came into effect and opened the way for the Canadian government to fund schools that would teach english, religion and other aspects of European culture and discipline anyone who displayed native traits. 3 By 1892, the Federal government and churches entered into a partnership to run the residential school system for the children. 4 The residential schools grew from fifty-four schools in 1898 to a high



Bibliography: Annett, Kevin. Hidden from History: The Canadian Holocaust, Genocide in Canada. http://canadiangenocide.nativeweb.org/intro2.html. Barton, Sylvia., Harvey V. Thommasen., Bill Tallio., William Zhang and Alex C. Michalos. Health and Quality of Life of Aboriginal Residential School Survivors, Bella Coola Valley. Social Indicators Research 73 (September 2005):295-312. CBC News Canada. “Residential Schools: A history of Residential Schools in Canada”. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/story/2008/05/16/f-faqs-residential-schools.html. Guthrie, Gail., Madeleine Valaskakis.,and Dion Stout. Restoring the Balance: First Nations Women, Community, and Culture. University of Manitoba Press, 2009. Kelm, Mary E. “A Scandalous Procession: Residential Schooling and the Reformation of Aboriginal Bodies” in Colonizing Bodies: Aboriginal Health and Healing in British Columbia, 19001950, 535-547. In Trent Course Pack for History 1700, (2010-2011). Kuran Heidi. “Residential Schools & Abuse”. http://www.niichro.com/womhealth/wohealth7.html. The Truth Commission into Genocide in Canada, “Hidden from History: The Canadian Holocaust,” The Untold Story of the Genocide of Aboriginal Peoples by church and State in Canada. The Truth Comission into Genocide in Canada. http://canadiangenocide.nativeweb.org/genocide.pdf. Hope Maclean, “A Positive Experiment in Aboriginal Education: the Methodist Ojibwa Day Schools in Upper Canada, 1824-1833” Canadian Journal of Native Studies, The Canadian Journal of Native Studies 22, 1:2002:23-57. Milloy, John S. “A National Crime’: Building and Managing the System, 1879 to 1946” in A National Crime: The Canadian Government and the Residential School System, 51-75. In Trent Course Pack for History 1700, (2010-2011). Paul, Daniel N. “We Were Not the Savages”, First Nation History, MiKmaq, Maliseet, & 8 Residential Schools in Canada Research Paper European relations with them. http://www.danielnpaul.com/IndianResidentialSchools.html. Peterson, Latoya. “NPR Reports on the Strange History of Native American Boarding Schools.” Racialicious, May 13, 2008. http://www.racialicious.com/2008/05/13/npr-reports-on-the-strangehistory-of-native-american-boarding-schools. Smith Derek. G. The “Policy of Aggressive Civilization” and Projects of Governance in Roman Catholic Industrial schools for Native Peoples in Canada, 1870-95. Canadian Anthropology Society 43(2001):253-271. Supreme Court of Canada. “Remarks of the Right Honorable Beverley McLachlin, P.C. Medicine and the Law: the Challenges of Mental Illness February 17 and 18, 2005”. Supreme Court of Canada. http://www.scc-csc.gc.ca/court-cour/ju/spe-dis/bm05-02-17-eng.asp. Thomas Murray R. Can Money Undo the Past? A Canadian Example. Comparitive Education 39, no. 3 (August 2003): 331-343. 9

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Better Essays

    Residential Schools

    • 912 Words
    • 3 Pages

    The children were forced and taken away from their homes and families by clerics and government officials and sent away for retraining. The priests and nuns deprived them from speaking their ancestral language, and practicing their religion and culture was banned. The larger purpose of the residential schools other than education was to eliminate the culture from Canada. It was not the intent to educate the children, instead teach them tasks so they could acquire positions as maids and laborers. “The problem with the Indians is one of morality and religion,” -Reverend A. E. Caldwell. The children were removed from their cultural environment and were placed in an area where they were completely isolated and the result was transmission and elimination. The parents were not aloud to visit their children nor were the children aloud to contact home. The children…

    • 912 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    For decades in Canada, officially beginning in 1892, children were taken away from their families and put into schools that would change and take away their views and beliefs, initial knowledge, image, and identity. In the earlier stages, these schools were referred to as Industrial Schools for Indians. Today, we call them Residential Schools with Aboriginal survivors who are able to tell their stories. Aboriginal people suffered while there schools were running. This essay will compare the knowledge in a recent article to primary sources that were written while Industrial Schools were in action. The actions of assimilating Aboriginal people through a strict form of education caused a negative butterfly effect upon the public and Aboriginal population. This act was run by the Canadian government and churches as an act of assimilation through education. The school system performed strict forms of discipline towards the Aboriginal children to civilize them to live through the dominant culture. The method of assimilation was unsuccessful, Aboriginal people…

    • 1546 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Residential Schools

    • 753 Words
    • 4 Pages

    In the 19th century the Canadian government believed it was responsible for educating and caring for the country’s aboriginal people. It though that native peoples best chance for success was to adopt Christianity and Canadian customs. Thus, in 1857 the Gradual Civilization Act was passed to assimilate natives. Children were the main targets, because it was believed that it would be easier to mould a young child as opposed to an adult. By assimilating the aboriginal children into the lower fringes of mainstream society, they hoped to diminish or abolish native traditions within a few generations. Schools run by churches upon government funding were created in order to separate these children from their homes. They were later named residential schools and were established with the assumption that aboriginal culture was unable to adapt to a modernizing society. In 1920, attendance became compulsory for all kids ages 7-15. Agents were employed by the government to ensure all native children attended. Many were taken by brute force and others separated from their siblings. In all, about 150 000 kids were removed from their communities and forced to attend the schools.…

    • 753 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    However Canada tries to hide a dirty little secret, and that happens to be residential school. Residential schools came to into effect in the early 1870s and the last one was not close until 1996.("The Residential School System."). As mentioned earlier, the charter was no created until 1982, this means Canadians were breaking the first section of the charter, which are the fundamental freedoms ("Rights and Freedoms in Canada."). Residential schools were designed to "kill the Indian in the child"("The Residential School System."). Contrary to what the public believed back in the 1870s, these schools were not always the best for the children, they were taking from their families and force to follow a religion and language that was not their own.("The Residential School System.") Canadian aboriginals were subjected to all kinds of abuse while attending these schools. ("The Residential School System.") Emotional, Psychological, physical and most importantly sexual abuse were found in almost every school.("The Residential School System.") Many Canadians are under the notion that residential schools were designed to teach aboriginal children about catholic religion, this is not the truth.The truth is that residential schools were also underfunded compared to the white schools.("The Residential School System.") and although the children were taught Christianity, the children were groomed to became house maids or farmers.("The Residential School System.") The majority of children who were sent away at the age of 18 only had a fifth-grade education. ("The Residential School System.")this type of Trauma had to be endured by many generations of Canadian aboriginals. The so call " free" education came with a deadly price.In 1907, medical inspector P.H. Bryce reported that 24 percent aboriginal children were dying in residential homes, this number did not counter in the number of death of children…

    • 587 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Best Essays

    Métis Residential Schools

    • 2013 Words
    • 9 Pages

    The history of the Métis and Residential Schools is not new. For a century, the mutual lives of the Métis children were controlled by the missionaries and the Catholic Church, and became wrapped up in Federal Government policies. The Metis Residential School experience was similar to the Aboriginal one; that of social exclusion and mental and physical abuse. The procedures that were created for the Métis in Residential Schools harshly exposed how bureaucrats felt about the social order of the Métis’ station in the New Canada. The Residential Schools took part in creating a lower class structure for the Métis, which separated them even further from their First…

    • 2013 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Best Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Residential schools

    • 1482 Words
    • 6 Pages

    This research explores how the residential schools established in the 19th century affected the Native population and the Canadian government. This has been done by examining primary sources such as digital archives, books, statistics and reports. Upon examination of these events, it becomes clear that residential schools had a long term negative impact on the Aboriginal communities and created a negative image to the Canadian government. Despite the government’s goals of assimilating the Native population, that nation was able to survive and will keep passing on their beliefs to the future generations.…

    • 1482 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Looking at the effects of Canada’s colonial past, the chapter of Monchalin’s textbook The Impact of Assimilation discusses the history of residential schools and the impact that they have had on Canada’s Indigenous community. The purpose of these horrendous and unethical establishments was to eradicate the culture, traditions, and language of Indigenous peoples. This was done by removing Indigenous children from their homes, denying them communication with their families while forcing them to adopt the beliefs of Christianity. Beginning in 1920, it became compulsory that all Indigenous children from the age of seven to fifteen must attend school however; this did not necessarily mean that they were required to attend a residential school. Though…

    • 212 Words
    • 1 Page
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Over the past few decades, there has been many distinct perspectives and conflicts surrounding the historical context between the Indigenous peoples in Canada and the Canadian Government. In source one, the author P.J Anderson is trying to convey that the absolute goal of the Indian Residential School system in Canada has been to assimilate the Indian nation and provide them with guidance to “ forget their Indian habits”, and become educated in the “ arts of civilized life”, in order to help them integrate into society and “become one” with their “White brethren”. It is clearly evident throughout the source that the author is supportive of the Indian residential school system and strongly believes that this system was beneficial to the integration…

    • 804 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Thesis: The government’s failure to adequately support the Indigenous peoples of Canada is highlighted in how poorly the following three cases or events were handled: residential schools, the Harper apology, and the current living conditions on reserves. The federal government excused and participated in the abuse in residential schools, failed to take action against the pain inflicted upon residential school survivors and family, and continued to allow current Indigenous peoples to live in terrible living conditions. Residential schools were a collaborative effort between the federal government and Eurocentric religious institutions to assimilate Indigenous children into the Euro-Canadian culture but had resulted in causing long-term…

    • 853 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS The truth of residential schools was a bitter portion of Canadian history. Residential school, first built by France missionaries in early 1620 but due to some reason it did not get success. After that in 1830 Mohawk institute in Brantford, Ontario and many other residential schools were built, for example Alberta residential school, Manitoba residential school , British Columbia residential school and others(They Came For The Children,TRC). Actually there was a different purpose behind the creation of residential schools, public works minister Hector Langewin stated that “In order to educate the children properly we must separate them from their families.…

    • 1341 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    This book was written by people who were either in the Kamloops Indian Residential School or got to see it second hand. These stories of the schools were told by Aboriginal People to have a record of how the Residential Schools went for them, not by how other people made it seem. These horrific stories told build my argument in my essay of how improper and inhumane these schools were for people who did nothing to deserve it. The torture they went through and have had the courage to tell their stories is inspiring. These people wanted people to know what happened so history would not be repeated; they also wanted to let people know that although they had to go through those years, they survived as a whole. It is important to recognize that this…

    • 242 Words
    • 1 Page
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    The residential schools were established in 1800, created by the Canadian Council of indigenous Agreements…

    • 277 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Making people learn others language, religions and beliefs has often been a way to control large racial groups in an effective way. In the article, “The Residential School System,” Murray Sinclair and A.C. Hamilton sheds light on different attitudes and philosophical ideas of Aboriginal and European people. This led to the formation of a superior stereotypical view of the European culture by the European powers. The writers discuss the conflicts between the federal government and the Aboriginal society, and how the government…

    • 1029 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    As with any race or culture there will be racism and discrimination no matter what and with the First Nations it's no different. So were going to talk about what was racist and how it affected the First Nations people through time. So let's start from the beginning. Racism against First Nations people began soon after European settlement in North America.…

    • 894 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Teaching an entire generation that their way of life was an abomination, as Ed Metatawabin was taught in the Canadian residential school system, allowed indigenous peoples to be marginalized by the rest of Canadian society; thus creating a clear imbalance of power between cultures so that First Nations lacked the support they needed to progress as a community.…

    • 976 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays