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Residential Schools in Canada Research Paper

Residential schools were seen by the Canadian government as a way to civilize the native population and keep their children from continuing in their native traditions. In 1895 Rev Fr A.M Carion stated in a report from a residential school in Kamloops, British Columbia that the purpose of the residential school is to civilize the Indian and to make them good, useful and law abiding members of society with strict punishments for any wrong doings. 1 Richard Pratt, who founded the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, one of the first of the reservation schools in the United States, preached “you must kill the Indian in him; to save the man”. These ideals were later adopted by the Canadian government. 2 The goal of residential schools was to assimilate Aboriginals into white society through children since they were much more susceptible to influence. This research paper will focus on the residential school system and will argue that the Canadian government and churches committed genocide amongst the indigenous populations in an attempt to eliminate the native culture. It will focus on the history of residential schools in Canada, their intended targets, the health and quality of life of the Aboriginals attending these schools, the sterilization of Aboriginal women, those who succeeded in the school system, and what has changed since the opening of the schools.
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Up until the mid 1850’s, churches were in full control of the residential schools. The Bagot Commission Report of 1842 and the Gradual Civilization Act of 1857 came into effect and opened the way for the Canadian government to fund schools that would teach english, religion and other aspects of European culture and discipline anyone who displayed native traits. 3 By 1892, the Federal government and churches entered into a partnership to run the residential school system for the children. 4 The residential schools grew from fifty-four schools in 1898 to a high



Bibliography: Annett, Kevin. Hidden from History: The Canadian Holocaust, Genocide in Canada. http://canadiangenocide.nativeweb.org/intro2.html. Barton, Sylvia., Harvey V. Thommasen., Bill Tallio., William Zhang and Alex C. Michalos. Health and Quality of Life of Aboriginal Residential School Survivors, Bella Coola Valley. Social Indicators Research 73 (September 2005):295-312. CBC News Canada. “Residential Schools: A history of Residential Schools in Canada”. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/story/2008/05/16/f-faqs-residential-schools.html. Guthrie, Gail., Madeleine Valaskakis.,and Dion Stout. Restoring the Balance: First Nations Women, Community, and Culture. University of Manitoba Press, 2009. Kelm, Mary E. “A Scandalous Procession: Residential Schooling and the Reformation of Aboriginal Bodies” in Colonizing Bodies: Aboriginal Health and Healing in British Columbia, 19001950, 535-547. In Trent Course Pack for History 1700, (2010-2011). Kuran Heidi. “Residential Schools & Abuse”. http://www.niichro.com/womhealth/wohealth7.html. The Truth Commission into Genocide in Canada, “Hidden from History: The Canadian Holocaust,” The Untold Story of the Genocide of Aboriginal Peoples by church and State in Canada. The Truth Comission into Genocide in Canada. http://canadiangenocide.nativeweb.org/genocide.pdf. Hope Maclean, “A Positive Experiment in Aboriginal Education: the Methodist Ojibwa Day Schools in Upper Canada, 1824-1833” Canadian Journal of Native Studies, The Canadian Journal of Native Studies 22, 1:2002:23-57. Milloy, John S. “A National Crime’: Building and Managing the System, 1879 to 1946” in A National Crime: The Canadian Government and the Residential School System, 51-75. In Trent Course Pack for History 1700, (2010-2011). Paul, Daniel N. “We Were Not the Savages”, First Nation History, MiKmaq, Maliseet, & 8 Residential Schools in Canada Research Paper European relations with them. http://www.danielnpaul.com/IndianResidentialSchools.html. Peterson, Latoya. “NPR Reports on the Strange History of Native American Boarding Schools.” Racialicious, May 13, 2008. http://www.racialicious.com/2008/05/13/npr-reports-on-the-strangehistory-of-native-american-boarding-schools. Smith Derek. G. The “Policy of Aggressive Civilization” and Projects of Governance in Roman Catholic Industrial schools for Native Peoples in Canada, 1870-95. Canadian Anthropology Society 43(2001):253-271. Supreme Court of Canada. “Remarks of the Right Honorable Beverley McLachlin, P.C. Medicine and the Law: the Challenges of Mental Illness February 17 and 18, 2005”. Supreme Court of Canada. http://www.scc-csc.gc.ca/court-cour/ju/spe-dis/bm05-02-17-eng.asp. Thomas Murray R. Can Money Undo the Past? A Canadian Example. Comparitive Education 39, no. 3 (August 2003): 331-343. 9

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