CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
The main purpose of this chapter is to conduct theoretical analysis on two areas of concern for this study, which is, e-learning and theory of multiple intelligences. This chapter outlines the areas of concern that precipitated the decision to conduct a review of the literature on learning styles based on the theory of multiple intelligences and how they may be considered in the design of e-learning applications. In order to relate this two areas together, a review of literature was conducted on compound learning theories.
The theoretical foundation for the research lies in the areas of learning styles in general and the theory of multiple intelligences in specific from the aspect of educational psychology. A search of the literature on the WWW revealed that documents relating to learning styles are prolific. Refining the search by including „online learning‟ in the search criteria did not successfully elicit sites that discussed issues concerning the use of learning styles in the design of e-learning environments. However, careful examination of the „hits‟ produced by the search engines did reveal some relevant sites, though these were few and far between. Searching online databases such as ProQuest, ACM, IEEE, ScienceDirect and examination of online journals proved more successful. The literature relating to learning styles is vast and can be categorised as follows: 1. 2. Description of learning styles and Test instruments. Arguments relating to the validity and reliability of learning styles instruments.
Discussions about the relationship between learning styles and gender or race. Results of search into how learning styles may affect outcomes at different phases of education including primary, secondary, tertiary and higher learning levels.
Articles describing how learning styles may be integrated into the design of
Links: system features that best allow an instructional design team to design quality learning tools. In the following section, the different models of instructional design for e-learning (Siemens, 2002) are summarised with their features Develop Figure 2.3: ADDIE Model, adapted from (Kruse, 2004)