STS v Taylorist approach to Job Design
Job design is the specification of the content of a job, the material and equipment required to do the job, and the relationship of the job to other jobs. HR managers must promote employee productivity by finding ways to unlock potential that exists in the overwhelming majority of employees. Job design is influenced by a number of factors such as management philosophy, corporate culture, government regulations, union requirements, economic conditions and employee numbers and availability. Poorly designed jobs can result in lower productivity, employee turnover, absenteeism and sabotage, but in contrast a well designed job promotes the achievement of the organisations strategic business objectives by structuring work so that it integrates management requirements for efficiency and employee needs for satisfaction. There are various methods of job design, the first of which include job specialisation which involves using standardised work procedures and having employees perform repetitive, precisely defined and simplified tasks. This method is commonly associated with the Taylorist approach to job design. Frederick Winslow Taylor embarked on a series of systematic studies of shopfloor practice with the intention of redesigning jobs so that all knowledge, expertise and hence control of work rested with management. Taylor saw job design as a 3 step process where management determined the one best way of doing the job, management hired workers according to their qualities that best matched job requirements and then management trained workers in the one best way to do the job. The advantages of job specialisation can include improved operating efficiencies through the use of low skilled and low cost labour, minimum on the job training and there are few errors made when workers perform simple routine jobs. Some problems of specialisation are repetition which leads to boredom and low organisational commitment. Mechanical pacing...
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