University Of Essex
Department of Psychology
Research Methods in Psychology (PS114)
A study to test the extent to which the Horse Race Model is the reason for the Stroop effect 1202353
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A study to test the extent to which the Horse Race Model is the reason for the Stroop effect
This study looked at the Horse Race Model and whether it is the main reason for the presence of the Stroop effect. This study was conducted to test if the Horse Race Model is a valid reason for the Stroop effect as there has been some conflict in past research it seemed another study was needed. For this study participants were presentation with a colour and a word which was either in-congruent, neutral or congruent the colour patch and word will be presented to the participant either simultaneously or after a varied amount of time. It was found that when presented simultaneously there was evidence of the Horse Race model, however as the delay in time increased the interference or facilitation did not get significantly reduced: this being said the results show some evidence for the Horse Race Model being a valid reason for the Stroop effect.
When reading a specific word, experienced readers know what the word is instantaneously, the name and meaning of the word come readers extremely fast. In most cases it is actually difficult to look at a word and not know its meaning. When looking at a word printed in a certain colour it is difficult to simply state the printed colour and ignore the colour that is actually written; the meaning of the word. This phenomenon is known as the Stroop effect. It shows that even when we try to ignore a well known memory it automatically gets retrieved. If the word meaning and colour are the same then facilitation appears; this results in a faster reaction time than compared to when the word meaning and colour are different, in-congruent and interference occurs. It is Also easier to simply name an ink patch then it is an in-congruent word. The 'Horse Race Model' explains this by saying that there is only one single exit before saying the same and so the two independent processes, reading and colour naming, are in competition to get there first; reading is the fastest of these processes and so gets there first. When the word meaning and colour are in-congruent and interference occurs then the single exit is blocked, with the wrong response, and so a delay occurs because the wrong response has been rejected and suspended to allow the correct response to be said. when the word mean and colour are the same then the reading process still gets there first however, as it is the correct response, the reaction time of naming the colour decreases. This experiment will look at the Horse Race Model (HRM), the reading process will be delayed by different variants of time, this should mean that the colour naming process will get to the exit first. For this participants will be required to make a decision about what colour is being presented on a monitor, as fast as possible. There has been some dispute in past research on experiments done on the HRM, for example; Lost et al and Glaser et al found that delaying the word meaning showed the HRM in practise and it had an effect on the reaction time of the response. However Goolkasian found rather different results, he did not see the HRM in action, this difference in results between the researchers is a reason for this experiment. It is unclear to what extent, if any, the HRM has on response time; because of these conflicting finding more research is needed. The main reason for experiment was to test if the HRM gave a valid reason for the Strop effect. As mentioned prestigiously the HRM assumes that, as reading is the fastest of the two independent processes then reading a word should be faster than naming a colour therefore it predicts that there should...
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