IIMB Management Review (2012) 24, 155e163
available at www.sciencedirect.com
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/iimb
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT
Stress and organisational citizenship behaviours in
Indian business process outsourcing organisations
Ajay K. Jain a,*, Cary L. Cooper b
Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
Lancaster University Management School, Dean’s Suite, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YW, United Kingdom Available online 23 August 2012
BPO industry in India;
ASSET (an organisational
stress screening tool)
Abstract This study investigates the direct effect of organisational stress (as measured through ASSET) on organisational citizenship behaviours (OCBs). A sample of 402 operators was taken from business process outsourcing (BPO) organisations located in northern India. The authors hypothesised that there is a negative relationship between organisational stress and OCBs. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that stress had signiﬁcant negative impact on OCBs. The implications for managers are discussed. ª 2012 Indian Institute of Management Bangalore. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper is based on a study aimed at examining the
strength of the relationship between organisational stress
and organisational citizenship behaviours among operator
level employees working in Indian business process
outsourcing organisations (BPOs).
Evidence from the ﬁeld suggests that the hours of work
and working conditions in the BPO sector lead to the stress
* Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com (A.K. Jain).
Peer-review under responsibility of Indian Institute of Management Bangalore
syndrome, which in turn contributes to a 25e30% attrition
rate among BPOs. Most of the young people who join BPOs
attracted by the salaries, ﬁnd it hard to cope with the long and irregular working hours (Data Quest, 2004). A metaanalysis conducted by Lee and Ashford (1996) on job burnout showed that several of the job demands (e.g., role
conﬂict, workload and role stress) were strongly associated with higher levels of stress and emotional exhaustion.
Studies in the area of working hours and mental wellbeing
highlight the adverse impact of working longer hours on
personal happiness, job satisfaction, workplace accidents,
irritability, exhaustion, depression and relationships (Giga, Jain, & Cooper, 2009; Green & Tsitsianis, 2005). According
to Head, Martikainen, Kumari, Kuper, and Marmot (2002)
there is a higher risk of employees suffering from a psychiatric disorder if they are required to work at a constant fast pace, or are regularly faced with conﬂicting priorities. With increasing evidence of the impact of organisational stress
(through sickness absenteeism, rising compensation
payments and employee dissatisfaction) on businesses, it is
important to meet the challenge by dealing with speciﬁc
0970-3896 ª 2012 Indian Institute of Management Bangalore. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iimb.2012.06.004
issues that cause excessive and long-term pressure (Cooper,
1999; Head et al., 2002).
BPO sector in India
India had a closed economy and monopolistic market
conditions in the pre-liberalisation era. Post 1990, India has substantially liberalised and globalised its economy. With
its large English speaking workforce, the country has
become one of the most attractive destinations for business
transactions. In addition, India has a large, young workforce with the appropriate educational background which makes
it one of the most suitable destinations for outsourcing
(Jain & Saini, 2009). The term outsourcing here refers...
References: Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regressions: Testing and
Allen, T. D., & Rush, M. C. (1998). The impact of organizational
citizenship behavior on performance judgment: a ﬁeld study
Bateman, T. S., & Organ, D. W. (1983). Job satisfaction and the
good soldier: the relationship between affect and employee
Blau, P. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.
Bolino, M. C. (1999). Citizenship and impression management: good
soldiers or good actors? Academy of Management Review, 24(1),
Bolino, M. C., Turnley, W. H., & Bloodgood, J. M. (2002). Citizenship behavior and the creation of social capital in organizations.
Cartwright, S., & Cooper, C. L. (2002). ASSET: An organizational
stress screening tool, The management guide
Chattopadhyay, P. (1999). Beyond direct and symmetrical effects:
the inﬂuence of demographic dissimilarity on organizational
Cialdini, R. B., Kenrick, D. T., & Bauman, D. J. (1982). Effects of
mood on pro-social behavior in children and adults
Cooper, C. L. (1999). Can we live with the changing nature of work?
Journal of Managerial Psychology, 14(7/8), 569e572.
Cranwell, W., & Abbey, A. J. (2005). Organizational stress. New
York (USA): Macmillan Press.
Cropanzano, R., Rupp, D. E., & Byrne, Z. S. (2003). The relationship
of emotional exhaustion to work attitudes, job performance,
Cropanzano, R., Rupp, D. E., Mohler, C. J., & Schminke, M. (2001).
Three roads to organizational justice. InFerris, J. (Ed.), (2001).
Data Quest. (2004). “Stress: BPO industry stress factors”. Available
Faragher, E. B., Cooper, C. L., & Cartwright, S. (2004). A shortened stress evaluation tool (ASSET). Stress and Health, 20,
George, J. M. (1991). State or trait: effects of positive mood on
prosocial behaviors at work
Giga, S. I., Jain, A. K., & Cooper, C. L. (November 2009). Working
longer: hours of work and health
Green, F., & Tsitsianis, N. (2005). An investigation of national
trends in job satisfaction in Britain and Germany
(2002). Work environment, alcohol consumption and ill-health.
The Whitehall II study. (HSE CRR 422/2002). Norwich: HMSO.
Health and Safety Executive. (2004). Real solutions, real people: A
managers’ guide to tackling work related stress
Hendrix, W. H., Robbins, T., Miller, J., & Summers, T. P. (1998).
Jain, A. K. (2003). Essence and consequences of organizational
citizenship behavior: The role of self-management, emotional
Jain, A. K., & Saini, D. (2009). Human resource outsourcing and
shared services: an Asian-Paciﬁc perspective
Johnson, S., & Cooper, C. L. (2003). The construct validity of the
ASSET stress measure
Karasek, R. A., Triantis, K. P., & Chaudhary, S. S. (1982). Coworker
and supervisor support as moderators of association between
Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Konovsky, M. A., & Organ, D. W. (1996). Dispositional and contextual determinants of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17, 253e266.
Kopelman, R. E., Greenhaus, J. H., & Connolly, T. F. (1983). A
model of work, family & interrole conﬂict a construct validation
Please join StudyMode to read the full document