Strategic Planning

Powerful Essays
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at http://www.emeraldinsight.com/0957-8234.htm

Strategic planning and school management: full of sound and fury, signifying nothing?
Centre for Educational Leadership and Management, School of Education, University of Leicester, Northampton, UK
Keywords Strategic planning, Schools, Improvement, Leadership, Management Abstract Strategic planning, in the form of school improvement planning, has become the dominant approach to school management in English schools. This has evolved from earlier forms of strategic planning and has significant inherent weaknesses that undermine the extent to which school improvement planning can contribute to the effective management of schools. The development of school improvement planning is examined in this article and its weaknesses analysed. Implied models of school management and leadership, the legacy of school effectiveness and improvement research and the role of the school principal are considered. Based on this analysis, an alternative approach to planning in schools and to school organisation and a more flexible approach to school organisation and leadership is proposed that is grounded in a shorter planning time scale and the development of structures that facilitate involvement, cooperation and collaboration.

Strategic planning and management 407
Received February 2002 Revised April 2002 Accepted April 2002

Les Bell

Introduction
Fair is foul and foul is fair (Macbeth, Act I, Scene I).

This article will develop a critique of one aspect of school management that has emerged in a large number of countries in a variety of different forms over the last two decades, namely strategic planning. It will deal largely with one approach to strategic planning, namely that found in schools in England. Strategic planning, in the context of English school management, has come to encapsulate a range of activities associated with planning that are now required of



References: Beare, H. (2001), Creating The Future School, Routledge Falmer, London,. Bell, L. (1998), ``The quality of markets is not strain 'd. It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven upon the place beneath, primary schools in the education market place ' ', paper presented at the American Education Research Association Conference, San Diego, CA. Bell, L. (1999), ``Back to the future, the development of education policy in England ' ', The Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 37 No. 3/4, pp. 200-28. Bell, L. and Higham, D. (1984), ``Curriculum review and curriculum balance ' ', School Organisation, Vol. 4 No. 2, pp. 179-82. Bell, L. and Rhodes, C. (1996), The Skills of Primary School Management, Routledge, London. Blows, M. (1994), Whole School Planning; A Practical Guide to Development and Business Planning for Schools, Dudley Local Education Authority Advisory Service, Dudley. Bottery, M. (2000), Ethics, Policy and Education, Continuum, London. Bolman, L.G. and Deal, T.E. (1991), Reforming Organisations, Artistry, Choice and Leadership, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA. Davies, B. (1998), Leadership in Schools; Inaugural Lecture, University of Lincolnshire and Humberside, Lincoln. DES (1987), The Education Act, HMSO, London. DES (1988), Education Reform Act, HMSO, London. DfEE (1997), Excellence in Schools, The Stationery Office, London. DfEE (1998), The Learning Age, A Renaissance For a New Britain, The Stationery Office, London. DfES (2001), Schools Achieving Success, The Stationery Office, London. Forshaw, J. (1998), ``Establishing a planning framework for Rhyddings School for the year 2000 and beyond ' ', School Leadership and Management, Vol. 18 No. 4, pp. 485-96. Gamoran, A. and Berends, M. (1987), ``The effects of stratification in secondary schools, synthesis of survey and ethnographic research ' ', Review of Educational Research, Vol. 57 No. 4, pp. 415-35. Grace, G. (1995), School Leadership, Beyond Educational Management, An Essay in Policy Scholarship, The Falmer Press, London. Gray, J. and Wilcox, B. (1995), Good School, Bad School, Open University Press, Buckingham. Handscomb, G. (2001), ``Flexible planning ' ', Managing Schools Today, June/July, pp. 30-3. Handy, C. (1995), The Empty Raincoat; Making Sense of the Future, Arrow Business Books, London. Hargreaves, A. (1994), Changing Teachers, Changing Times, Casell, London. Hargreaves, D. and Hopkins, D. (1991), Development Planning, A Practical Guide. Advice to Governors, Principals and Teachers, London, DES. Hargreaves, D., Hopkins, D., Leask, M., Connolly, J. and Robinson, P. (1989), Planning for School Development, Advice to Governors, Principals and Teachers, DES, London. Hopkins, D. and Harris, A. (1998), ``Improving city schools, the role of the LEA ' ', Education Journal, December, pp. 22-3. Johnson, G. and Scholes, K. (1989), Exploring Corporate Strategy, Prentice Hall, Hemel Hempstead. Lindblom, E. (1959), ``The science of muddling through ' ', in Faludi, A. (Ed.) (1973), Reader in Planning Theory, Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 151-70. Lingard, B., Ladwig, J. and Luke, A. (1998), ``School effects in post-modern conditions ' ', in Slee, R. Weiner, G. with Tomlinson, S. (Eds) (1998), School Effectiveness for Whom, Challenges to the School Effectiveness and School Improvement Movements, The Falmer Press, London, pp. 84-100. MacGilchrist, B., Mortimore, P., Savage, J. and Beresford, C. (1995), Planning Matters; The Impact of Development Planning on Primary Schools, Paul Chapman, London. March, J.G. and Olsen, J.P. (1979), Ambiguity and Choice in Organisations, Universitetsforlaget, Bergen. Marion, R. (1999), The Edge of Organisation, Chaos and Complexity Theories of Formal Social Systems, Sage, London. Mintzberg, H. (1994), The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning, Prentice Hall, London. OfSTED (1992), Framework for the Inspection of Schools, HMSO, London. OfSTED (1998), School Evaluation Matters, OfSTED Publications Centre, London. Ouston, J. (1998), ``The school effectiveness and school improvement movement, a reflection on its contribution to the development of good schools ' ', paper presented at the 3rd ESRC Seminar, ``Redefining Education Management ' ', Open University, Milton Keynes. Pettigrew, A. (1973), The Politics of Organisational Decision Making, Tavistock, London. Pinchot, G. (1998), Intrapreneuring, Harper and Row, New York, NY. Preedy, M., Glatter, R. and Levacic, R. (Eds) (1997), Educational Management; Strategy, Quality Ë and Resources, Open University Press, Buckingham. Puffitt, R., Stoten, B. and Winkley, D. (1992), Business Planning for Schools, Longman, London. Quinn, J. (1980), Strategies for Change, Logical Incrementalism, Irwin, Homewood, IL. Quinn, J. (1993), ``Managing strategic change ' ', in Mabey, C. and Mayon-White, B. (Eds), Managing Change, Open University Press, Buckingham. Schendel, D. and Hofer, C. (1979), Strategic Management, A New View of Business Policy and Planning, Little Brown, Boston, MA. Slee, R. and Weiner, G. (1998), ``Introduction, school effectiveness for whom? ' ', in Slee, R., Weiner, G. with Tomlinson, S. (Eds), School Effectiveness for Whom, Challenges to the School Effectiveness and School Improvement Movements, The Falmer Press, London, pp. 1-9. Southworth, G. (1999), ``Primary school leadership in England, policy, practice and theory ' ', School Leadership and Management, Vol. 19 No. 1, pp. 49-65. Tarule, J. (1998), ``The characteristics of connected and separate modes of knowing ' ', paper presented to the Joint UCET/AATCDE Seminar, Institute of Education, London. Teddlie, C. and Reynolds, D. (Eds) (2000), The International Handbook of School Effectiveness Research, The Falmer Press, London. Thomas, H. (1993), ``Perspectives on theory building in strategic management ' ', Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 30 No. 1, pp. 3-10. TES (2001), ``Anyone there with a pulse? ' ', Editorial. Times Educational Supplement, 31 August. Strategic planning and management 423 Journal of Educational Administration 40,5 424 Wallace, M. (1994), ``Towards a contingency approach to development planning in schools ' ', in Hargreaves, D. and Hopkins, D. (Eds), Development Planning for School Improvement, Cassell, London, pp. 150-61. Wheatley, M. (1999), Leadership and the New Sciences, Berret-Koehler, San Francisco, CA. Whipp, R. (1998), ``Creative deconstruction, strategy and organisations ' ', paper presented at the ESRC Seminar Series. Redefining Educational Management, Cardiff. Zohar, D. (1997), Re-Wiring the Corporate Brain, Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CA. Further reading Bolam, R., McMahon, A. and Holly, P. (1984), Guidelines for Review and Internal Development in Schools: Secondary School Handbook, Longmans for the School Curriculum Development Committee, London. Bush, T., Bell, L., Bolam, R., Glatter, R. and Ribbins, P. (1999), (Eds), Educational Management, Redefining Theory, Policy and Practice, Paul Chapman Publishers, London. Clegg, D. and Billington, S. (1997), Leading Primary Schools, Open University Press, Buckingham. DfEE (1998), The National Literacy Strategy, The Stationery Office, London. DfEE (1998), The Implementation of the National Numeracy Strategy, The Stationery Office, London. Fidler, B. (1996), Strategic Planning for School Improvement, Pitman Publishing, London. Hargreaves, D. (1995), ``Self-managing schools and development planning-chaos or control? ' ', School Organisation, Vol. 15 No. 3, pp. 15-228. Hargreaves, D. and Hopkins, D. (Eds) (1994), Development Planning for School Improvement, Cassell, London. HMI (1978), Primary Education in England, A Survey by HM Inspectors of Schools, HMS, London. Hopkins, D., Harris, A., Singleton, C. and Watts, R. (2000), Creating the Conditions for Teaching and Learning, David Fulton Publishers, London. Welsh, P. (1999), ``Managing inclusion, the challenge of exclusion and truancy ' ', Management in Education, Vol. 13 No. 3, pp. 16-17. West-Burnham, J. (1994), ``Strategy, policy and planning ' ', in Bush, T. and West-Burnham, J. (Eds), Principles of Educational Management, Longman, Harlow, pp. 79-99.

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Powerful Essays

    Strategic Planning

    • 2483 Words
    • 10 Pages

    1. Appraise the formal planning efforts at the Copley Company for the period 1981 to 1984. INTRODUCTION Copley Manufacturing Company was primarily a manufacturer of a wide line of cutting tools and related parts and supplies. Late in 1980, Mr. Sagan, director of corporate development and Mr. Albert, executive vice president agreed that regular formal planning should become part of management 's way of life at Copley. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In 1981, Copley Manufacturing Company had begun formal…

    • 2483 Words
    • 10 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    strategic planning

    • 13584 Words
    • 55 Pages

    Strategic Planning {What is it? How do you do it?} 2008 Table of Contents Page Content 3-4 Introduction 5 Section 1: The “What” of Strategic Planning 6 Why should departments and agencies plan strategically? 7-8 Section 2: The “How” of Strategic Planning 9-10 How do I gather data and where do I get it from? 11 Participant Selection 12 Survey/focus group question development 12-14 Core Values Development 15-17 Organizational…

    • 13584 Words
    • 55 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Strategic Planning

    • 5287 Words
    • 22 Pages

    DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIC PLANNING (MNG301-A) Module Overview: Topics 1-7 2013 Semester 2 1 Open Rubric Contents 1. Administrative matters 2. Course overview per topic 3. Interactive exercises 4. Upcoming examination 5. Time out! 2 Administrative matters  Lecturers:  Mr. SK Bhoya  Mrs. NV Moraka -Contact details:  (012) 429-4220 or Busman@unisa.ac.za  Assignments:  Two Compulsory assignments due dates: 12 September 2013 and 03 October 2013…

    • 5287 Words
    • 22 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Better Essays

    Strategic Planning

    • 988 Words
    • 4 Pages

    This paper will discuss the strategy planning management must go through when opening up a new coffee shop. It will define the strategic plan and identify the critical information that must be defined and analyzed by management. It will then discuss the importance of a solid strategic management plan. Lastly, it will define the four functions of management and explain how they are relative to creating and implementing a strategic management plan. Strategic Plan John A. Pearce II and Richard B…

    • 988 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    STRATEGIC PLANNING

    • 314 Words
    • 2 Pages

    STRATEGIC PLANNING – process of attaching strategies and tactics to each objectives set for the organization. Planning – strategic process for achieving future objectives of service enterprise. COMPONENTS: 1. Mission – describes current purpose and values of the organization. it is why organization exist. It should be audited on an actual basis 2. Vision – describes the potential purposes. The mission of an organization deals with the present while vision is concerned with the future direction of…

    • 314 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Strategic Planning

    • 607 Words
    • 3 Pages

    strategic planning Unit 7.10 Strategic Planning Level 7 15 Credits Sample Assignments Scenario: You have recently been appointed as a Strategy Assistant in a major consultancy firm based in the City of London. As part of your training you have been asked by your manager to prepare a draft strategy plan for an organisation to show your capabilities as a strategic planner. You have been given a free choice of organisation, so your own business experience should be used to the maximum…

    • 607 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Best Essays

    Strategic Planning

    • 3295 Words
    • 14 Pages

    STRATEGIC PLANNING Importance of Strategic Planning 2 Roles and Responsibilities 3 Governing Board Strategic Planning Committee Chief Executive Officer Medical Staff Department Heads Patients and Community Planner Consultants The Steps of Strategic Planning 5 Get Organized Perform an Environmental Assessment The Internal Assessment The External Assessment Develop a Vision Review the Mission Statement Develop Strategies Goal Approach Critical Issues…

    • 3295 Words
    • 14 Pages
    Best Essays
  • Best Essays

    Strategic Planning

    • 3275 Words
    • 14 Pages

    Strategic Planning Contents INTRODUCTION The retail sector of food and general merchandise represents biggest industry in U.K. Tesco is among leading retailers in the world operating in the U.K. as well as overseas. Core market of U.K. Tesco advanced in growth over last few years. Future plans of company aims at increasing market share in U.K (Abraham, 2012). This report takes reader onto overall strategic view of Tesco and its future perspectives and goals. Detailed…

    • 3275 Words
    • 14 Pages
    Best Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Strategic Planning

    • 15697 Words
    • 63 Pages

    Using Evaluation to Improve Programs Strategic Planning www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/evaluation PROGRAM EVALUATION Table of Contents Introduction Part 1: What is strategic planning? Part 2: What is a strategic plan? Part 3: How do I complete my strategic plan? Step 1. Prepare Step 2. Assess Step 3. Create Step 4. Communicate Step 5. Implement Step 6. Evaluate Part 4: Can you help me plan strategically? Data Sources Matrix Identifying Stakeholders Worksheet SWOT Worksheet for School Health Programs…

    • 15697 Words
    • 63 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Strategic planning

    • 2468 Words
    • 8 Pages

    Assignment 3 “Strategic Planning is inextricably interwoven into the entire fabric of management; it is not something separate and distinct from the process of management” (Steiner, 1979:7). In simpler terms, Steiner goes on further to explain how Strategic Planning is an organizational management activity. This activity is used in order to set priorities, focus energy, strengthen operations, ensure common goals are met, establish agreement around intended outcomes/results, and assesses/adjust…

    • 2468 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Powerful Essays