PART A: DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
Q1. a) What is the difference between information technology and information systems? Definitions:
Information Technology (IT), in general, it is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of digitized information that often represented technically as “Data” through electronics-based media built upon the disciplines of computing and telecommunications. The information technology, in its raw form, it comprises of Hardware, Software, the platforms to support both, communication networks and protocols. Information Systems (IS) is a bridge for both the business field and the computer science field. It is a combination of hardware, software, infrastructure and trained personnel organized to facilitate planning, control, coordination, and decision making in an organization. The Information systems are supported by the theoretical foundations of management social science, information theories and information technology. Differences:
1) Origin: Information technology can be considered as a subset of information systems. It deals with the technology part of any information system, and as such deals with hardware, servers, operating systems and software etc. A system is always a combination of people, machines, processes and technology. And IT is just a part of the system (like the pie chart shown the relationship between them). 2) Development: Information systems have undergone great deal of evolution, for instance, from manual record keeping to the current cloud storage system. However, information technology is seeing constant changes with evermore faster processor and constantly shrinking size of storage devices. Designing of a system also takes much more than technology as people and processes are also involved. b)Describe some of the functions of information systems. In your answer include two examples of information technologies and two examples of information systems. Functions of information systems:
Information Storage and Analysis
Information systems store, update and even analyze the information, which the company can then use to pinpoint solutions to current or future problems. Furthermore, these systems can integrate data from various sources, inside and outside the company, keeping the company up to date with internal performance and external opportunities and threats. Assist With Making Decisions
The long-term success of a company depends upon the adequacy of its strategic plans. An organization’s management team uses information systems to formulate strategic plans and make decisions for the organization's longevity and prosperity. The business uses information systems to evaluate information from all sources, including information from external references such as Reuters or Bloomberg, which provide information on the general economy. This analysis of and comparison to market trends helps organizations analyze the adequacy and quality of their strategic decisions. Assist With Business Processes
Information systems aid businesses in developing a larger number of value added-systems in the company. Information systems add controls to employee processes, ensuring that only users with the applicable rights can perform certain tasks. Further, information systems eliminate repetitive tasks and increase accuracy, allowing employees to concentrate on more high-level functions. Information systems can also lead to better project planning and implementation through effective monitoring and comparison against established criteria.
Two examples of information systems
At the date of publication, many companies no longer manage their data and information manually with registers and hard-copy formats. Through the adoption of information systems, companies can make use of sophisticated and comprehensive databases that can contain all imaginable pieces of data about the company. Eg 2:
A company can integrate information systems with the manufacturing cycle to ensure that...
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