# Stephen Hawking

**Topics:**General relativity, Quantum mechanics, Quantum gravity

**Pages:**5 (1692 words)

**Published:**June 12, 2006

A field of study that Stephen Hawking is known for is cosmology. Cosmology is the metaphysical study of the origin and nature of the universe. A brief synopsis of Hawking indicates that, according to Hawking, "there is 'no place for a creator', that God does not exist." In his quantum cosmology, he indicates, "there would be no singularities at which the laws of science broke down and no edge of space-time at which one would have to appeal to God or some new law to set the boundary conditions for space-time . . . The universe would be completely self-contained and not affected by anything outside itself. It would neither be created nor destroyed. It would just BE . . . What place, then, for a creator?"(Smith 2005)Theists have argued against this position, specifically, "that even if Hawking's physical laws are true, that fact does not entail that the God of classical theism does not exist or even disconfirm the classical theistic hypothesis." It would appear that Hawking did not inhibit himself to simply one theory when asking the question where did we come from and why. Rather, he points out that "if we do discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable in broad principle by everyone, not just a few scientists. Then we shall all, philosophers, scientists, and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist. If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason for then we would know the mind of God."(Smith 2005)

Next to cosmology, Hawking is one of many physicists who are seeking out a flawless theory of Quantum Gravity. This topic is listed under the "Stephen Hawking" Wikipedia entry as one of Hawking's primary fields of research. Quantum Gravity is defined by Christopher Wanjek in Astronomy Today as, "...the long-sought missing link between Einstein's General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics, the two incongruous pillars of modern physics." Hawking expended large amounts of effort attempting to come up with a unified theory that would accurately marry the two predominating theories of our time.

After extensive searching of a vast multitude of information available on the internet, one will find that it seems that Hawking did come to his own conclusion about the presence of Quantum Gravity. It appears that Hawking rested on a theory of Euclidean Quantum Gravity, which, "... refers to a Wick rotated version of quantum gravity, formulated as a quantum field theory." (Wikipedia 2005) The Wikipedia entry goes on to elaborate that the theory is defined by the use of four-dimensional Riemannian manifolds, which are assumed to be boundary-less, connected, and compact. "Following the usual quantum field-theoretic formulation, the vacuum to vacuum amplitude is written as a functional integral over the metric tensor, which is now the quantum field under consideration." (Wikipedia 2005) Assuming that this "physics stub" found within Wikipedia is accurate and up-to-date this leads one to the conclusion that Euclidean Quantum Gravity has opened the door to even larger amounts of future research into the field.

Hawking's work with Quantum Gravity was also highly correlated to his work with Quantum Field Theory (QFT), in a curved space-time. The Wikipedia entry for this field relates that QFT in a curved space-time is often...

References: Giorbran, G. (2005). Timelessness. Retrieved from

http://everythingforever.com/hawking.htm August 1 2005.

Hawking, S. (1998). Public Lecture: The beginning of Time. Retrieved from

www.hawking.org.uk

Accessed 01 August, 2005. http://www.astronomytoday.com/cosmology/quantumgrav.html

Wikipedia. "Euclidean Quantum Gravity" Accessed 01 August, 2005. http://www.wikipedia.comhttp://www.wikipedia.com

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