Concepts of Multiculturalism
A discussion of multiculturalism is incomplete without an explication of the ambiguous term Culture. Culture is a complex and dynamic topic which is difficult for anyone who deals with it. It is necessary to comprehend and define the word culture but this is not an easy task. (Browaeys,Price,2008) summarize the difficulty of defining culture, ‘nothing that one can never use the term culture without being oblige to give a range of definitions that contradict .While it has different definition it is possible to regard that it is a meaningful concept. What is important is the essentially multifaceted nature of culture. In other words, cultures have different layers from obvious differences in cultural artefacts such as colours of post boxes, typical mealtimes through to deep beliefs and assumptions. It is important to view culture as a concept that is manifested at level of both individuals and social institutions in order to comprehend its nature and potentials. Almost every organization, whether public or private, on paper or in practice, has a culture that fairly dictates its everyday functioning. The term culture has many definitions but in this discussion it is defined as shared beliefs, values, symbols, and behaviours. Culture binds a workforce together and is its control mechanism, or purpose, to facilitate its functioning. These items are powerful driving forces in the success of an organization and their value to the community they serve whether it is a public or private entity will affect the success of any organization. While cultures are found in some organizations more prominently than in others, there are those organizations where the culture of that specific organization’s ideal stands out above others. Police departments, military units and religious organizations all have a strong, centralized culture that forms its base and permeates its entire existence. Many times people outside of those professions do not understand the mentality or job commitment a person from one of these career fields shares with his/her co-workers. (Lawrence, 2012)
The significance of cultural influence on business has been widely recognized in both academic and business circles. A number of authors suggest that an anthropological approach is the most appropriate way to study cultural factors and assess their impact on an organizational environment. This investigation draws attention to several important cultural issues in business utilizing an anthropological perspective. It probes the relationship between culture and human behavior, between organizational values and organizational behavior, and identifies several effective methods for managing cultural differences that often permeate an organization’s workforce. The core for anthropology as a social science is about culture and its relationship with human behavior. Although there are many different definitions of culture by scholars from different fields, such as political scientists, historians, psychologists, anthropologists, sociologists and so on, the common points by cross field scholars are clear. The essential core of culture consists of traditional ideas that are historically derived and selected and especially their attached values. On the one hand culture systems may be considered as products of action or as conditioning elements of further action. It consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behaviour acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups, including their embodiments in artefacts (Kroeber and Kluckhohn, 1952). More specifically, culture consists of People’s traditional values and beliefs, ideas, customs, skills, arts and language that differ from each other. In homogeneous organizations where people have similar backgrounds and cultural styles, some level of agreement and consensus is ensured....
References: (2012, 07). Cultural Diversity and Employee Morale. StudyMode.com. Retrieved 07, 2012, from http://www.studymode.com/essays/Cultural-Diversity-And-Employee-Morale-1045500.html
Atkinson, D., Morten, G., & Sue, D
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