Question 1: State’s role in the globalization era is changing’. Discuss
State’s role in globalization era is quite different from what it was in traditional times. In the traditional face state role was provider and protector of nation state interest and welfare with focused attention to marginalized and under privileged groups of society; this gave state maximum power and role to practice. But 21st century brought about lots of new incredible discoveries that not only eased and benefited human race interaction but brought them close together in economic and political spheres. Those states in western world that were influenced by liberalism achieved high efficiency while contracting out some of government services to private sector. And transformed from central based system to open market based competition. While jumping the private sector in implementation and service provision technology revolution and cross border trading concepts supported the process. Now weaker states around the globe are adjusting themselves and tasting private sector depending on the capacity they hold. Some critics say in the globalization era state’s role has become an agent, promoting private sector enrichment through the sale of state owned companies and institutions. Some critics also say while adjusting to globalization, state may or may be not reaching to perfect ideal situation of governance and democracy it looks for and stresses on a correct mixture of state, private sector and society. In positive aspect, globalization will provide room for greater freedom of choice for states to obtain goods and services and engage in specialization and exchange , comparative advantages in the world business, higher incomes to those employed in jobs for international labor markers, lower prices and greater availability of goods and services , opportunities to diversity risks, access to capital at lower costs, more efficient and productive allocations of resources, inward transfer of knowledge and know-how.
Globalization process is not reversible and there is no alternative with it. According to Ali Farazmand; globalization process never puts an end to the state and public administration. New global challenger widens the public administration scope of research, practice and teaching. Public administration is entering in to new human civilization, with a positive or negative future by globalization process. Development strategies are required to enhance greater openness for enjoying positive aspects of globalization. The State remains central as before for ensuring social and economic development. It should adopt policies that facilitate greater economic integration, and recently as globalization process exposes more to states, it makes it more resilient and less vulnerable in size and power, The State would have to create an environment that is able to encourage the involvement of regional organizations in distribution of benefits and management of human rights.
By the conclusion, retreating of state in many countries of the third world has not mainly been an outcome of state failure of policies and goals but, rolling back of the state seems to be global compulsion. World Bank is providing structural adjustment loans on the condition that the recipients liberalize, privatize and decentralize and deregulate. State in no way retreating in these countries but has only taken a new role of facilitating these. In shorter words; state role is expanding and transforming from implementer to policy maker or from decision maker to decision taker.
Question 2: Elucidate the Marxist Perspective of the State
Marxism is a structural theory which argues that we are all controlled by society , Marxism is a conflict theory which argues that society is characterized by disagreement and conflict between social groups, Conflict particularly between rich and poor, the powerful and the powerless. Marxists argue that the way societies produce the goods...
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