# Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Formulas

Learning Objective of the article:

1. Learn the formulas to calculate direct materials, direct labor and factory overhead variances. This is a collection of variance formulas / equations which can help you calculate variances for direct materials, direct labor, and factory overhead. 1. Direct materials variances formulas

2. Direct labor variances formulas

3. Factory overhead variances formulas

Direct Materials Variances:

Materials purchase price variance Formula:

Materials purchase price variance = (Actual quantity purchased × Actual price) – (Actual quantity purchased × Standard price) Materials price usage variance formula

Materials price usage variance = (Actual quantity used × Actual price) – (Actual quantity used × Standard price) materials quantity / usage variance formula

Materials price usage variance = (Actual quantity used × Standard price) – (Standard quantity allowed × Standard price) Materials mix variance formula

(Actual quantities at individual standard materials costs) – (Actual quantities at weighted average of standard materials costs) Materials yield variance formula

(Actual quantities at weighted average of standard materials costs) – (Actual output quantity at standard materials cost) Direct Labor Variances:

Direct labor rate / price variance formula:

(Actual hours worked × Actual rate) – (Actual hours worked × Standard rate) Direct labor efficiency / usage / quantity formula:

(Actual hours worked × Standard rate) – (Standard hours allowed × Standard rate) Direct labor yield variance formula:

(Standard hours allowed for expected output × Standard labor rate) – (Standard hours allowed for actual output × Standard labor rate) Factory Overhead Variances:

Factory overhead controllable variance formula:

(Actual factory overhead) – (Budgeted allowance based on standard hours allowed*) Factory overhead volume variance:

(Budgeted allowance based on standard hours...

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