Research the stages of development a child/young person may pass through within the age ranges: 0-3 years
Babies all grow at different rates but in the same order. One 12 month old may be walking unaided, another may not even be sitting up alone. Several different factors can influence physical development, such as nutrition, genetics, culture, body build and birth size. Achievements that children reach in development are often called 'milestones', the main physical milestones are:
- Gross motor skills - these involve using large muscles, co-ordinating and controlling them to learn skills such as crawling, sitting, walking and running. - Fine motor skills (sometimes called manipulation) - these involve using small muscles, co-ordinating and controlling them to learn skills such as picking up small objects, holding toys, etc and learning to scribble with a pencil. - Vision - to use the eyes and to be able to see things clearly both close up and far away and to be abe to recognise what is seen. - Hearing - to be able to listen, hear and to recognise sounds. - Emotional and social behaviour - to be able to learn, understand and interact with other children and adults. This also includes skills required for play and communication with others.
Physical development according to age
Birth to 3 months
Most babies begin to do the following things at this age:
- Use reflexes; grasping, sucking and rooting for the breast or bottle. - When lying on their tummy, raise their head slightly.
- Can hold their head up with support for a few seconds.
- Clench their hands into fists
- Pull on their own hands.
Babies begin to develop much more agility and strength at this age, they may be able to: - Roll themselves over.
- Reach out and hold an object.
- Play with toys and shake objects.
- Hold an object and put it in their mouth.
- Pull themselves up on furniture.
This is often the age when children begin to get much more mobile, they may be able to: - Crawl
- Move objects from one hand to another.
- Sit up on their own.
- Stand up without support.
- Walk unaided.
- Pick up and throw objects.
- Roll a ball.
- Use their thumb and one finger to pick up objects.
12 months to 2 years
At this age, children's balancing skills and hand-eye co-ordination begin to form. Most children are able to: - Bend over and pick up objects from standing.
- Walk backwards.
- Walk up and down stairs unaided.
- Dance to music.
- Use the whole arm when painting or colouring.
- Scribble with pens/crayons/pencils.
- Turn handles and door knobs.
From 2-3 years
Children will now be building on the skills that they have learnt. They will become much better at carrying out activities that require them to use co-ordination and speed. At this age, most children are beginning to: - Run forwards.
- Jump on the spot.
- Kick a ball.
- Stand on one foot.
- Look at books and turn the pages.
- Draw circles.
- Hold pens, pencils, crayons, etc between the thumb and fingers.
From 3-4 years
Children's movement and balance skills became more advanced. From this age, most children will be able to: - Ride a tricycle or bicycle with stabilisers.
- Go down a slide.
- Feed themselves.
- Put on socks and shoes.
- Throw and catch a ball.
- Build towers with blocks.
- Make shapes from clay.
- Walk in a straight line.
- Pull and steer toys.
- Start to dress themselves.
From 4-5 years
At this age children's confidence in their abilities increases, most children can: - Hop on one foot.
- Walk backwards.
- Use scissors.
- Draw shapes.
- Write some letters of the alphabet.
- Dress themselves.
- Ride a scooter.
- Establish whether they are right or left-handed.
From 5-6 years
At this age most children can:
- Colour pictures and keep within the lines.
- Write their name and some...
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