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Secondary Social Studies for Pakistan

Book 3 Teaching Guide Revised Edition

Peter Moss

Contents
Introduction ...................................................................................................iv Section 1: GEOGRAPHY Chapter 1 The Universe ..............................................................................1 Chapter 2 The Earth ....................................................................................4 Chapter 3 Major climatic regions of the world ..................................... 12 Chapter 4 Agriculture and main crops .................................................. 17 Chapter 5 Industry .................................................................................... 23 Chapter 6 Trade and commerce .............................................................. 29 Chapter 7 Exports and imports of Pakistan .......................................... 32 Chapter 8 World population.................................................................... 36 Chapter 9 Major occupations in the world ........................................... 43 Chapter 10 World environment and its problems .................................. 49

Section 2: HISTORY Chapter 11 The concept of the two-nation state .................................... 54 Chapter 12 Pakistan’s chronology: 1970–2008 ........................................ 57 Chapter 13 United Nations ........................................................................ 60 Chapter 14 International problems ........................................................... 64 Chapter 15 Migration ................................................................................. 70 Chapter 16 Democracy and human rights .............................................. 73 Chapter 17 World travellers ....................................................................... 75 Chapter 18 Explorers, scientists, and inventors ...................................... 76

Introduction
Long, long ago the world was a much simpler place. People rarely moved far beyond the place where they had been born, and met only those they had known all their lives. They were scarcely conscious of the next village, much less the wider world ‘out there’. They made rules which suited their own little community and grew crops and reared animals for self-sufficiency in food. The land, the water, the winds, and the Sun were their gods. Then gradually the horizons broadened out as people began to move beyond their home base. They now belonged to a larger community, conquering and being conquered, and the rules of law had to be enforced so that people could exist together. Widening horizons brought trade— exchanging goods they had for those they did not: widening trade brought new demands, new restrictions and, also, new liberties. Slowly the world expanded, first to nations and later to international units until today when it is a complex mass of interconnected cultures and economies. This series tries to look at the situation, starting in the first book, with our own country, its geography, history, and outside influences. The second book deals with the wider Muslim world in general, the movements for independence of Pakistan, and its achievements from 1947 to 1971 and beyond. The final book deals with the Earth and its place in the universe, global economies and their problems. It also deals with international institutions, problems that have been created by globalization and what democracy, citizenship, and human rights really mean. In addition to these, this series also includes environmental concerns in the developing world. The accompanying teaching guides aim to provide background information and teaching strategies to facilitate the teachers. Lesson plans: It is important to plan out the teaching schedule for each term so that the course is covered and the teaching time allows activities and projects as well as end of month/term assessments. Social Studies is an interesting subject and can be made more so through lessons that are creative, challenge students’ thinking skills, and allow learning through practice. Critical thinking leads to problem-solving skills and a lesson well planned and well taught will inculcate these skills in your students. iv

A sample lesson plan is given below as a template to guide teachers. Class: 8 Subject: Social Studies Topic: World environment and its problems (Chapter 10) Teaching time: one period/40–45 minutes Objective: To inform students about the environmental problems facing the world today, their causes and impact, and possible solutions; to raise awareness and responsibility about environmental management. Resources: Textbook, atlas, newspapers, Internet sources Introduction: Begin by discussing the photographs on page 86—what do these show and what do these mean? The chapter covers the main sources of environmental pollution, albeit briefly. Environment is a ‘hot’ topic today as the developed and developing countries have achieved progress at the cost of environmental degradation. Explanation: Discuss the background of the topic, outlining the reasons for the damage to nature. Post-Industrial Revolution, the colonial countries plundered the natural resources of their colonies, disturbing and even destroying, the natural balance. Secondly, industrialization and the two World Wars and the following wars of the 20th century have also destroyed nature. Talk about the use of atomic and chemical weapons in the conflicts. Encouraging consumerism to create markets for their products, developed countries have generated millions of tons of waste, in the shape of appliances and equipment. Direct the discussion towards a brainstorming—about 5–7 minutes— about modern sources of pollution, such as the use of nuclear energy (radiation), carbon emissions from fossil fuels, rampant use of chemicals to increase crops, etc. Note the feedback on the board. Now move to the effects—pollution of land, air, and water; genetic defects and cancer due to drugs such as thalidomide and exposure to harmful chemicals and radiation, respectively; loss of plant and animal life; global warming, extreme weather, climate change. Some of these have already been described in the chapter, but this is a vast and highly relevant topic that can be extended into another period.

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Conclusion: Talk about possible solutions. Will the 21st century be a less-polluted, more environment-friendly era? What can and should the present generation do to control pollution and keep the environment clean? Recap the main points of this chapter. Homework: The questions on page 90 invite critical thinking and analysis, as well as research. This topic also lends itself to project work done in groups. Guide your students to the appropriate websites and sources.

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Section 1: GEOGRAPHY
Chapter 1: The Universe Text pages 1–7 The great advantage of the Hubble and Chandra telescopes is that they are in space, free of the Earth’s atmosphere. Not only does the air distort images, but also it is full of dust particles which distort vision. Before the space telescope, the best that could be done was to place telescopes as high as possible, on mountains far away from city pollution. A favourite place was islands such as Hawaii, as far as possible from a major land mass. With a telescope mounted outside the Earth’s atmosphere, astronomers can see millions of light years deeper into space as compared with a terrestrial one. A further development is the radio telescope which does not see images but picks up radio signals from outer space. We are not completely sure what these are, but they are steadily consistent. Distances in space become impossible to grasp in linear measure: the only thing is that travelling even inside our own solar system—apart from the Moon—is impracticable. The stories and TV shows and films of space adventure are, of course, not possible. Light travels at 300 kilometres a second. Everything else we know of at present travels at less than this. For one thing human beings could not live at this speed, and a journey to the nearest star would take 900 years—quite impossible, of course. Even Mars, the nearest, is an average of 228 million km away. And by the fastest rocket we have (40,000 kph), it would take almost four years, even in a direct straight line. The photograph of the universe shows only a microscopic portion of it and, even here, every white dot is a solar system like our own. The yellowish cloud is made up of millions more solar systems, too far away to be distinguished as individual dots or spots of light. The photograph of the Hubble telescope: The two rectangular panels are solar cells providing electricity for operating the telescope and transmitting its findings by radio to the Earth. These panels are made up of many thousands of the tiny cells as are found in pocket calculators to power these. 1

The solar system: As the Earth’s revolution is not exactly 24 hours, the year gets a little out of step with clocks and calendars. To correct this, every fourth year is a leap year which has an extra day (366 instead of 365). This still leaves dates and the Sun a bit inaccurate, so that every century (years ending in 00) is a leap year if it is divisible by 400 and not just by 4. Thus 1900 was not a leap year, but 2000 was and had 366 days. The next time this happens will be in 2400. Actually, this still leaves a little inaccuracy—the actual period of the Earth’s orbit is 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 45 seconds but the difference is too small for us to bother about today. The planets, as shown in the diagram on page 2, are not really equally spaced from the Sun. To show this to scale, draw a line one metre long on the board. At one end, make a circle for the Sun. Then place the planets at these intervals from the Sun: Mercury—1.0 cm; Venus—1.8 cm; Earth—2.5 cm; Mars—3.8 cm; Jupiter—13 cm; Saturn—23.8 cm; Uranus—48 cm; Neptune—75 cm. The furthest out, at 100cm, would have been Pluto but it no longer qualifies as a planet. There can be no life as we know it on any of the other planets in our solar system except perhaps Mars, and frantic attempts are being made by probes crawling across the surface to find traces of water which is essential for life. Scientists are beginning to think that certain features on the planet indicate that water did at least once exist there, and that there could well have been simple forms of lifelike bacteria. Some scientists believe that these bacteria may have reached the Earth and started life here. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES, PAGE 7: 1. Extreme temperatures on different planets in the solar system are caused by distance from the Sun, and also in some cases by speed of rotation of the planet. If one side is in the shadow (turned away from Sun), the temperatures will plummet downwards to a point where gases (nitrogen) become liquid. 2. The Hubble telescope is a space-based observatory which was launched in 1990. It has helped scientists to look further into space because, being in space and clear of the Earth’s atmosphere, it does not have problems with clouds which block the view of land-based telescopes, and is free from the dust and debris which is there. 2

Because of its position in space and the clarity there, the Hubble can see more distant objects and also much more detail of the more familiar ones such as our planets. The information is sent back to Earth electronically. The Chandra telescope was launched on July 23, 1999. It consists of four pairs of mirrors and their support structure. Chandra is designed to observe X-rays from high-energy regions of the universe. Chandra is still a new telescope, but it has already made some amazing discoveries. It has found black holes all across the universe and also found proof for the first time of two super-massive black holes. It has also given clues about how the universe has evolved over time and even about the planets in our own neighborhood. (Students can find out more information from various sources.) 3. Eclipses occur when the Sun, Earth, and Moon come in a straight line and the light from the Sun is blocked out. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and the Earth so that the Sun is fully or partially covered. A lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth comes between the Moon and the Sun and blocks the Sun’s rays from striking the Moon; thus the shadow of the Earth falls on the Moon. 4. Students can work in groups to complete this task. 5. The spacecraft that have gone beyond the solar system are Voyager 1 and 2. These were launched in 1977, from the Kennedy Space Centre at Cape Canaveral, Florida. By 2008, Voyager had travelled more than 10 billion miles into space. It contained a gold-plated CD with 115 messages in 55 different languages, the voice of the then US President, sounds of wind, surf, rain, heartbeats, laughter, and a mother’s kiss, a plan of DNA, and an image of a sheet of music.

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Chapter 2: The Earth Text pages 8–22 The structure of the continents and land masses has been explained in detail on pages 8–9 of the textbook. The words Pangaea and Panthalassa are used in the text; ask the students what they understand by these words. Pangaea = all Earth. Panthalassa = all sea. Ask what Greek word for ‘all’ was (pan). Can pupils think of any other words starting with ‘pan’ meaning ‘all’? Pandemonium: a wild uncontrolled activity; literally, ‘all demons’ Pandemic: a disease that spreads all over the country Pantheon: a temple to all the gods Panacea: a cure for all unwanted conditions or diseases Panorama: a view over a wide area (literally, a view over all) The fact that the polar regions are ice-capped is of great importance today, as with global warming much of this ice will melt causing sea levels all over the Earth to rise. No one yet knows how much, but certainly places like Bangladesh and Maldives will experience severe inundation (flooding). We must also remember that these ice caps are the storehouses of the world’s supply of fresh water. Tectonic plates: Point out on the map how the American continents fit in snugly with Africa. Pupils can work out how long the plate drift took. South America is about 5500 km from Africa: at 10 cm per year, it takes 10,000 years to cover one kilometre, so it took 55,000,000 years for these continents to drift apart. Only the main plates are shown in the map: it is interesting to note that earthquake/volcanic activity occurs almost exclusively along the fault lines where plates abut. Where the Pacific and American plates touch, the actual ‘crack’ is clearly visible on the surface at the San Andreas Fault. Strips of glass are glued across the crack so that any movement can be seen as the glass breaks—though, of course, this is for public demonstration, and scientists use far more sensitive seismic instruments to detect any earth movements, well in advance. 4

The drifting apart of the great plates has brought about the difference in flora and fauna—plants such as tobacco, tomatoes, corn, cinchona (quinine), and many others were found originally only on the American continent, and animals such as kangaroo, wallabies, duck-billed platypuses, kiwis, and others existed only in Australia and New Zealand. When these plates broke away from the great land mass on Pangaea, plants and animals were in the early stages of evolution, and continued to evolve in quite separate ways. There were no horses, for example, in either the Americas or Australia until taken there by travellers from Europe. Animals could move across easily throughout Asia, Europe, and Africa on foot as there were no barriers and no Suez Canal. To give an idea of the plates grating, get two bricks and rub together very firmly. Imagine the plates as ‘bricks’ hundreds of kilometres long and hundreds of metres thick, and grinding together with immense force. Fault lines are where two of the Earth’s tectonic plates touch and jostle against each other. Underwater earthquakes can produce tsunamis—immense waves up to 100 km long and which travel at 700–800 kph. In mid-ocean these are only a metre high, but when they reach the shallower waters near land, they can mount up to 15 and even 30 metres, doing immense damage and carrying quite large ocean-going ships several kilometres inland. This can be explained giving the example of the December 2004 tsunami that was caused by an earthquake in the Indian Ocean. When undersea volcanoes reach the surface, they can sometimes develop into islands—most of the Pacific Islands and those in the mid-Atlantic are of volcanic origin. ANSWER TO QUESTIONS IN TEXT, PAGE 10: • Bar chart for relative size of continents: Asia = 21.9 cm; Africa = 15.1 cm; North America = 12.2 cm; South America = 8.9 cm; Europe = 5.9 cm; Antarctica = 6.8 cm; Oceania = 0.3 cm Total land area of Earth = 148,940,000 sq km



Finding places on a map Get pupils to orally give grid references—for example, F3—for the places marked on the map on page 10. 5

Any place on the Earth’s surface can be located by a latitude/longitude reference, such as 23 degrees East/15 degrees North. This is refined by more accurate figures in degrees, minutes, and seconds. A full latitude/ longitude reference is accurate to a metre or two on the Earth’s surface. The International Date Line is at 180 degrees longitude, north to south. This is directly opposite the Greenwich meridian which is 0 degrees longitude. The latitude/tropics chart on page 11 may need some explanation to pupils. The lines showing the angles of the tropics and Arctic/Antarctic circles are in theory drawn as if the viewer is at the centre of the Earth. The students can use a protractor to measure these angles. Oceans and their importance The first two items listed on page 13 are naturally the most important: without the source of water and the regulation of temperature, life could not survive. Points c, d, and e would make life better, where it exists. The water cycle: The amount of water on Earth is finite. No more can be created, so that the existing water goes round and round. It is a sobering thought that some of the molecules of the drink we had today have been recycled: through the millennia, it has been drunk and excreted by millions of living creatures in the past. In between, of course, they have been turned into water vapour and purified. Water evaporating from the oceans is pure: it absorbs certain chemicals in the form of gases from the atmosphere, but far more from the land when it falls as rain. It dissolves many substances as it flows along rivers and underground—especially easily soluble ones such as salt. Although the water in rivers may seem tasteless, it does contain small amounts of salt. When it evaporates from the oceans again, it leaves this salt behind, which is why the sea is salty. Plants and creatures in the sea absorb some salt so that in the end a balance is reached, and the sea does not generally go on getting saltier. The Dead Sea in Palestine is different though: this has no life in it, so that the salt which is constantly being brought down steadily increases by evaporation of water under the hot sun. The salt has made the sea so dense that it is impossible to sink in it—one just floats on it. Pakistan’s rainfall overall is about 250 mm/year, which is below the world average of about 400–500 mm. Naturally this would place the country at the lower limits of grassland, but the extensive irrigation makes much of 6

the country able to produce good crops. The fact that more water melts in the north of Pakistan each year than snow falls as precipitation, is significant for the distant future, though serious effects will not be visible in any of the pupils’ lifetimes. Temperature: The role of oceans and seas in regulating temperature on the Earth’s surface is very important. Compare the climate of Pakistan’s coastal regions with that of the interior or further up north, where heat or cold can be more extreme. Tides: Students living in coastal areas can be taken on a field trip to observe the movement of the tide. Tides are important for ports, as they affect marine traffic. Currents: Map, page 18: the Humboldt and West Wind Drift (17 and 18) sweep up the west coast of South America; the Benguela (22) flows up the west coast of South Africa, and the West Australian current (26) up the coast of western Australia. They all originate in the Antarctic regions and are (a) cold and (b) swarming with plankton (minute marine organisms). These encourage vast numbers of fish so that these seas are among the richest fishing grounds in the world. Surprisingly, the bulk of the catch is not directly for human consumption but for making fishmeal fertilizer or animal food—tinned pet food contains a lot of this fish. Coconuts are one of the earliest fruit to develop and survive over the millennia. Their structure and that they grow along coasts allowed them to spread across the seas—fruit that fell into the water got carried by it to another place where it took root and grew into a plant. Perhaps examine a coconut in its outer case, and open it up to show the different parts: the watertight outer shell, the fibrous material inside which gives it buoyancy, the hard shell, and the points where the nut eventually sprouts. Uses of the oceans Food: In some areas, especially the Atlantic coastal waters, there is a severe problem of overfishing. With smaller boats, catching and breeding were kept more or less in balance. Now with huge fishing ships fitted with electronic equipment for tracking shoals of fish, and sophisticated nets, often many kilometres long, the catches are fast outrunning the rate at which the fish can breed. The European governments have forced a ban forbidding some fish to be caught at all, and the boats have strict quotas of how many of the other types they can catch. This has made fishing for 7

many fishermen uneconomic: they are forced by law to fish, say, only three days a week. Fish prices in the shops have, of course, rocketed. There are two solutions: (a) to go to deeper waters where new varieties of deep-sea fish live (many of these are unfamiliar and have to be disguised under fancy names) or (b) fish farming. Deep inlets in the sea are sealed off by nets, as if it were a gigantic cage, and fish inside are bred on farming lines. They are fed with concentrated food to make them grow more quickly (and taste of nothing), but when huge numbers are concentrated in a compact area there is a constant battle against diseases. Antibiotics are put in the water, which the fish absorb as do the people who eat them. Only a few species of fish will respond to farming like this, notably salmon, which two decades ago was one of the most expensive fish available, and is now one of the cheapest. Fish farming: In Europe, salmon are farmed on a huge scale. Vast cages are anchored off the coast and billions of young salmon put into them. Where it is suitable, inlets of the sea are shut off with netting and fish reared inside these natural cages. As with animals on land, shoals of fish in close confinement get all kinds of unnatural pests and diseases, and need constant treatment with chemicals in the water to keep them healthy. (In Pakistan, there have been efforts to set up fish farms for trout, a freshwater fish, in the northern areas.) Whaling: In the past, the number of whales which could be caught, with hand-thrown spears (harpoons), was limited. Today with explosive harpoons fired from guns, whales can be slaughtered in vast numbers. The UN has had to ban fishing of most species of whales, but Japan and Norway, where whale meat is highly sought-after, at first defied the ban, and then under immense pressure were forced to limit their catch to a few hundred a year ‘for scientific purposes’. This is very suspect, and the two countries have said that they will defy the International Whaling Commission ban and resume unlimited catching. Perhaps a reading from the famous novel ‘Moby Dick’ or, if possible, a viewing of the film made on this book would be an interesting activity. It is surprising that more use has not been made of seaweeds some of which can be excellent food, and are also eaten by some people living near the coast. The resources are limitless, and perhaps in the future the seas will be farmed for vegetation as well as fish. Iodine from the sea is vital for human health as its deficiency causes thyroid-related problems. 8

Minerals are not products of the sea, but on some occasions their source is under the water. The most important are oil and gas, but recovering these is expensive—an oil well under the sea costs about ten times as much as on land, even in shallow coastal waters. As these sources are beginning to run out, the rigs have to search in deeper and deeper waters, with a consequent rapid increase in costs. There is also the question of vulnerability—in war, the offshore rigs would be easy targets for enemy submarines or fast surface boats. Life on the rigs is tough and dangerous, but the wages are phenomenal—often Rs 40,000–80, 000 A WEEK. Refer to the photograph of the Troll oil platform in the North Sea; people working there are flown in by helicopter from the mainland and back again. As long as our world depends on oil for energy almost any cost will have to be endured but, in the end, oil will run out so that new sources of energy must be looked for. And one of the possible alternative sources of energy is the ocean itself. All over the world, experiments are being frantically conducted to try to find a satisfactory way of extracting energy from the seas, but none has yet been found to be practical or capable of producing electricity in economic amounts. Energy in the oceans Tidal power: In a few places where there is a very high rise and fall in tide, inlets have been blocked off by a wall into which are set turbines and dynamos. As the tide rushes in, it turns the turbines and generates power. At high tide, the inlets are blocked off forming a lake. When the tide falls these inlets are opened and the water rushes out turning the turbines again. But there are very few places in the world where the rise and fall of the water makes this a practical system. Various methods of trying to harness the waves: A huge row of gigantic floating tanks is connected by levers and gearing to dynamos so that as the buoys rise and fall the dynamos turn. This is not satisfactory, though. There are a number of other methods but nothing yet produces enough energy to be worth putting into serious operation. Weathering and its main causes Eventually—in millions of years, if it still survives—the Earth may well become flat as the mountains are worn down and the oceans filled with the debris. This is the result of weathering and erosion by natural 9

causes—wind, water, and temperature. Water has purely mechanical means of breaking down rock such as streams washing away the banks and beds; waves pounding the coasts, eroding cliffs, etc. Frost: an experiment can be done to show the expansion when water freezes. Get a screw-topped glass bottle and fill to the brim with water. Screw the cap on tightly. Put inside a strong plastic bag (to prevent damage) and fasten. Put in the freezing compartment of a fridge—in school, if possible—and leave for a day. When brought out, the bottle will have broken into pieces. Chemical action: Take the students to the lab for this experiment. Get some chips of limestone (marble chips are ideal) and put into a test tube. Get hydrochloric acid (dilute) from the lab and pour it carefully on to the marble. BE VERY CAREFUL AND POUR ON A FEW DROPS AT A TIME. The whole thing will fizz, and, if left, the marble will have dissolved in the acid. Expansion: Get a lump of limestone, say the size of a half brick, and place in full sunshine until thoroughly hot. Then put into a plastic bag in a freezer. Repeat until it cracks and crumbles—it may take several applications. Since the school may not welcome the use of the freezer for this experiment, you could use ice in an ice box. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES, PAGE 22: 1. Tectonic plates are large plates of irregularly shaped massive rocks that make up the foundation of the Earth’s crust and the shape of the continents. There are ten major plates on the Earth and many more minor ones. These plates are most famously known for being the source of earthquakes. The formation of continents is the result of the movements that caused the plates to move away—continental drift. 2. Ten biggest earthquakes in the 20th century, death toll in brackets, Richter Scale given where available: Tangshan, China, 1976 (242,500); Nanshan, China, 1927, 7.9 (200,000); Kansu, China, 1920, (180,000); Messina, Italy, 1908, (160,000); Tokyo, Japan, 1923, 7.9 (143,000); Turkmenistan, 1948, 7.3 (110,000); Kansu, China, 1932 (70,000); Peru, 1970, (68,800); Quetta, India (then), 1935 (55,000); India, 1905, 7.8 (20,000). 10

The 1906 earthquake in San Francisco killed about 6000 but probably caused more damage because it was centred on a major city. The strongest earthquakes of the 20th century measured on the Richter scale were: Chile, 1960, 9.5; Alaska, 1964, 9.2; Aleutian Islands, 1957, 9.1; Kamchatka, 1952, 9; Ecuador, 1906, 8.8; Aleutian Islands, 1965, 8.7; Indo-China border, 1950, 8.6; Kamchatka, 1923, 8.5. But as most of these were in remote areas the loss of life was not as great as those listed above. Fault lines occur where tectonic plates collide. These lines demarcate plate boundaries. Volcanic activities and earthquakes also occur along these lines. 3. Benefits of seas and oceans to people living on islands and coastal areas are: (a) climate moderated—cooler in summer, warmer in winter (b) source of food—fish (c) easier transport and dock/harbour facilities and (d) relaxation on beaches. 4. Oceans moderate the temperatures on adjacent land—cooler in summer as the land heats up and air rises, drawing in cooler air from over the sea; warmer in winter as the oceans do not change their temperature more than a few degrees throughout the year, and though the air over the sea is warmer and rises, drawing cooler air from over the land, the proximity to the great mass of warmer water near the coast keeps the temperature moderate. 5. Currents are the great broad ‘rivers’ of water in the oceans. They move due to the temperature and saltiness in the sea. Cold and salty water is heavy and sinks down. This water along the ocean bed moves from the polar regions towards the equator where it warms up and rises and then moves towards the poles where again it cools down and the whole process is repeated. Currents take their temperature from where they originate; those from the Arctic or Antarctic regions are cold currents and keep the climate of the land they flow past cooler. Examples are: Chile and the west coast of South America; the east and west coasts of North America; the western coast of South Africa, Australia and the east coast of Japan. Currents arising in the equatorial latitudes tend to keep the coasts they touch warmer; for example, the western coasts of Europe, especially the UK; the West Indies and the south-eastern 11

coast of the USA; the eastern coast of South America; the eastern coast of Africa; the Gulf States and India; the East Indies; much of New Zealand. 6. Weathering is a process in which landforms such as rocks, cliffs, beaches, and soil are eroded i.e. broken down over a period of time. It is caused by the actions of wind, rain, water, temperature, and ice (glaciers). Examples are given in the textbook on pages 20–22 of how these weathering agents erode the surface of the Earth. 7. Some steps taken for conservation of marine life are: improving fresh (river) water outflow into the sea; conservation of mangroves in the coastal areas; reducing effluents’ discharge into the sea; treatment of sewage and waste water; controlling human activity along the coastal belt; beach clean-ups; raising awareness about environmental issues. (Students may also research the local EPA—Environmental Protection Agency—websites for further information.) Chapter 3: Major climatic regions of the world Text pages 23–33 The monsoon climate has been covered in considerable detail in the textbook. In Asia, the monsoon climate is found mainly in the subcontinent and South-east Asia. Mediterranean comes from Latin ‘medi’—the middle of, and ‘terra’— earth. It used to be believed in ancient times that this sea was in the middle of the flat Earth. The Mediterranean climate is one of the world’s most favoured, not only because of its products, but also because the hot summers and mild winters make it a favourite of wealthy people to live, and many millions to take their holidays. Virtually the whole of the Mediterranean coast and the islands off it are extensive holiday resorts. Today with air transport, the high-priced early fruits and vegetables, and even flowers, can be found in the markets of all European capitals a few hours later. Perhaps list Mediterranean fruits and ask pupils if they know them or have tasted them. Oranges, lemons, tangerines, olives, grapes, peaches, 12

apricots, nectarines, asparagus, figs, pistachio nuts, almonds, cherries, plums, dried fruits such as currants, raisin, sultanas. Some of these are also cultivated in Pakistan; find out where. Cheeses made from the milk of cows, goats, and sheep are widely used in the West, and some of them are extremely expensive. Flowers of all kinds are extensively cultivated and come into bloom much earlier than those in countries further north. Cargo planes fly in loads of expensive flowers of all kinds to the cities of northern Europe. Countries bordering the Mediterranean (omitting Balkans on the Adriatic Sea) are Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco. Tundra: This climatic zone is virtually useless economically, from a flora/ fauna point of view. Reindeer are farmed in northern Scandinavia and Russia but their meat in not exploited commercially. Minerals are significant, however: the tundra regions of Canada and Russia (Siberia) are immensely rich in several kinds of minerals—oil, gas, iron, gold, uranium, nickel, copper, tin, titanium, and diamonds. Weather conditions for mining these are often appalling: Verkhoyansk in Siberia reaches 33–34 C in summer and MINUS 70°C in winter. The annual average temperature is MINUS 11°C. The Antarctic is believed to have vast reserves of minerals, but the difficulty of exploiting them is immense. It has been agreed internationally that the territory belongs to no specific state. Some interesting facts about lemmings: The vast migration of the lemmings westwards to drown in the sea is traditionally believed to be that they are seeking the continent of Atlantis which was supposed to exist millions of years ago in the present Atlantic Ocean. That there ever was such a continent is arguable, of course, and the lemmings probably feel that the ocean is just another river of the many they have crossed in their westward migration. Chamois is a type of goat found mainly in the Alps and the highlands of Central Asia. A swift animal, much like an antelope, the chamois was hunted for its fine supple skin which, when prepared, is very soft and will absorb a huge amount of water. It is used for polishing and many washing and drying purposes as for glass windows, cars, etc. The chamois is now a protected species. Equatorial climate: The natural vegetation in this hot and wet climate is 13

dense forest. These forests, especially the Amazon Basin in Brazil, which is believed to provide nearly half of the oxygen in the world’s atmosphere, are absolutely vital; this is why their frantic destruction is of grave importance and must be controlled. Perhaps remind pupils that plants absorb carbon dioxide in daylight and with the help of chlorophyll (the green substance in leaves) turn it into sugar for growth. At night, when there is no sunshine these plants emit oxygen. The vegetation is dense in these regions. Some trees have buttress roots that grow sideways out of the trunk to support it. The usual excuse, apart from the value of the timber, for felling the equatorial forests, is to get more land for agricultural crops. While crops can be grown initially, the rich fertile soil is a very thin layer, composed mainly of the leaves and debris from the trees and, in the absence of heavy fertilizing, soon loses is fertility. The Peruvians had kept the properties of the cinchona tree a secret; they would bring the Europeans those parts of the tree they wanted but would not show where the trees were to be found. Eventually, these were smuggled out with other specimens by an Englishman who escaped the Peruvian customs checking. The plants were first grown in the Kew Gardens in London, and then transplanted to South-east Asia. As well as being cultivated in plantations in India, Sri Lanka, and Java, natural quinine, though still used, has been largely replaced by synthetic chemicals for the treatment of malaria. Chloroquine, proguanil, mefloquine, and doxycycline are now used but unfortunately the malaria organism rapidly develops resistance to drugs, so that scientists have to keep developing new ones. The first two in the list above are now virtually useless in most areas. Malaria is a common problem in Pakistan, especially during the rainy season. The government, along with WHO, takes preventive measures to control the disease and also runs campaigns to raise awareness in the rural areas. Also talk about dengue fever, caused by another strain of mosquito, which causes destruction of platelets, internal bleeding, and death if not diagnosed and treated in its early stages. ANSWER TO QUESTIONS IN TEXT, PAGE 27: The existence of coal and oil deep under two kilometres of ice in the Antarctic shows that at some stage of the world’s history the South Pole was warm, forested land, because oil and coal are made from plant life. 14

People might be tempted to try to get to the Antarctic oil if supplies in other parts of the world became exhausted. Problems would be the inhospitable nature of the region—searing winds, bitter cold, constant snow and ice, as well as drilling through two km of ice, before reaching hard land, and then perhaps more kilometres into the rock. Temperate grasslands are perhaps agriculturally the most important areas of the world, as these are the main grain-growing regions. The soil is highly variable, the richer areas growing edible grains such as wheat, while the poorer ones, which will support only wild grasses, are used mainly for stock rearing. In the poor regions such as the steppes of Central Asia, static farming is traditionally impossible so that, at least historically, the people are nomadic, wandering with flocks and herds of sheep, goats, and horses. As permanent settlements were impracticable, light-weight tents or yurts made of felt from the animals are usually used (see page 30). ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS IN TEXT, PAGE 30: a) Palangkaraya is the capital city of Kalimantan on the island of Borneo; see Oxford School Atlas for Pakistan, page 47, E3; at 2 degrees S, 113 degrees E; fairly low-lying—below 100 m. The natural vegetation is dense tropical forest and tropical marshes. The main product is timber, but where cleared, sugar cane, rice, rubber, coffee, etc. are grown. The climate is hot and wet; people are mainly involved in forestry and agriculture. b) Dodge City is in Kansas, USA, mid-west of the continent and is the centre of ranching—original cowboy country; vast farms, many thousands of hectares of short sparse grass with cattle, etc; the biggest meat centre, with 12,000 cattle slaughtered daily. The climate is cold winters (–7 °C) and warm summers (32–34 °C), rainfall is about 500mm. People’s occupations are largely concerned with ranching, cattle rearing, and processing. c) Montpellier is in France. The climate is Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers. Mediterranean fruit and vegetables, especially grapes, are grown here. People work on agricultural or horticultural activities, as well as processing the products. (Montpellier is the world capital of nougat!) It is also a large tourist centre. 15

d) Urumchi is in China. It is a remote city but surrounded by the vast Gobi desert. It has a central continental climate with bitter winters and fairly hot summers. Formerly, it was a very important staging post on the Silk Road and an important Muslim centre. The discovery of vast oil sources nearby has made it a large industrial city (population 1 million), but its isolation from the rest of China still makes it a kind of frontier town. Its remoteness has made Lop Nur (south-east of Urumchi) China’s main nuclear research station. Seasons: This is initially difficult for students. The fundamental reason is that the axis of the Earth is not ‘upright’ but leans at 23.5 degrees to the vertical in its orbit: it is this tilt that causes the seasons, not the distance from the Sun. If one hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun, it experiences summer, while the hemisphere tilted away from the Sun will experience winter. Any part is warmest when the Sun is overhead—or as near as it gets to being overhead—as in summer. Explain that in winter, the Sun’s rays will be at a shallow angle, on the other side, and spread over a wider area, so that the heating effect is less. Also, because the Sun’s rays pass through a greater thickness of the atmosphere, the heat and light are weakened by the dust particles and clouds. Perhaps get a globe to demonstrate this. Otherwise use a large ball or a spherical balloon and make a cross at a spot half way between its equator and the poles. Hold the ball at approximately 23 degrees on one side of the teacher’s desk with an object there to represent the Sun. Now move to the opposite side of the desk, keeping the ball at the same angle. The mark will now be seen not to be in line with the ‘Sun’. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES, PAGE 35: 1. Equatorial forests are important because of the trees and their products e.g. timber, mahogany, and teak, and quinine. Apart from this, the equatorial forests keep the oxygen level steady in the atmosphere. Plants in sunlight absorb carbon dioxide which then turns into sugar to supply the plant with energy, and give off oxygen. And where the forests are cleared sugar cane, rice, oil palms, mangoes, cocoa, rubber, coffee, etc. are grown. 2. Equatorial forests are found in these continents—southern parts of North America, upper half of South America, central regions of Africa, Southern Asia, part of Northern Australia, and Indonesia. 16

3. Advantages of a monsoon climate: brings heavy rain, the land here is usually fertile; teak, mahogany, and bamboo are grown in these regions, which are used for making many things. 4. Crops grown in the Mediterranean regions are grapes, tomatoes, asparagus, oranges, lemons, peaches, apricots, olives, as well as cereals such as wheat. 5. Grasslands are found both in the northern and southern hemispheres between the deserts and the forest belts. These are named differently according to their situation: steppes in southern Europe and Central Asia, veldt in South Africa, pampas in South America, and prairies in North America. 6. Seasons are caused because the axis of the Earth is tilted at 23.5°. Because of this the hemisphere which is tilted towards the Sun experiences summer and it is winter in the other hemisphere. Chapter 4: Agriculture and main crops Text pages 34–43 Arable farming Growing crops is the most important type of farming as grains are vital to life. We could manage without meat or fish (indeed many people in the west are vegetarians and eat no meat; some religions such as Buddhism forbid the killing of animals so that their diet is all vegetable or fruit). Wheat and rice are about equal in being the most eaten grains in the world. Ask pupils how rice cultivation is different from that of all the other grains (needs lots of water and back-breaking labour). The illustrations on page 35 compare small-scale farming by peasants with large-scale mechanized farming. • Preparing the land—a plough/hoe pulled by a man, though this would be relatively rare now as most peasants would have a buffalo or other animal for this. Note the simple wooden equipment. Also note the number of people employed: nine in the peasant land (most seem to be doing nothing), and one driving the tractor in commercial farming.

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Weeding—peasant farmer slowly pulling out one weed at a time. Commercial farming—one man in a crop-spraying aeroplane can do hundreds of hectares a day. The aircraft has tanks holding herbicide (weed killing chemical) which it emits as a cloud over the crops at 140kph. Spraying from the air avoids machinery destroying any of the crops. Actually air spraying is not very extensive, but is often done by sprayers towed behind tractors. The boom (the pipes through which the herbicides are sprayed) can be 10–12 metres wide so that the damage by running the tractor over growing crops is minimized. This method is far cheaper than aerial spraying, but not as fast. Ask pupils why it is important to keep weeds down (they compete with the crop for moisture and food). Perhaps some discussion can be carried out about chemicals used in agriculture—traces remain in foods eaten, and may have harmful effects on human life.



Harvesting: On the peasant farm there are again nine people in backbreaking manual labour. Commercial farming—one man in a combine harvester (they cut the grain, thresh it, bag the grain, throw out the stalks in tied up bales and put the chaff (husks) in other sacks. They can cut a swathe of corn eight metres wide at one go. On the huge farms in the USA there will be five or six of these machines in echelon—one behind the other—crossing the prairie.

Rice is threshed either by beating it with flails, or often by being spread on the ground and making oxen walk over and over it. This knocks the seed from the stem and the light inedible husks from the grain. The husks are got rid of by tossing the threshed grain in the air in a gentle wind. The wind blows the light husks away, and the grain falls to the ground. Grains of rice have been found at Mohenjo Daro, though much more primitive than the rice of today which has been bred for size, flavour, colour—in Vietnamese markets you can buy black, red, yellow as well as white rice. The terrible disease, beri-beri, which affects the nervous system and heart and cripples sufferers, as well as often being fatal, is caused by eating polished rice—white rice from which the husk has been removed. When the fashion for white rice (probably to meet European tastes) was introduced, the disease spread rapidly. It was not discovered until the 1930s that beriberi is caused by a shortage of vitamin B1 which is contained in considerable amounts in the husk of the rice seed (and also in fruit, vegetables, and milk). Once this was restored to the diet (or another source of Vitamin B1 was introduced) the condition decreased 18

rapidly. The impact on very severely crippled people is dramatic: if an emergency injection of B1 is given, they are almost back to normal within a few hours. Perhaps pupils could investigate (research work from websites, etc.) the question of vitamins and what each of them does to the body. You could tell them about deficiency diseases as a result of unbalanced diet. Pellagra is a terrible disease of the skin caused by lack of vitamin B3. This is found mainly where the basic food is corn (maize) which lacks this vitamin. In Central America, where the staple grain is corn, it was traditionally treated with lime (though the people did not know why) which allowed the B3 to be absorbed by the body. In other parts of the world where corn was used without lime treatment the disease occurred. Scurvy is a fatal disease caused by lack of vitamin C, which is found in fruit, especially oranges and lemons, and vegetables. Great open wounds appear, the teeth fall out, and the person dies. It was particularly severe on ships in the past when the crew lived on salted meat and bread. Often on long voyages, half the crew would die. In 1753 a Scottish doctor said that eating lemons would prevent the disease. As a result, Royal Navy ships forced their crews to have a daily dose of lemon juice. Scurvy virtually disappeared from these vessels. It was soon copied all over the world by all ships. Anaemia is a very common condition of decrease in blood cells, from relatively mild to life-threatening. It is caused mainly by a lack of iron salts in the blood, which prevents the red cells from taking oxygen to various organs. It can generally be treated very simply by taking iron supplements i.e. chemicals with iron salts in them. Stock or animal farming There is some dispute about the earliest domesticated animals, goats or sheep. Probably it does not matter much, but some archaeologists say one, some the other. Hybrid animals are infertile so that one cannot mate mules, but they have the qualities sought after from both parent animals—the load-bearing ability and speed of the horse with the toughness of the donkey. The very finest karakul fleeces and ‘pashmina’ are said to be from unborn lambs and goat kids: this means the destruction of the animals, of course, and is rare today. 19

Amusing sideline: Recently (2004) a merino sheep in Australia was captured after living six years in the wild, having escaped from the flock. It was sheared on television, and had enough fine wool to provide cloth for more than 20 men’s suits. Goats are beloved of the poorer farmers in remote regions. They provide milk of high quality, wool—generally rather coarse—and meat. Their great advantage is that they can survive on the poorest of diets, foraging for every scrap of growing matter. This is also their drawback: they can devastate whole areas of landscape, turning it into desert. For this reason they are usually kept moving in flocks. The government of Pakistan is trying hard to reduce the number of goats although their meat is preferred for its leanness. The yak is a buffalo-like animal with huge powerful shoulders, usually found in the higher mountains of Asia, especially the Himalayas and in Tibet and China. It is a primitive animal dating from millions of years ago. It is up to 1.7 m tall at the shoulders and can weigh up to 1000 kg. Its great advantage is that it can live at great heights and withstand intense cold, down to minus 50° C. It has long shaggy hair which can be made into coarse textiles, and is widely kept in Tibet and China for meat, hides, and milk. It is also used to pull carts and ploughs but is very stubborn and will not move unless it feels like it. It is the lifeline of peoples in the wild mountain regions, supplying them with much of their food and milk. The bison is a similar animal that roamed the whole of the northern Euro-Asian land mass and North America, where it was hunted almost to extinction. In Europe, the last wild bison was killed by poachers in Poland, but about 50 have survived in zoos. There was an extensive breeding programme, and by 1951 there were enough to release them into the wild again in Eastern Europe. The bison is again a very primitive animal, and can reach a height of 2.3 metres at its massive shoulders. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS IN MARGIN BOX, PAGE 37: • The most important invention in history is fire. This enabled food to be cooked, to keep humans warm so that they could move into cooler regions, and to protect them at night from wild animals. • The wheel almost certainly developed from a log. Men found that they could move heavier loads (stones for their primitive temples) by using logs to roll them on. From this the idea of the wheel no doubt developed, carried on skids as shown on page 37. 20

Cattle breeds Red Sindhi is an indigenous breed originally from Punjab; its main qualities are ability to stand more extreme conditions of heat and humidity. The milk yield is average; this breed is now generally crossed with European breeds. Sahiwal is again developed in the Punjab. It has high tolerance to heat and very high milk yield. Large herds are reared in South-east Asia and especially in Australia. Jersey, originally from the Channel Islands of the UK, is immensely popular in Europe. It has a very high yield of extremely high quality milk, and breeds more rapidly than most types and lives longer. Able to adapt to a wide range of environments, it is one of the finest breeds. Holstein-Friesan is a European breed; it has a good milk yield. Classical black and white animals, they are very docile and easy to handle so that they can be put where the public has access. They can be very choosy feeders, however. Tharparkar is a subcontinental breed with very high milk yield; but other disadvantages mean they are now generally crossed with European (especially Swiss) strains. Cattle are also used as draught animals in simpler and poorer societies. Besides meat and milk and draught, cattle—when slaughtered—provide skins for leather which is vitally important for Pakistan’s large sports industry. Bones were once used for cutlery handles, but now this is largely replaced by plastics. Bones are also ground up to make fertilizer. ANSWER TO QUESTION IN TEXT, PAGE 40: Angora is from Ankara, the capital of Turkey, which was formerly called Angora. Poultry is an excellent source of meat and eggs. In small numbers, chickens require little attention or feeding, able to forage for themselves with supplements from household scraps. In larger numbers, they require more attention, of course, and are often housed in what are called battery conditions. Here, their intake of food and drink is controlled to give the maximum growth. They are often crowded together in an unpleasant atmosphere which necessitates cutting off most of the beak, as they peck one another. Under such cramped conditions disease is, of course, widespread and often considerable amounts of antibiotic have to be 21

included in the food to prevent the spread of illnesses. Many people are worried that this antibiotic passes on to human beings when they eat battery-raised chicken. Ask pupils why this should be considered a risk; if people are continually taking antibiotics in small quantities, the germs which attack human beings become immune to the drugs so that they no longer combat disease. This is why scientists continually need to discover new antibiotics. Sometimes, diseases that afflict poultry can also affect humans, like the recent outbreak of bird flu. Fishing: Fish farming comes from an ancient Chinese technique of breeding fish in ponds. In the past, sewage was thrown into the ponds, where micro-organisms fed on it. These, in turn, were eaten by creatures slightly higher up the scale and so on, by smaller and then larger fish, and finally the fish which were being bred for food, usually carp. The modern fish farms are much more sophisticated, with special diets for quick growth. Unfortunately, the crowded conditions of modern fish farms mean that diseases are very liable to spread and food for the fish has to be laced with antibiotics, resulting in the same problems one finds in poultry farms. Horticulture: This supplies high-cost fruits, vegetables, and flowers for towns and cities, so that market gardens crowd round the outside of urban areas. Nuts for oil tend to be grown in larger areas and can be further away from the markets as they have to be processed first to get the oil. Pakistan’s output of fruit exports has increased almost five times in the years 1991–2001. This high-value product not only goes to the growing cities, where the standard of living is rising and people want more fruit, but is also sent overseas, especially to Europe and the USA. While these areas can source oranges, lemons, apples, and grapes from closer regions, guavas and mangoes are more difficult. Dried fruits also such as dates, apricots, raisins and sultanas, and nuts, such as almonds, pistachios, walnuts and pine nuts, for which there are no problems of transport as there are with fresh fruit, are also exported widely. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES, PAGE 43: 1. Paddy fields have to be small because they have to be under water for the initial stages of germination. This means that the plots have to be completely level and it is difficult to find large areas which are flat enough. 22

2. Basmati rice grows best in the foothills of the Himalayas in Pakistan and India. Apart from the so-called ‘wild rice’ of Canada and northern USA, it is the most expensive of all varieties of rice, costing from £4 to £6 (Rs540 to Rs810) a kilo. It has a long white fluffy grain which expands to almost double its length when cooked. It is highly nutritious with a high calorie content as well as vital vitamins (B1 especially) as well as important elements for health such as iron, thiamine, and selenium. On top of all this it has an excellent flavour. It is used as an accompaniment to any dish, and in South Asia as well as the West it is also used for puddings. 3. Animals preferred for livestock farming in Pakistan are cattle, buffalo, camel, horses, goat, sheep, and poultry birds. 4. Students can research and find out about the annual Horse and Cattle Show in Lahore. Such exhibitions are useful because they help in promoting the culture of a country and also provide a means of income and recreation to many people. 5. Fish is a valued product due to its nutritive value and varied uses, such as for fertilizer, animal feed, etc. Chapter 5: Industry Text pages 44–53 Perhaps ask pupils in which industrial group—primary, secondary, or tertiary—their fathers or parents work. This can be the basis of an interesting and lively discussion. The Salt Range, page 46: Salt is vital to Pakistan’s industry. It is an essential ingredient in the manufacture of hydrochloric acid (used in many other industries), chloroform, carbon tetrachloride (substance in some fire extinguishers, dry cleaners), bleach, washing soda, baking soda, dyeing industry, soap industry, and as a preservative, especially for meats. Salt is absolutely essential to all life: animals have ‘lick’ bars of salt fastened to the walls of their shelter for them to lick. In hot countries, human beings can quickly die of heat exhaustion if they do not have enough salt in their diet. When people get dehydrated due to illness/heat, they are given oral rehydration salts (ORS) or a saline drip. 23

Primary Industries: mining, quarrying, and drilling Deep mines: It was to drain deeper and deeper mines that the steam engine was invented; it could be said that these were the kernels of our modern industrial age. A variation of the deep mine is the drift mine found in some coal regions. Here the seam of coal tilts downward from the surface at a shallow angle, so that the tubs of coal can run directly down the mine. Gold, though usually thought of as used for jewellery, has many uses in science and technology. It is a fine conductor of electricity, and as it does not corrode, it does not build up a resistance to small electric currents. For this reason, the contacts in computers and other scientific equipment are normally plated with gold. It is also used for replacing teeth as it is one of the few substances which will not corrode in the acids normally found in the mouth. Miscellaneous facts on gold: It is very soft, which is why it was used for jewellery in ancient times, as it could be worked easily. It is highly malleable (can be easily shaped) and can be hammered out into sheets of gold leaf as thin as 0.00013 mm. It is also very ductile (can be stretched into a wire)—29 gm of gold can be drawn out to a fine wire that would stretch 100 km. There are vast amounts of gold in the sea water— estimated at 9 billion tonnes—but the cost of extracting it would far outweigh the value of the gold itself. Gold leaf is used for signs in shops, and gilding, especially covering religious statues, decorating fancy tableware and other items. Limestone: To convert limestone into cement demands great amounts of heat. When this had to be derived from expensive imported oil it was a problem, but with the discovery of local natural gas, cement became much more accessible and cheaper. Oil: A whole new geological science has been developed to find where oil might be, by examining the rocks. These geological surveys seem to indicate that oil should be found in some parts of Pakistan, but trial borings up to the moment have not found it in any great quantities as in Iran, Iraq, or the Gulf States. However, there are abundant supplies of natural gas. Compression projects have been set up to conserve this source of energy and make it last longer.

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Secondary industry: manufacturing In the past, the process of workers making articles right through from start to finish was slow. The advent of the steam engine to power industry speeded this up: one operative could now handle fifty or more times as much work as by hand. This was particularly noticeable in the textile industries, in the UK, from the 18th century onwards. The steam engine is traditionally attributed to James Watt, a Scotsman born in 1736. There had been a kind of steam engine before but it was slow and clumsy and used an enormous amount of fuel. Watt was a kind of engineer, and was asked to repair one of these crude machines. He realized the weaknesses, and invented what was more or less a completely new system. It was much faster, used only a fraction of the coal, and eventually had s system for turning a huge flywheel. Before this, the crude engines would only go up and down to work pumps. Watts’ engine was instantly a great success, and was installed in many mines, especially the tin mines of Cornwall, to pump out water. Soon it was being used in factories to turn machinery. But the great breakthrough did not come until the introduction of the assembly line system in World War I. Assembly line or mass production: It was realized that if each worker had a single simple task to do, he or she could do it much faster than if they were to assemble a whole unit. So, on a car production line, worker A would put the nut on a bolt, and the line would move on to B who would tighten it up …and so on. It is monotonous but speeds up production. It prepares the ground for the processes being taken over by machines, apart from some supervisory staff to see that things are going correctly. It is said that the Renault car production line in France, the largest in the country, is managed by only four men. Oil: Talk about the time when oil runs out, as it must do in the future, but probably not in the lifetimes of the pupils. But as it begins to decline—as it will do—the price will automatically rise until it becomes uneconomic for transport in its present form. A well-known international scientist—a materials’ man—told the author years ago that oil was far too valuable to be squandered on transport fuel. The chemicals and other substances produced from oil were of far more importance and they could not be replaced, whereas transport could possibly be powered by something else, probably electricity. But as we have seen earlier, the search for an alternative source of electric power seems as far off as ever, barring the nuclear option. 25

Natural gas: Natural gas, as well as being a highly suitable fuel, is also a source of raw materials: in the refining processes, fertilizers and plastics can be produced. In many cases, the by-products of natural gas are more valuable than the purified gas itself used for fuel or transport. It is also now being used extensively in transport because it is produced at home (in Pakistan) whereas the oil-based fuels (petrol, diesel, kerosene) have to be imported and are expensive. Its main problem is convenience and storage in a vehicle. Nevertheless, there is growing popularity of dual-fuel cars: they run on gas or petrol, and can be switched from one to the other as circumstances demand. Natural gas is also intensively used as base for making fertilizer because Pakistan desperately needs heavier crops (a) to feed its rapidly growing population and (b) to grow heavier crops which form the main exports of the country, especially cotton and fruit. Most of Pakistan’s land is only moderately fertile, and cotton especially is a ‘greed’ crop i.e. it takes much of the fertility from the soil. Natural gas comes to the surface in places and ignites. Certainly, the Chinese were using naturally occurring gas as early as 1000 BC, carrying it from the fissures where it appeared on the surface to the location where it was needed, using hollowed bamboo tubes. It was used in ancient China specifically for boiling brine (salt water) to extract the salt. Transport: Perhaps get pupils to relate sizes of tankers and container ships with something local such as the area of a small park or school ground, to get an idea of a tanker’s length and breadth. It brings home to them the size of a tanker especially if they realize that it is almost half a kilometre long. The tanker is not just one huge tank, but a series of separate ones: ask pupils why this is so. It limits damage in case of accidents such as hitting a rock or another ship, when only the affected tanks will leak. Also separate tanks, or sometimes ‘baffles’ i.e. screens in a larger tank, prevent the contents swilling to and fro in storms or when decelerating. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES, PAGE 53: 1. Industry is classified into three levels for various reasons; some are listed below followed by definition and examples of each. The purpose is to group industries and categorize them according to common characteristics and this system can help organize and compare specific statistical information such as import/export, employment, tax revenues, and/or wage information. 26

Primary industry means those industries where raw material is developed or produced, e.g. fishing, mining, farming, etc. Secondary industry means those industries where raw material is used to manufacture other goods, e.g. computer manufacture, trains, shoes, satellites, etc. Tertiary industry does not manufacture material or obtain raw material but provides services to other industries, e.g. banking, transport, telephone, postal services, etc. 2. Importance of oil and gas to industrial development in a country: Oil is a raw material for many chemical products, including pharmaceuticals, solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, and plastics. Gas is a very flexible fuel and can be easily transported; it is clean; does not emit fumes; it is a raw material for fertilizers, and source of energy for making cement; and it is a cheap and convenient domestic fuel. 3. Container transport: Advantages: (a) Goods are packed in containers at the factory and locked; this prevents stealing which used to be very common. (b) As the containers are all gigantic boxes of the same size (or two different sizes), they can be packed together much more closely. (c) On arrival at the port of destination, the containers can be unloaded by special cranes very quickly and sent on trucks or by rail directly to their destination, again avoiding pilfering. (d) Goods in containers are much less likely to suffer damage because they are packed at the place of origin by men who know how to do this job in the best way, protecting them from breakage, and getting the maximum amount of goods into each box. (e) As the containers are made of metal, they can be left outside without any fear of the goods inside becoming damaged by rain, etc. Disadvantages: (a) Docks have to be equipped with specialist equipment for handling the containers, and container ships can face problems when the ports do not have adequate facilities for berthing, cargo handling (cranes, loading/unloading), on-land transportation, and stack height limitations. (b) Another equally serious problem is of carrying vulnerable dock cargo, and of being lost at sea in bad weather, causing losses worth 27

millions. (c) A smaller and perhaps valuable item has either to be packed into someone else’s container, or leave a lot of wasted space in its own container. Although containers are large, some items especially machinery will not fit in them: 2.5 metres width is not very big to transport machinery. 4. Craft work: The advantage is that individuals can create different designs and patterns, and if necessary according to the buyers’ wishes. There is a pride in owning a handmade product as it is unique—the only one like it. The disadvantage is that it is slow. Different craftsmen have different skills, and some are much poorer at workmanship than others. Because it takes a long time generally to make, it is usually much more expensive. Early factories: The advantage was that far more articles are made, so that prices were lower and more people could own things; a move towards a higher standard of living Disadvantage: Conditions in factories were terrible with very long hours and small children having to work. Although children had worked on peasant land, they were in the open air and getting exercise. The factory owners would not allow even a window to be opened as the textile mills needed a warm moist atmosphere. Factories had to be generally in towns, so that masses of the cheapest rows of houses were thrown up for the workers. People in the past had worked at their own pace, and had a rest when they felt like it. In the factories they had to keep going as long as the steam engine was running. The factory owners were often cruel about getting the maximum profit out of their workers. Assembly line: The advantage was that output soared so that goods became cheaper. More people could afford furniture in their home and an improved lifestyle. There was a much wider range of goods available to make people’s lives better. Because the output was so much more, hours of work were steadily shortened. Disadvantage: As each worker did just one process, work was very boring. There was no sense of creating a good product. Workers had to keep up with the assembly line; they could not take a rest. There were, of course, emergency buttons to stop the moving belt if there was a problem, and it was not unknown that workers would 28

deliberately cause an ‘accident’ and stop the line. Because there were a number of assembly lines linked, all the others had to stop too, and it took perhaps half an hour to reprogramme them again….during which time the workers had a rest. Automated factories: The advantage is that production again soared so that goods were cheaper and a much wider range was available. Virtually all chance of human error and faulty products are eliminated. Workers could make mistakes even with their one operation on the assembly line. Machines did not make any mistakes. Disadvantage: Far fewer workers are needed which can lead to unemployment. There is no pride in work or craftsmanship when all one has to do is sit at a desk and watch dials and press buttons. 5. Students can work out this activity in groups. Chapter 6: Trade and commerce Text pages 54–60 Make sure pupils understand the roles of the manufacturer, wholesaler, and retailer. Ask why supermarkets have acquired such popularity—a wide range of goods is on offer, so that almost everything can be bought at one place (extending from foods to clothing and furniture); convenient—they usually have car parks so that goods do not have to be carried far; often cheaper, because the supermarkets can buy in huge quantities directly from the manufacturer and so get good prices which they can pass on to customers. There is considerable criticism from farmers and other producers that the supermarkets are so large they can force wholesale prices down: if the farmer will not sell to one market, then there are other sources for it to buy from. Disadvantages: Lack of personal service—the assistants are merely shelfstackers or till (cash counter) operatives and know little about the goods they are selling. Till operators if confronted by a more unusual item— oysters, for example—often have to call the supervisor to ask what they are. And no one would be able to tell a customer, for example, the difference between various qualities of rice, if asked. Supermarkets cater for a mass market, and so do not usually sell more unusual items. They 29

aim at the middle to cheap range of the market, and goods that sell in large amounts, often as the result of television advertising. Ask pupils if they can suggest other advantages/disadvantages of supermarket shopping. Office work: Office workers generally outnumber people actually doing creative or active work, by about five or six to one in the West. In addition to the clerical work for the actual business, there are also forms and information to be prepared for the government. Office workers also deal with the clients, provide information, and carry out necessary documentation and correspondence. Stock exchange: It would help to be prepared for this topic by having at hand a copy of the latest share index sheet from a newspaper. The photograph on page 57 is just an example. Explain that businesses, especially those being set up, need more capital than they possess, so they often ask the general public to invest in them. This is usually done in the form of shares—people put so much money into the business and expect a share of the profits. These shares are bought and sold freely at the Stock Exchanges where dealers buy and sell shares for people. The aim is to buy when shares of a particular company are cheap—maybe they have had a bad sales year, and sell them when they are high—maybe when they are about to be taken over by a larger firm or are very successful in their business. Show the share price index from a newspaper and explain how prices and share value are determined. Perhaps students could track the shares of some companies/industries and do some mock trading. Banking: Today banks are involved in almost all aspects of people’s lives, not only just storing their money. Banks can, for example, be in charge of people’s wills. ANSWER TO QUESTION IN TEXT, PAGE 57: Banks also give loans to businesses which need to borrow money, for example, to expand, to buy and stock goods, to pay added staff and add equipment as business expands, to branch out in a new line, and for advertising. Interesting information: The functions of banking have been in existence even in ancient civilizations, where temples served this purpose as they were supposed to be safer than other places. There are records of Egyptian, Greek, and Roman banking practices in the pre-Christian era: 30

the Romans had established uniform banking laws throughout their empire. The word ‘bank’ comes from the Latin ‘bancum’, a bench-like table used by medieval Italian bankers who came to be known as ‘bancherius’. Find out the origin of the word ‘bankrupt’—if a banker could not meet his obligations, his bench would be broken and he would have to move out! Service industries: These involve most workers. In Pakistan, about 40 per cent of the workforce is employed in service industries (Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2006–7): in the UK it is about 75 per cent, in Japan, 68 per cent, and in Hong Kong, 91 per cent. Pakistan is rather low at the moment, but service industries are very much a function of industrialization. Get pupils to list the type of industry/agriculture/service their parents are employed in. Also define services and brainstorm to list as many service occupations as they can, from traders to consultant surgeons, barristers, police, caterers, tailors, hotel industry, health care providers, pop singers, dancers, and film actors. Tourism is another important service industry across the world today as it brings in income in foreign exchange; some countries with few natural resources except great beaches, for instance, have become popular destinations as they have capitalized on their tourist potential. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES, PAGE 60: 1. Law enforcement and the legal profession are essential for a civilized society. The government makes laws which it thinks facilitate a peaceful, profitable, and just society, and anyone who breaks these laws has to be dealt with, and punished, by society. The law enforcement investigates wrongdoings and arrests, if possible, the people responsible: the legal profession is there to ensure these people have justice, and are not wrongly punished. 2. Modern society is so complex that people must be literate to cope. Most of the best jobs depend not on physical labour and strength as they did in an agrarian economy, but on literacy and knowledge of often very complex activities and issues. Many jobs depend on analysing a whole mass of data and working out a logical solution. Even the humblest jobs still benefit from education.

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Health services are essential to help prevent and cure illnesses and to allow people to live longer and healthier, happy lives. Some aspects of medicine treat illnesses and accidents when they have already occurred, while others try to prevent the illnesses happening with inoculations, vaccinations, and health training, even in such seemingly simple matters as what foods to eat and what not to eat. There is good scope here for class discussion. There are still manual jobs to be done, like cleaning the streets, digging ditches, and agriculture. Do we really need education for these? This is a problem even in the developed world, though a little less. In the West, it has been at least partly solved by immigrants from Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe. But there still remains the problem of what to do with the indigenous people who are not intelligent enough to read and write. The health services seem nothing but good as people live longer and more survive infancy so that the population soars. Pakistan suffers badly from both of these problems. Literacy is low: males 62% and females 35%, while life expectancy is 63 years for males and 65 for females. Perhaps impress on the class how fortunate they are to be able to read and write. 3. Role of communication (transfer of information between individuals) for industrial growth: • • • important for growth of business and industry; provides a vast range of information—for example, international and local news, stock market, etc. enables informed decision making.

4. Students can work in groups on this activity. Chapter 7: Exports and imports of Pakistan Text pages 63–69 Euro: Until 2002, every country in Europe had a different currency— pounds, kroner, crowns, marks, zlotys, lira, pesetas, drachmas, francs, guilders, and so on, and each currency had varying values. Travelling in 32

Europe was a nuisance—at each frontier one had to change currencies. Then from 2002 most countries in Europe decided to have a completely new currency, the euro. Now one can spend the same coinage in all member countries. Britain and Denmark have voted to stay out of the European Monetary Union (EMU) for the time being as their economies were strong whereas many of the others were faltering. Explain the term balance of payments by relating it to the students’ own experience of handling money. Perhaps pupils could make their own balance of payments accounts: pocket money, presents at birthdays, etc. and any other money they may earn from doing jobs, noted on one side, and what they spend it on, on the other. Foreign debts: most developing countries are heavily in debt to various international financial institutions, such as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), or other developed nations. At times, developed countries are also in debt while some lucky ones have a credit balance. UK owes about US$ 20 billion; the USA, about US$ 200 billion. Japan is about US$ 100 billion in credit; Saudi Arabia, about US$ 35 billion in credit; Germany, US$ 72 billion in credit. Export: Pakistan’s big five Cotton: It should not be difficult for pupils to produce examples of cotton products. Put up a class display. Get some rayon and compare the two fabrics for absorbency, feel, warmth etc. Rice: This has been given in detail, in Chapter 4, as well as on page 64. Compare the price of basmati rice with other varieties in your country. Sports equipment: Pakistan is still a major exporter of sports equipment, but today much of the natural raw material is being replaced by synthetic material. Ask pupils what sports equipment they know of, made from plastics and other synthetics: footballs, cricket balls—plastic-coated instead of leather; hockey sticks—graphite instead of wood; tennis and squash rackets—frames sometimes of metal (titanium is light and very strong, and very expensive) but the stringing now, instead of gut from animals, is usually nylon. Carpets: These are highly priced export items, especially the handknotted ones. The price is determined by the quality of the material— wool, silk or both—and the number of knots per square inch. Antique carpets are also very expensive. Factory/machine-made carpets cost less. 33

Imports Using the tables on page 65, the students can make a bar chart. These figures can also lead to some discussion in response to the questions in text, page 65. Note the value of petroleum imports: almost twice as much, or more than the other imported items. Perhaps students can identify those imports which help to make exports for Pakistan— machinery, some chemicals and fertilizers, iron and steel, transport. Much of the increase in imports is caused by increase in population, rising standards of living, and industrialization. Wheat: marginal increase from 1996 to 2006, mainly due to better yields in interim years Tea: increase of almost three times, despite cost, and in line with population increase Edible oil: almost doubled; rising standards and change in lifestyle Fertilizer: increased 2.8 times, in response to demand for food and exports Petroleum: increased almost five times, as a result of industrialization, and rising standards as more people have cars, motorcycles, etc. Foreign businesses in Pakistan are mostly multinationals manufacturing pharmaceuticals, auto parts, mechanical goods, and food items, especially fast food and soft drink chains. ANSWERS TO QUESTION IN INFO BOX, PAGE 65: Against compulsory education: some point which could be raised. 1. In a developing economy like Pakistan where 75 per cent of the workforce is engaged in agriculture, often on a subsistence basis, there is little point in learning to read and write. Any knowledge needed is passed on by word of mouth. 2. In crafts such as carpet weaving, the skills can be taught to children at an early age, again without the need to be literate. 3. In villages, in particular, where would reading material come from? There would hardly be any libraries or bookshops, and in many no newspapers. 4. Modern media, radio and, especially, TV can give us news of the world and of events in our own country without the need to be able to read a word. 34

For education: 1. With more and more people moving to towns and cities, the need for literacy increases—if for nothing else, to be able to read street names, road signs, notices, shop signs, and much else. 2. As Pakistan becomes more industrialized, the need for literacy increases—instructions in factories, office work, programmes of work to be done that day. 3. Instead of having just the news and information given on the TV and radio, which in some countries is strictly controlled by governments, literate people can choose which newspapers and books to read so that they can make up their own opinions. 4. Literacy extends the whole range of leisure activities: books and magazines of special interest like fishing or speed racing, fiction, travel, biographies, etc. and lets us have a much broader picture of our world. 5. Literacy is essential to getting on in the world…getting better jobs, higher positions. Pupils will probably throw up many more reasons. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES, PAGE 66: 1. Balance of payment is the record of money payments between one country and other countries incurred due to exports, imports, foreign investments, loans and other cash flows. When imports are higher than exports, the difference calculated is called trade deficit and when exports are higher than imports and this difference calculated is called surplus. 2. Students can answer this question with reference to the tables given on pages 62 and 65. 3. ‘Others’ would include processed/finished consumer goods such as food items, cosmetics, toys, chemicals, medicines, etc. 4. Crude petroleum and its products are the largest imports, as these are needed for transport and energy. These come mainly from the Gulf States, and especially from Arabia. 5. Students can answer this question with reference to table given on page 65. 35

Chapter 8: World population Text pages 70–78 The figures for world population are amazing—that the whole population of the Earth could be accommodated inside the boundaries of Karachi, or as in the UK, on the Isle of Wight (38,000 hectares). Talk to the pupils about the exercise on page 68, on the most and least densely populated areas in the world. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS IN TEXT, PAGE 68: Reasons for high population: New York: International business and trade centre, financial and commercial centre of the USA, the richest and most powerful nation in the world. It is also the focal point of a vast built-up area made up of many cities about 400 miles long, sometimes called Megapolis (Greek mega = huge, polis = city). Europe: Business region and strong industrial base; a moderate, mild climate and fertile land attracted primitive peoples to this area. As thousands of years later it became industrialized, the population soared, supported by the colonies supplying raw materials. Nile Valley and Ganges Valley: Agriculture; very fertile, well-watered land surrounded, in the case of the Nile by desert, and of the Ganges by poorer land. Mumbai: India’s business and trade centre. Even under British control, Bombay, as it was then called, was the second largest city in the subcontinent, (population, 1927: 1,200,000; Calcutta: 1,300,000). In the 18th century it was ideally suited as a trade port with Europe, on the west coast of the subcontinent with an excellent deep-water harbour. By 1900, it had a population of one million. Its prosperity has attracted many modern industries: the world’s biggest film industry, TV and advertising, financial and banking centre (much of Europe’s banking is done in Mumbai). Eastern China: Industry, business, and agriculture; most fertile area of China, where only about 10 per cent of the land is first-class agricultural land. To the west are mountains, highlands and deserts. 36

Indonesia: Industry, business, and agriculture; very fertile and, more recently, well supplied with minerals, though still a desperately poor country. Japan: Industry and business; immensely overcrowded with 340 people/ sq km, particularly the Kanto region comprising many cities. Limited land area and no space for excess population—Japan’s aim in World War II was to get land for its people. Relatively low birth rate and death rate (males 79, females 86 years—longest expectation of life in the world. Infant mortality, at 2.9 per 1000 births, is the lowest in the world and means population soaring Reasons for lowest population: Northern Canada: Too cold and inhospitable to support many people, also because of Canadian forest and tundra. Amazon Basin: Too densely forested to support many people; largely indigenous primitive peoples; dense rainforests, protected region. North Africa: Sahara Desert, very hot and dry; does not support population or occupation other than in the oases or the oil industry. South-west Africa: Kalahari Desert, very hot and dry, and underdeveloped. Central Asia: Harsh climate, poor land, and poor vegetation; wide temperature variations make it inhospitable; sparse population, traditionally mainly nomadic people with horses and herds. Northern Asia: Siberia, very cold, forested highlands; inhospitable. Arctic region: Ice bound, uninhabitable. Central Australia: Desert, very hot and dry. World population projections: pupils could do block graphs of 1999 and 2050 figures, at the scale of 1000 million (one billion) = 4 cm. Figures would be: North America: 1.47 and 1.99 cm; South America: 1.99 and 2.72 cm; Europe: 2.9 and 2.8 cm; Africa: 3.1 and 5.8 cm; Asia: 14.3 and 17.9 cm; Oceania 0.1 and 0.17 cm. This will bring home the population problems of Asia, unless they are brought under control. Do not forget these are projections made in 2004—there may be radical changes in the future as there have been in China, with its one-child legislation. 37

ANSWER TO QUESTION IN TEXT, PAGE 68: Population of Europe is expected to decrease because it is a highly sophisticated, industrialized urban society (Western Europe, at least) with about 75–90 per cent of the population living in cities. It is densely crowded and there is a general feeling among younger people that material goods are perhaps better than families—at least you can choose your car, kitchen, and furniture! It is largely a matter of lifestyle: holidays, clothes, and other luxuries dominate many people’s lives. The decline of religion; fewer people are getting married (one third only of the marriageable age group). Though the Catholic Church forbids contraception, but even among believers this is largely ignored. Because of the high cost of living, people cannot afford large families. Women, especially those in good jobs, are often putting their careers before family, and if they do have children they are often in their late 30s or 40s. The universal availability of contraception (in a few senior schools this is available to pupils on request—this is for teachers’ consumption). A few people are genuinely so pessimistic about the future of the world they deliberately refrain from having families because they do not want their children to have to suffer. There is also a problem of declining fertility, especially among men: while this remains a mystery, it is probably due to lifestyle. To maintain the population at its present level, every couple should have an average of 2.1 children. Most European countries are below this. In Italy the average is 1, and for most of Europe, the average is 1.1—1.8 births per female. Compare these with other countries whose statistics are given below. Turkey 2.8 Egypt 3.4 Iran 2.8 Philippines 3.5 India 3.1 Pakistan 5.0 Malaysia 3.2 Cote d’Ivoire 5.1 Kenya 3.2 Nigeria 5.2 South Africa 3.3 Saudi Arabia 5.8 Catholic countries such as Spain, Italy, Ireland, and Portugal, despite their religious beliefs, are among the lowest. Some in Eastern Europe actually have a negative change: the population is declining. The common factor is that almost all countries with very high birth rates are developing countries, whereas developed countries have a lower birth rate. 38

Male-female ratio: this is coupled with the number of men for every 100 women. Iran 103 China 106 Taiwan 106 Iraq 106 Pakistan 107 Saudi Arabia 127 (!) Switzerland, Sweden, UK, USA, South Africa, Japan, Nigeria, and Brazil are typical of most of the world, with 96-97 men for every 100 women. Traditionally, male babies are harder to rear than females so that in general about 104/5 boys are born for every 100 girls. Because (at least, in the past) more boys died in infancy, parity was reached by adulthood. Birth rate in China is legally restricted to one child per family as the population was soaring uncontrollably. (See page 70 in pupil’s book.) However, after the May 2008 earthquake in Sichuan, where thousands of children were killed, the policy was relaxed. These are the literacy percentage figures (CIA World Factbook, 2007). Male Female Pakistan 62 35 Bangladesh 54 32 India 70 48 Sri Lanka 95 90 Nepal 63 35 And these are the life expectancy figures. Male Female Pakistan 63 65 India 66 71 Sri Lanka 73 77 Nepal 61 60 Bangladesh 63 63 Observe the link between literacy, health, and life expectancy. The appalling life expectancy in the African states is due mainly to the prevalence of AIDS—one person in four is thought to be infected, because of their careless lifestyle; there is also the prevalence of famine through ignorance. 39

Longer expectation of life means dramatic change on the part of governments: they must provide for pensions, health care, social welfare for the elderly. Thus an increasing tax burden falls on a smaller and smaller percentage of active workers. Technology makes up some of the deficit, but this cannot go on indefinitely. Discuss the Chinese policy of one child per family. The government there makes no provision for pensions for the elderly, who traditionally were cared for by the adult children. Now, with one child, who does the wife (who does most of the caring) look after—her own parents or those of her husband? The soaring population is perhaps the greatest problem facing the world. In Pakistan, the increase in population slowed down from 1981–97 from a 3.06 per cent increase in 1981 to 2.42 per cent in 1997, but since then it has risen quite sharply to 2.69 per cent. This is not a good sign: it may probably be due to the higher standard of living, but the government will have to watch this carefully. The famous English economist, Malthus (1798) put forward a theory that the population (of the UK) would go on increasing at a geometric mean (2…4…8… 16…32…64, etc.) whereas food production would increase only at an arithmetic mean (2…4…6…8…10…12 etc). With farming still very primitive in the UK and the population swarming to the towns under the Industrial Revolution, this seemed to be all too true. But with new farming methods, improved stock and grains, and imports from abroad, it was soon seen to be wrong. Malthus was discredited. Today, however, he is seen more favourably: the Earth is finite, as are the foods it can produce. We are nowhere near the limit at the moment, but there are millions starving to death all over the world. This is because of disruption: civil wars forcing people from the land, outdated agricultural methods, and ignorance. So we are back again to the importance of education for a better life. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS IN TEXT, PAGE 69: The table and the graph show that the population of Pakistan has almost doubled from 1981–2007. This is putting pressure on all services—health, law and order, justice, education. It means many more mouths to feed, and while improved methods have enabled foodstuffs to keep pace more or less, in view of the climate changes and the water shortages, the prospect seems rather gloomy especially as the fertility rate remains very 40

high—almost 4 children on average per woman, compared with most developed countries where the figure is 1.2–1.7 children per woman. (the USA is surprisingly high at 2.09.) Change can only come about by educating the masses, and breaking down the tradition of having large families to work the land. Unless some measures are taken, the population will outstrip the resources especially foodstuffs. With industry and agriculture rapidly becoming mechanized (tractors and other machinery on the land, computers and automation in industry) and needing fewer and fewer workers, there could be much unemployment and consequent unrest. The graphs also show a slow but steady gap between the number of males and females. The population in 2007 was 52.5% male and 47.5% female. In 2001 it was 51.9% male and 48.1% female. Although 0.6% may not seem a lot taken in the context of a total population of 158,000,000 it is significant—almost 8 million more males than females. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS IN TEXT, PAGE 70: i) Pakistan, India, and Nigeria are typical of the developing countries where old traditions are still very strong and large families are favoured. China, with fortunate foresight, has a strict one child per family policy to control its population growth. Germany is economically advanced and industrially developed, unlike agricultural countries which need many helping hands.

ii) Higher life expectancy in Germany because in general far more is spent on health, hospital, medicine by the government. Again, Germany being economically stronger can provide better facilities to its people, thus increasing life expectancy. iii) The countries listed here are all in Africa. The positive difference between Pakistan and other African countries is due to stronger moral values, and better living conditions in Pakistan. iv) Pakistan does not have the extreme climatic conditions which lead to much disease. As a developing country, it has better health facilities. Education is better. The general standard of living, if not high by the standards in Europe and North America, is immensely better than those of the Central African states Page 71 has many points for discussion; (b) and (d) are important, particularly in Pakistan where there are so many demands on state 41

money, and education is expensive. It is difficult to break the traditions of thousands of years, but the simple, almost self-sufficient, farming has no real place in the bursting population of today. Urbanization: (Latin ‘urbs’ = a city). Talk about why people flock to the cities and urban areas. The bright lights, better jobs, housing, amenities, transport etc… are all too often a delusion. It is ironic that in many western countries the flow has reversed, though not with ordinary people. When city workers have reached a sufficiently high salary, they dream of the ‘country cottage’, if not for a permanent home, at least for a weekend retreat. Improved and faster transport enables people to travel long distances to reach work in the cities, especially like Tokyo, London, and New York, and thousands of people in developed countries spend four or more hours each day just travelling to and from work, so that they can live in the countryside. This has forced up the prices of property so that local country people, who are often in lower-paid jobs, cannot buy houses. A typical two-bedroom country cottage within 150 kilometres of London or other cities often costs £150,000 to £200,000 (calculate at the current exchange rate for the rupee vs GBP). ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES, PAGE 74: 1. Problems caused by rapid increase in population are shortage of food, basic amenities, jobs, housing, services, resources, etc. These lead to unrest, poor living conditions, bad health, crime, etc. 2. China has tried to solve this problem with the ‘One child per family’ policy. Students to share their own opinion on this. 3. (The ten countries, listed on page 70, are in Africa but students should look them up in an atlas. They can work in groups and share their opinion with the class.) Some possible answers: All of these countries are in Central Africa. Everything militates against long life: the climate is generally very hot, which leads to disease. About 900,000 people, mainly children and women, die of malaria alone in these countries although malaria is easily eradicated. Low standards of education, if any at all. Countries are desperately poor and cannot afford decent government health facilities. Terrible corruption: money given by organizations such as the UN or the WHO generally finds its way into the pockets 42

of a small elite. HIV/AIDS in Central Africa (where it originated)— 10–20 per cent suffer from the disease because of the traditional promiscuous lifestyle of the males. 4. Longer expectation of life means a major re-think for governments on how to cope with the problem of an ageing population. The provision of health care for older people, who need the most medical attention, is a major worry for expense and the provision of enough medical staff. In countries where the state provides a pension for the retired, the burden is falling on a smaller and smaller group of people of working age. 5. Answer given in detail on page 73; students can give other reasons also. 6. (a) Advantages of living in a city: More opportunities; more sources of interest. Shopping; transport; entertainment. More contact with others for all activities. Wider range of everything from food to amusements. Better health and educational facilities. (b) Disadvantages: Pollution from vehicle fumes, noise, visual pollution. Crowded, expensive; often no work. Accommodation can be poorer. Often little contact with neighbours, unlike in villages. Chapter 9: Major occupations in the world Text pages 75–81 Discuss specialization—how some people were better at certain jobs than others, and how barter developed. Talk about how money developed— fairly late in civilization. For example, A, the spear maker may have had all the meat he needed, but B, the hunter desperately needed a new spear. A, however, did need a pot for cooking, from C. Some kind of token had to be developed so that B could give it to A in return for the spear, and A could give it to C in return for the pot: perhaps this is how coins or money may have developed. Fire was probably created by rubbing together very vigorously two pieces of wood. If possible try a hardwood stick (an old ruler is good) in a groove in a piece of softer wood. The other way is to strike two pieces of stone (flint) together and often a spark flies out. If this falls on a piece of very dry shredded leaf (or today, old cloth) it will often smoulder and, blown gently, burst into flame. It is NOT easy: in primitive times once a 43

fire was established it was kept going, and if the group moved they usually took a burning branch with them. The discovery of farming with that of fire were perhaps the two most crucial events in mankind’s history—till the invention of the wheel. Initially, agriculture was perhaps accidental—gathered wild grains may have been spilled on the ground and although most were picked up, some would have remained. When the wandering group returned the next year, they would have found a crop of the wild grasses they were seeking. It was probably many hundreds of years before they realized the process and, in early farming, used just the wild seeds. Later, these began to be selected, picking the biggest heads of seeds and planting those, so that the quality gradually improved. This tended to make people settle in larger groups as crops, and animals, had to be looked after all the year. Initially perhaps women tended to look after the agriculture while the men still hunted. But larger communities were a problem: someone had to have authority, someone to enforce rules, someone to rule the supernatural aspects of the society. Among the people, some were better hunters, potters, weavers, weapon makers, and so on, until there had to be a division of labour. ANSWER TO QUESTION IN TEXT, PAGE 76: Some possible answers with reasons; other possible answers can be discussed with students. There had to be a leader who made the rules even in the smallest community. In larger ones, he needed people to help him with his job— a primitive civil service. In all communities the leader needed a small group of guards to make sure that everyone obeyed his rules, and to punish them if they did not—the earliest form of police and legal system. People attached great respect to their primitive gods, so that a special group would become intermediaries (go-betweens) between the gods and the people. These were priests, and they were often the rulers’ advisers as well. In the photos on page 77, apart from the policeman, all seem middle class professionals. The socio-economic group to which the policeman belongs probably outnumbers the middle class professionals five to one, or more. Over 43 per cent of Pakistan’s workforce is employed in agriculture. Compared with its giant neighbours, India and China, Pakistan has a high proportion of service workers—normally an indication of development. 44

Hong Kong is most dependent on service industries which are largely financial—banking, insurance, stock-brokering, etc. China, though still basically an agrarian economy, is developing industry at a phenomenal rate. Some observers predict that by 2050, unless there is some calamity, China will have overtaken the USA as the world’s largest industrial nation. Japan is limited in terms of area, but it has a strong industrial (cars, electronics, etc.) and commercial base; hence the high percentage of employment in service industries. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS UNDER TABLE, PAGE 79: India, China, and Pakistan (in sequence) are most dependent on agriculture. Hong Kong (not a country) and Japan have the highest levels of service industries, because (a) Hong Kong is too small in terms of area for largescale industry or any agriculture, hence it is mainly a centre for international business and commerce, and (b) Japan besides having a strong industrial base, is also an important business and trade centre of the world. In China, service industries cover communication, office work, travel and tourism, hospitality, translation services; in Japan too the categories would be similar. In India, service industries besides the above categories also include call centres and off-shore service for many Western multinationals, such as banks, airlines, IT, and also medical transcription. Education and fluency in English along with special training have been a great advantage for India. Employment and unemployment The chart on page 78 gives a graphic representation of the employment statistics for Pakistan. Of the total population, the workforce, i.e. the employable people, forms 29 per cent, while the unemployed are 6 per cent—a high percentage. Of the workforce itself, the distribution of jobs is as follows: Mining/manufacturing 13.8 per cent Trading 14.67 per cent Electricity/gas 1.89 per cent Transport 5.74 per cent Building/construction 6.3 per cent Others (service/police/etc) 14.35 per cent Agriculture 43.37 per cent 45

The unemployment rate in Pakistan is worrying, and rising. This is due to many reasons—mechanization is creeping in to take over what were simple labouring and manual jobs, and it is this group that Pakistan has difficulty in finding work for. The country also has a major refugee problem—millions who poured in from Afghanistan, first in the early 1980s and then again as a result of the American action in 2001. These find it difficult to get work. There is lately the problem of in-migration too, albeit temporary, as people from the north-west have been displaced by conflict in their home region. Table, page 79: GDP, Gross Domestic Product, is in effect the amount of money generated per person per year within a country. It is generally taken as a good indicator of a nation’s prosperity. Life expectancy: These figures are an average. Some regions of Pakistan have a very high rate of infant mortality indeed so that, though most people live beyond the figures given, the average is lower. Japan’s figures for life expectancy are high, even for the western world: this is attributed to diet and lifestyle. Note the high literacy rate and higher proportion of urban dwellers in Japan. The question following the table can be a good class activity. Why is literacy so important? This question can generate a good discussion in class. Literacy is important in a modern developing society: • • • • So many instructions at work, home, school, and shopping are written, not spoken. It would be difficult to live a full life in a modern society without reading even such simple things as street and shop names, destination on buses, etc. The government and other authorities issue laws, orders and instructions in written form: in law, not being able to read the instructions is no excuse for criminal activity. Reading is one of the greatest forms of pleasure and instruction. We read novels just for enjoyment, and books and magazines on our various interests—fishing, fashion, motorcycles, cooking, camping— to make our lives richer and more interesting.

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Education allows us to do more complex jobs which are essential in a developing world. It enables us to understand more of our own country and the world around us. In general, it helps us to be better citizens in all ways.

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS UNDER TABLE, PAGE 79: There are great differences between Japan and the other two (Pakistan is definitely better than Nigeria). 1. Japan’s GDP is more than 60 times even that of Pakistan. 2. Expectation of life: people in Japan live, on average, up to 20 years longer. 3. Population under 15 is much lower in Japan (developed country) and far more over 65 than the other two. 4. Infant mortality is immensely lower in Japan than the other two; even Pakistan is better than Nigeria. 5. Almost half the workforce in Pakistan and Nigeria works on the land: in a developed country, the ratio is only one in 20. 6. Literacy: virtually everyone in a developed country can read and write: in the other two it is less than half. 7. In Japan 8 out of every 10 of the population live in towns: in the others it is well under half. 8. Nigeria has hardly any industry as compared to the other two countries. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES, PAGE 81: 1. People had to settle down when they discovered farming because they had to tend to the crops, and harvest them at the right time. They could not carry baskets of grain with them if they travelled. It was also not practical moving animals every day. 2. Service industries are rapidly expanding as countries are developing industrially and economically. Moreover, as more goods for developed countries are manufactured in low-cost developing countries, the services’ infrastructure provides employment to many people. As the standard of living rises, people have motorcycles and cars—these need garages for repairs and fuel; electronic items such as computers and televisions need a whole army of engineers to maintain and 47

repair them; there are shops selling all kinds of goods for leisure. Service industry also caters for entertainment—cinema, sports, etc. It gives more free time to people so that they can do what they want. 3. Building and construction are typical of improving economies, as office blocks, factories, schools, and hospitals, as well as residential units are added on. Construction also provides employment to professionally qualified and skilled workers as well as labourers. Roads, houses, factories, and offices are vital in a developing economy for communication, places where manufacturing can take place, and offices for administrative work, etc. 4. Electricity and gas industries are highly mechanized, hence the workforce is limited, though highly skilled. 5. Education, i.e. literacy, Numeracy, and professional skills are vital for the progress of any country. This can be a good topic for class discussion. Some points for discussion: Literacy is important to combat old prejudices and ideas, to spread ideas and to open people’s minds to the modern world. Some people say that literacy is not necessary in the modern world with radio, and especially, television and telephones. What is the fallacy of this argument? Television and radio pre-select the information they give us—we are told only what the people who run the stations want us to know. This is dangerous, particularly where the main provider of mass communication is an oppressive government—one has only to think of the propaganda and lies spread by the Nazi and communist regimes. A literate person can read for himself/herself and get to know more about various topics from various sources, without being influenced. In the West, the arrival of radio in the 1920s and, 40 years later, television were greeted with dismay in many quarters as the death of reading and books. Yet the sale of books today is higher than ever in history, partly because they are so cheap. In the USA, about 370 new titles are published every day of the year (2008)—it may be true that many of them are probably not worth publishing, but they are. 6. This is a good topic for discussion.

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Chapter 10: World environment and its problems Text pages 82–86 Progress and our modern world: Get pupils to talk with grandparents and find out what life was like when they were children. Tell their stories to the class. Health, living conditions, food supply, transport, and entertainment have seen the most dramatic changes. But these, however comfortable, have been achieved at a cost. The downside is steady destruction of the Earth, as we know it. A visible sign is the chopping down of vast areas of forest, especially in South America. The diversion of water for crops, especially in Central Asia, has eliminated several major rivers, and some areas of water such as the Caspian Sea are rapidly disappearing—fishing villages a few years ago on the shore are now 40 km away from the water. Covering the land with concrete is steadily increasing as urban areas expand. But the more serious downsides are much more harmful—pollution of air, land, and water. The quality of air is having major effects on the world’s climate in global warming—it is estimated that at the present rate, the average temperature of the Earth will rise 2 degrees C by the end of the century. This is, by meteorological standards, a phenomenal rise, with all the effects of melting ice-caps already discussed. It will alter the agriculture patterns of the world, with more areas becoming desert, and more of the northern and southern areas being able to grow crops which had formerly been sub-tropical. The cause of global warming is largely carbon dioxide, emitted from any combustion process as in factories, which forms a blanket round the Earth and prevents heat from leaking away. Nitrogen and sulphur dioxide emitted in large quantities by exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, and the burning of all fossil fuels, combine with water in the atmosphere to form an acid which dissolves rocks and etches metals, as well as causing severe problems when it is quite unavoidably breathed in. Waste products from industry and human habitation, as well as residues from agricultural chemicals such as pesticides and herbicides, normally are dumped directly into rivers or the sea, but in any case find their way back underground. These can poison aquatic organisms directly by making life impossible—not enough oxygen in the water—or encourage the erratic growth of some plant life (agricultural residues, largely 49

nitrogenous, are a major factor here) which deprive the water of oxygen and make it impossible for fish to survive. This is visibly obvious in coastal regions such as off Karachi and in the lakes in interior Sindh where wastes from upstream and from factories pollute the water making it unfit for marine life and upsetting the natural balance. Purely physical wastes from humans—packaging, detritus, food waste— pile up, providing a perfect breeding place for germs and vermin. In sophisticated countries much of this is incinerated… but this merely releases more sulphur, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide into the air. The more developed the countries, the more waste, and no one has yet found a satisfactory answer. Nuclear waste is also a very long-term problem: the answer to power generation is almost certainly to be in nuclear stations—unless some dramatic new breakthrough is achieved; but the waste from these is especially hazardous as it lasts for centuries if not thousands of years. Again no answer has been found: countries dump their nuclear waste down disused mines, or in the sea, but this must be purely a temporary solution. Use of pesticides and herbicides The great dilemma today is that more food for a growing world population is desperately needed: to get it, crops must be protected from weeds, disease, and insects. Herbicides and pesticides will do this, but (a) the residues either drain away into water or are eaten in the products, and (b) both disease and insects develop a resistance, so that stronger and stronger chemicals have to be used. The ideal would be biological control—getting one insect to prey on another. This can be very effective in limited areas such as glasshouses, but sometimes the results are dramatically damaging. The prickly pear cactus was introduced to Australia as a cheap way of making hedges for stock. The cactus had no predators in Australia, and spread so rapidly that it threatened to take over the country. It was then found that the cochineal insects, from which the red food dye is produced, feasted on prickly pear in its natural homeland (America) and kept it partly under control. It was introduced to Australia, where it did bring some measure of control of the cactus— but then the cochineal found that some of the natural Australian crops were even more tasty, and so switched its attention to other farm products! 50

Photographs on page 84: Note that although the plants are being sprayed with highly poisonous insect-killing chemicals, none of the workers have any face masks or protection. They are breathing in the spray. This would be illegal in most developed countries—an example of the use of education. While workers in the West would have learned the dangers of the spray, and even if the government had not made masks compulsory, they would have worn some protection, the workers in the pictures are probably completely unaware that the spray may be steadily killing them. Use of antibiotics The problem with feeding antibiotics to animals (for reasons given on page 84) means that traces of the drugs survived in meat and eggs, which are in turn eaten by human beings. They can develop a resistance to antibiotics so that when these are used in earnest for human diseases, they sometimes do not respond. Consequently, scientists are constantly developing stronger or different antibiotic drugs. Similarly, animals are given hormones to increase the milk supply, and poultry may also be treated to increase egg production, but there is a definite possibility of the after-effects being passed on to the end consumer—humans. Nuclear energy This is (in the event of no dramatic breakthrough in new sources of power) going to be the electricity source of the future. It demands a very highly trained workforce, and immense discipline. France, which produces 75 per cent of its power from nuclear plants, has not had any serious accident, but the USA has had several, the one at Three Mile Island in 1979 being one of the worst. The main accident was in the USSR when in 1986 one of the four reactors at the Chernobyl plant exploded. Poor design and construction and mismanagements by workers caused it to overheat and explode. Great clouds of deadly radioactive particles were blown into the atmosphere. 56 people nearby were killed as a direct result, but an estimated 4000 have died subsequently as a result of radiation. The radioactive cloud spread across Europe, even to Ireland, 1500 km away. The grass was so contaminated that the milk from cows had to be thrown away for almost a year as the animals had eaten contaminated grass. Again, terribly 51

deformed babies were born in the proximity of the power station—the city of Prypiat had to be abandoned. The reactor is now encased in a tomb of thousands of tonnes of concrete, and will be lethal for many centuries. Nuclear weapons call for tremendous responsibility. When only the USA, USSR, and the UK had nuclear bombs, there was a kind of balance of power: no one dared to use them (MAD was the term used—Mutual Atomic Destruction). If one bomb on a rocket were sent to attack, say, the USA from Russia during the Cold War, Washington would have 20 minutes notice by radar. Its own nuclear rockets were kept in deep silos underground, aimed at Soviet cities, and would be released immediately. Both countries would be devastated. For this reason, though they hated each other, they agreed to what they called a Hot Line: if a missile was fired by mistake or by a madman, the presidents could communicate immediately to prevent retaliation. Today, alas, spies and renegade scientists, as well as countries’ own research laboratories, have found the secret of atomic weapons, and though no one knows exactly how many nations have nuclear weapons, it must be at least a dozen or more. The after-effects of untested drugs Thalidomide was a relatively mild tranquillizer introduced in the early 1960s, especially suited for pregnancy. It was considered perfectly safe even in overdoses. Then it was found that all over the western world, horribly deformed babies were being born—without limbs, or with vestigial ones. In West Germany, some 10,000 deformed babies were born, of which 5000 survived. In the UK, 600 were born and 400 survived. The drug was rapidly withdrawn but these unfortunate people had a lifetime to live. The drug had not been tested on animals before being released by its US manufacturer: now animal testing is compulsory. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES, PAGE 86: 1. Some of the matter for this answer can be found in the last two chapters of this book, but students can work on this in groups and research the answer. Obviously, life without the modern conveniences we take for granted would be unthinkable to many children today; the advances in medicine and science have extended lifespans and improved the quality of life, overall. 52

2. The advantages that have caused damage are industrialization at the cost of the environment; perhaps the excessive and indulgent use of gas-guzzling cars, emitting fumes into the atmosphere and also depleting fossil fuels. This question is a good topic for discussion and also debate in the classroom. 3. Basic facts: US Union Carbide plant at Bhopal was making highly lethal pesticide. A terrible accident took place in which 42 tonnes of a deadly gas poured into the air in December 1984. Subsequent investigations showed the most appalling mismanagement and cost cutting to increase profit—the danger alarms, for example, had not worked for four years. Almost all trained staff had left at the poor work conditions. All instructions were in English which few workers could read. More than 8000 people died within two weeks of the accident from poisoning, and since then another 8000 are thought to have died from effects of the accident. Compensation to the affected families has been nominal. 4. This has already been discussed above. Students can do further research on the Internet as well as through old magazines, such as National Geographic, and newspaper archives—again via Internet.

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Section 2: HISTORY
Chapter 11: The concept of the two-nation state Text pages 87–93 With such immense diversity of ethnic origins, languages, religions, climatic regions, ways of life, and many other aspects, it was impossible for an independent subcontinent to remain as one state. But that was what the British, and indeed the Quaid himself, until 1940, believed was the only way of independence. Perhaps if some method could have been found, of giving minority peoples fair justice, a federal system would have been the right solution. But it was obvious that the Hindus, with their built-in 3:1 majority, were going to insist that they held all of the power, especially after Nehru’s declaration that the Congress was not bound to honour promises made by the British once they were no more in power. It was with this realization that the Quaid saw that partition of the subcontinent, despite its problems, was the only solution. Earlier Muslim thinkers and politicians in the 18th and early 19th century had visions of an Islamic state, and though their ideas did not seem practical, they sowed the seeds for later and more powerful men. Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan: He was pro-British, but with a firm foot in both camps. He was something of an idealist, but his great contribution was the encouragement of education, which the Muslims had rejected after the War of Independence. He could see clearly that this would condemn Muslims, perpetually, to inferior positions. He also preached that science and technology, which were rejected by many Muslims, were not alien to Islam and the Quran, and they must be accepted. Allama Mohammed Iqbal: Probably the greatest thinker in India at the time, he was also a pragmatist and a practical man. Initially, like Mr Jinnah, he believed that when independence eventually came for the subcontinent, it must be as a single nation (as reflected by his anthem, Saaray jahan say achha Hindustan hamara). By 1930, however, he realized that the Hindus would be in permanent and total control, and he advocated separate states. He had a profound influence on the thinking of the Quaid who was a man of action. Iqbal wrote inspirational poetry, both in Urdu and Persian, to motivate the Muslims of the subcontinent as well as the west Asian states into action. 54

Chaudhri Rehmat Ali was a strong advocate of a single (federal) state for Pakistan, but excluding the eastern wing. He is credited with inventing the name from the initials of Punjab, Afghanistan (NWFP), Kashmir, Sindh, and ‘stan’ from Baluchistan. There are variations of this. Rehmat Ali envisaged a state that included more territory on its western side and was deeply disillusioned by the borders drawn by the British and accepted by the Quaid—‘a moth-eaten and truncated Pakistan’. Mohammed Ali Jinnah: He is the founder of the country and the driving force behind the Pakistan movement. In each of the books of this series, there is much material on the Quaid-i-Azam, for teachers and students to discuss. More can be drawn from other sources, such as biographies of the Quaid and the newspaper supplements on 14 August and 23 March, each year. The speech he made to the Constituent Assembly clearly outlined his ideals—of Pakistan as a progressive country guided by the best principles of Islam where people of all faiths and beliefs could live in harmony, where there would be the rule of law and fair play for all. The famous Fourteen Points presented by the Quaid-i-Azam are given below, for reference. These points eventually led to the demand for a separate, independent state for the Muslims of India. Jinnah’s Fourteen Points 1. Any future constitution to be federal with residuary powers vested in provinces. 2. Uniform measure of autonomy to all provinces. 3. All legislatures and other elected bodies to be given adequate and effective representation of minorities. 4. Muslims not to be less than one third on the Central Legislature. 5. Representation of communal groups shall be by means of separate electorates as at present—any community can abandon this in favour of joint electorate. 6. Any territorial redistribution that might be necessary shall not affect the Muslim majority in the Punjab, Bengal, and the NWFP. 7. Full religious liberty of association and education to all communities. 8. No bill to be passed in any legislature if three quarters of any community in that body oppose that bill. 55

9. Sindh to be separated from Bombay Presidency. 10. Provision in the constitution to give Muslims an adequate share, along with other Indians, in all services of the state. 11. Constitution to embody adequate safeguards to protect Muslim culture, language, religion, charitable institutions, and for these to have due share of state grants-in-aid. 12. Reforms should be introduced in the NWFP and Balochistan on the same footing as other provinces. 13. No cabinet, central or provincial, to be formed without at least one third Muslim ministers. 14. No change in the constitution to be made by Central Legislature except with agreement of the states in the Indian Federation. The ideology of Pakistan Perhaps explain ‘constitution’—the laws governing the running of a country. Most countries have a written constitution, a formal document setting down these rules. Usually a clause of the constitution can be changed or amended only after a long debate and the vote of two thirds of the whole legislative body (bodies). The USA has had only 27 amendments to its constitution in well over 200 years. These are of major importance, such as abolition of slavery (1865), prohibiting alcoholic drink (1919)—later repealed; women given the right to vote (1920); voting age reduced to 18 (1970). Dictators and military rulers who seize power in a country sometimes suspend a nation’s constitution and rule without the basic laws. This has also been done many times in Pakistan, but the constitution has always re-emerged. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES, PAGE 93: 1. Students can discuss and answer this question. Some suggested answers: vast territory with a diverse population; a single ruler could not govern it; communication problems; economic problems; conflicts among rulers of smaller states who all wanted independent kingdoms and were constantly at war, etc. 2. Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan tried to establish friendly relationships between the Muslims and the British, to the advantage of the former. 56

He was strongly in favour of education as he saw it as the key to progress; he set up the Anglo-Oriental School in Aligarh. He suggested that there should be separate states for the Hindus and Muslims. Allama Iqbal, a brilliant lawyer and poet, showed the direction forward for a Muslim state in the subcontinent. He saw the dangers of a single country in which 80 per cent would be nonMuslims, and how Hindus would never let go of power. In the Allahabad statement (1930) he put forward clearly and in practical terms, the idea of separate states for Muslims and Hindus when Britain granted independence. Though close to Iqbal, Mr Jinnah adopted the two-nation theme two years after Iqbal’s death. 3. Mr Jinnah put forward the proposal of a separate Islamic state in the Muslim League Meeting at Lahore in 1940. The British, seeing that he had great power over the Muslims of the subcontinent, had to ultimately give in and a separate nation i.e. Pakistan was born on 14 August 1947. Chaudhry Rehmat Ali tried to convince the Muslim leaders to demand an independent state; he proposed the name ‘Pakistan’, and he formed the ‘Pakistan National Movement’. 4. Ideology is a set of ideas, ideals, and beliefs that a particular group of people follow. The Pakistan ideology is based on the Two-Nation Theory and that Pakistan should be guided by the principles of Islam, law, and justice. Chapter 12: Pakistan’s chronology: 1970–2008 Text pages 94–99 This is a brief and quick overview of the last thirty-five years of Pakistan’s history. The disastrous years 1970–71, saw the break-up of Pakistan and the birth of Bangladesh. These events also brought into power Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who as president, and then as prime minister, ruled the country with complete control till 1977. Some of his policies and reforms, though well intended, did not have the desired impact, and in some cases as in education and industry, set the country back. However, on an international political level, he achieved results in recovering not only the prisoners of war taken by India after the collapse of the East Wing in 1971, but also the territory captured by India. He called the first Islamic 57

Summit Conference in Lahore in 1974—a high profile and successful event. Bhutto also gave the country its nuclear programme, a point of debate in some circles. Bhutto was ousted from power by General Zia-ul-Haq in 1977, tried, and ultimately executed in 1979. General Zia’s rule lasted 11 years: the negative impact of his policies is felt to this day. This chapter is a brief timeline of events as students will study these developments in greater detail as part of Pakistan Studies in the higher classes. More research can be done on each period and personality, as group work, and displays/projects can be made by the class. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES, PAGE 103: 1. In parliamentary general elections for the combined wings of Pakistan, East Pakistan got a clear majority (160 MPs against 81 of Bhutto’s party) and felt, with some justification, that their leader should be prime minister. President Yahya Khan and Prime Minister Bhutto rejected this and after severe political clashes, civil war broke out. With West Pakistan 1600 km away and overland flights banned by India, troop movement took many weeks. India seized the chance and with its help, East Pakistan declared itself an independent republic—Bangladesh. The war was swift, and ended with total victory for Bangladesh, which officially proclaimed its sovereign status in December 1971. Pakistan signed the surrender documents and 93,000 troops were taken by India as prisoners of war. The decision to have two wings was probably a mistake from the beginning: two parts of a country separated by 1600 km of hostile territory, and with completely different outlooks on life and society. The only thing that really they had in common was Islam. Probably two separate states from Partition would have been the best solution. The population strengths are roughly the same, but West Pakistan was partly to blame for trying to impose itself on the eastern half— trying to enforce the official use of Urdu, when the people spoke Bengali; imposing West Pakistan officials on the country, exploiting the region’s agricultural resources, etc. 2. Bhutto’s socialist ideas and the increasing rigour with which they were applied upset most levels of society. His views were quite socialist. He nationalized factories, mines, and other large industrial and commercial businesses, angering the prosperous merchant classes; he 58

took land from large estates to give to the peasants, which infuriated the great aristocratic families; he strengthened the trade unions and workers’ rights, which annoyed all businessmen and industrialists; his autocratic use of the army to put down opposition annoyed everyone. He quarrelled with the religious authorities by some of his reforms, though he later gave in to some of their demands. 3. Individual or pair work based on the chapter content. 4. The bone of contention between Pakistan and India has been the question of Kashmir. The earliest conflict with India took place soon after independence, in January 1948. The UN intervened and decided that a plebiscite should take place so that the people of Kashmir had the choice to determine their fate. However, this has not happened even after 62 years and this problem underlies the differences between the two countries and has led to open wars as well as ongoing skirmishes. The most serious were the Siachen conflict and then the Kargil episode in the 1999; the situation is aggravated by the fact that both India and Pakistan have nuclear capability. 5. Nawaz Sharif, as prime minister, forced two amendments to the Constitution: (1) the president could not remove the prime minister from office, and (2) by imposing strict party discipline on MPs so that they could not vote against the leader’s views. This ensured that the prime minister could continue to rule without being dismissed by either president or party. 6. General Musharraf was out of the country and when his flight was about to land, Nawaz Sharif ordered that no airport in Pakistan should allow it to do so, although fuel was running low, and that the plane should be diverted elsewhere. Since a preceding army chief had also been relieved of his post by Nawaz Sharif, the army command may have expected problems. Musharraf contacted his senior officers, who seized the airport. The flight landed safely, and Musharraf dismissed Sharif. Musharraf ’s tenure from 1999 to 2008 has been marked by important events within the country as well as abroad. The most significant international event was 9/11/2001—the deadly attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington. This event strongly impacted Pakistan and its relations with the USA as well as the western world and the Middle East. Within the country, 59

there was already the fallout effect of the Afghan war and the ongoing Kashmir crisis. However, the Musharraf government did manage to turn the economy around, to bring in political and social reforms giving more power to people at the grass-roots level, and more freedom to the media. The National Assembly, for the first time, completed its term. However, 2007 saw a sharp decline as religious extremism took a militant turn; there were problems with the judiciary; the National Reconciliation Ordinance (NRO) allowed the return of the exiled leaders and elections were announced, but tragically, Benazir Bhutto was killed during an election rally in Rawalpindi, on 27 December 2007. Elections were held in February 2008 and the PPP came into power. Musharraf resigned in August 2008. Chapter 13: The United Nations Text pages 100–108 World War I was the first major war to be fought after the Industrial Revolution had changed the face of the world. In the last major conflict (Napoleonic wars), the navies had fought with wooden ships and shortrange cannon. Now, 4000 tonne steel monsters bombarded each other with shells weighing several tonnes when they were out of sight of one another. High explosives, machine guns, gigantic artillery, tanks and at the end, aerial bombing, made this a conflict unlike anything ever before. 200,000 men were killed in a single day in the Battle of the Somme in France. It was obvious that something must be done, and the USA suggested that a kind of international club be set up, not only to outlaw war, but also to dramatically improve social conditions. So the League of Nations was formed, but the USA refused to join and the main European nations assumed that it would be a kind of association that they would dominate. Membership was voluntary, and at its peak, only 63 countries joined; some of those that did left if the League said anything to offend them. The League had no forces to try to stop war—it could merely ask other nations to stop trading with the fighting countries (sanctions). Few complied: if one country would not supply trucks and weapons, there were plenty of others only too willing to do so. It was totally ineffective 60

in preventing wars, but some aspects such as the Court of International Justice and the institutions stopping slavery were moderately successful. However, the failure of the League showed its weaknesses and these were taken on board when the United Nations was proposed during World War II. Apart from a few very minor exceptions, every country in the world now is a member of the UN. Structure of the UN This has been covered in adequate detail in the textbook (pp100–105). The map on page 105 shows the regions where UN peacekeeping forces are involved, as part of their policy. The Secretary General is elected to the post, after nomination, and serves a five-year term. He can be re-elected for another term. It is a tradition that the Secretary General is from a relatively small and powerless nation. Secretaries of the UN: 1946–53: Trygve Lie (Norway) 1953–61: Dag Hammarskjold (Sweden) 1961–71: U Thant (Burma) 1971–81: Kurt Waldheim (Austria) 1981–91: Javier Perez de Cuellar (Peru) 1991–96: Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Egypt) 1996–2006: Kofi Annan (Ghana) 2006– : Ban Ki-moon (South Korea) While the UN has proved immensely valuable in the 60+ years since its establishment, it still has limitations. In the matter of troops, it still has to ask member nations to contribute these, and if the majority refuses to do so, it cannot compel them. In matters of confrontation too, it has been unable to rein in the powerful countries, which still go ahead—the USA in Iraq, for example. It has no real clout to impose its decisions, except the moral pressure of the world, which is increasing in power. The agencies are more effective, especially FAO, WHO, and IMF. UNESCO and UNICEF provide excellent cultural and social benefits, and some of the less well-known agencies such as postal services, civil aviation, and meteorological organizations are so embedded in the world order that we tend to forget they exist. Pupils could make projects based on the different agencies of the UN. 61

Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) This was set up in 1967 to promote solidarity and cooperation among Islamic nations. It has specific aims of protecting and maintaining the holy places of Islam, of supporting the Palestinian state, of assisting members to maintain independence and cooperation in economic, scientific, and cultural areas. The Heads of States conference meets every three years; the conference of Foreign Ministers meets annually to prepare reports for the Heads of States conference. It has other agencies, such as a Development Bank to aid poorer Islamic countries and an organization similar to UNESCO in the UN. However, the OIC is hindered by inter-Muslim state conflicts such as the Iran-Iraq war, and the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait (1991). OIC has 57 full members plus the Palestine Liberation Organization. The last OIC heads’ conference was held in Dakar, Senegal (in Africa) in March 2008. The League of Arab States is a voluntary organization of mainly Arabicspeaking countries, to share common problems and promote common interests. It was set up in 1945 by Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, north Yemen, Jordan, and Palestine. Later, between 1953 and 1993, it was joined by more Arabic-speaking countries and the Palestine Liberation Organization. Its headquarters are now in Cairo, where it meets twice a year, in March and September. It has sub-sections—the Arab League Cultural, Educational and Scientific Organization, and the Labour Organization. It sets out common policies on economic matters, but this is difficult because of the immense gulf between the prosperity of the members, the vastly rich Gulf oil states and the desperate poverty of countries like Sudan and Somalia, which is one of the poorest states on earth with a GDP about one third that of Pakistan, and an adult literacy rate quoted (optimistically) at 20–24 per cent. The Arab League is very concerned with drugs, crime, and labour issues, especially among the many migrant workers. It has sports, youth and cultural programmes, and recently has made considerable progress in the role of women, and also of children, in Arabic society. The League does have internal problems such as the Iran-Iraq war, and the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, and also at times difference of opinion on some issues of international politics. Pakistan is not a member, but because of its religion has very close ties with the League. 62

RCD, the Regional Cooperation for Development (since 1985, Economic Cooperation Organization) was originally set up by Iran, Turkey, and Pakistan in 1964 for mutual trade and support, but it became more or less dormant when the trouble between Iran and Iraq developed. It was re-invented as the ECO in 1985, when it incorporated the newly independent states of the former USSR: Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Afghanistan. On the face of it, it seems an ideal alliance, with committees to oversee joint agriculture, economics, industry and technology, public works, transport and telecommunications, energy and education, science and culture. Its headquarters are in Tehran. ECO has five primary institutions, for planning and implementation of its policies. It also has various agencies, such as ECO Trade and Development Bank; insurance, shipping and air companies; Chamber of Commerce and Industry; Science Foundation and Cultural Institute. It has plans for interconnecting gas oil pipelines— some of the Central Asian states and Pakistan are rich in natural gas—and envisages a customs union. All, except perhaps Iran and Turkey, are at the moment underdeveloped, but there seems to be a basis for a very powerful international organization in the future. One interesting development is that Turkey is desperately trying to become a member of the European Union, and seems likely to do so within the next few years. This would bring a pan-Euro-Asia organization into being. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES, PAGE 108: 1. The Security Council was composed of countries which had taken the major part in World War II. Germany and Japan as the main enemies were excluded. Since then Germany and Japan have become the most important nations on earth after the USA, while others, especially China, India, and Argentine have become much more powerful. What happened more than 60 years ago should not be allowed to stand in the way of change. 2. Japan and Germany are not permanent members of the Security Council as they were the ‘enemy’ in the war which caused the UN to be set up. These are the second and third largest economies in the world (after the USA) and it seems unjust to bar them from seats in the Security Council. 63

1. Secretary Generals have been a) Trygve Lie (Norway) 1946 to 1953 b) Dag Hammarskjold (Sweden) 1953 to 1961 (He was killed in an air crash in the Congo.) c) U Thant (Myanmar/Burma) 1961 to 1971 d) Kurt Waldheim (Austria) 1971 to 1981 e) Javier Perez de Cuellar (Peru) 1981to 1991 f) Boutros Boutros Ghali (Egypt) 1991 to 1996 g) Kofi Annan (Ghana) 1996 to 2006 h) Ban Ki-moon (South Korea) 2006 2. As suggested, the details can be found from the text, the teaching guide and reference sources, such as the Internet. 3. The second OIC meeting held in Lahore, in February 1974, was jointly convened by the Pakistani prime minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, and King Faisal of Saudi Arabia. This meeting took place after the Arab-Israeli war of 1973, and a declaration was made, recognizing the urgent need to solve the Palestinian problem and also to fight oppression in other parts of the world, such as South Africa and Latin America. Chapter 14: International problems Text pages 109–117 The conflicts of the 20th century have been covered in fair detail in this chapter. However, some background to these issues is given below. The Palestine conflict A murky area of history—in the First World War, the McMahon letters promised an independent Arab state in return for Arab help in overthrowing the Turks, whose empire nominally incorporated the eastern end of the Mediterranean. The Sykes-Picot agreement (1916) was a secret arrangement between French and British governments to keep the eastern end of the Mediterranean under their control, to protect the shipping routes to their colonies through the Suez Canal; it was also to guarantee the pipelines from the Gulf, as oil was beginning to become economically significant. 64

The Balfour Declaration (1917): Under immense pressure from the USA, especially the Jewish lobby, Britain agreed to set up a state for the Jews, in Palestine. A strict clause, alas not observed, said that the rights and properties of other nations already there should not be affected. The Western Allies, Britain and France, were bogged down in World War I, which had reached an absolute stalemate of mutual slaughter, and desperately needed the USA’s support on their side. In practice, Britain and France were given this area as mandates from the League of Nations. Because of their wealth, the Americans sent tens of thousands of Jewish settlers to the area, some legally, but most illegally. Because of the wealth backing them, they could make the poor Arab farmers offers they could not refuse. Mandate is the land which belonged to a nation defeated in a war, which is put in charge of the victorious country, not as a colony or possession, but to be supervised and run until it is ready to be independent. When during World War II, defeat seemed inevitable for Germany, Jewish gangs turned against Britain. Especially notorious were the Stern Gang and Irgun Zvai Leumi, who committed terrible atrocities against the British forces. When the war ended, Britain found that Palestine was impossible to control, and asked the UN to settle the matter. World opinion was very much in favour of the Jews when the atrocities of the Nazi regime against them became general knowledge—the Jews claimed that six million of them were exterminated in the death camps. The UN, with strong influence of the USA again, divided the land into Jewish and Arab parts. When the state of Israel was declared in 1948, millions of Palestinians were forced out into exile in refugee camps— where many of them still remain, 60 years later. A series of wars since then has resulted in steady defeat for the Palestinians, and even when some territory was conceded to the Arabs in the West Bank and Gaza, these were studded with Jewish settlements. The USA supplies Israel with weapons and, under the influence of a powerful Jewish lobby, vetoes any motion in the United Nations, which criticizes Israel. There is little the Palestinians can do: the trend towards suicide bomb attacks on Jewish towns has invariably resulted in savage reprisals by the Israelis. For every Israeli killed by the Palestinian underground forces, at least ten or twelve Palestinians, often women and children, lose their lives. Israel has an overwhelming military power, with 65

tanks, helicopters, and heavy artillery; the Palestinians reply largely with stones. The problem seems as insoluble as ever. The previous Israeli government had offered to withdraw settlements from the Gaza Strip, but not from the more important, and profitable, Left Bank. The present government is more hawkish and intransigent; now walls are being built to protect the Israelis and no solution is in sight while the Israeli settlements expand and for the Palestinians day to day life is a battle for survival. The Middle East conflict It is unfortunate that there have been conflicts among the Arab countries, apart from the continuing Israeli aggression against its neighbouring states. Iraq has been the common denominator in the wars against Iran and then Kuwait. Eventually, Iraq became the victim of Western aggression in 2003, and the problems resulting from this still continue. As stated earlier, the oil wealth of the Gulf States has been both a blessing and a curse for this region. After their rebellion against the Romans in the first century AD, the Jews of Palestine were scattered about the known world, mainly as slaves. There was no longer any Jewish state. In the late 19th century, there began a movement in the USA for a homeland for Jews back in Palestine. This was called Zionism. Little was done until the 1930s when a trickle of Jews moved to Palestine and began buying up land from the Arabs who had occupied. This again was financed largely from the Jews in the USA. After World War II, with millions of Jews displaced by the Nazis, there was a flood of refugees into the Palestine, some legal, but most illegally. There was bitter fighting with the British who had a mandate on the area, but in 1946 Britain said it was opting out and handed the problem to the UN which, in 1947, divided the land into Jewish and Palestinian territories. The Palestinians were deprived of the greater part of their land. This has been the source of trouble in the Middle East ever since. The more moderate Fatah Palestinians would gladly settle for a return to the 1947 UN boundaries, while the more extreme Hamas will accept nothing less than the elimination of the state of Israel. Unfortunately, as the state of Israel has had the unconditional backing of the USA and the West in general, in the past, any attempt to revert to the 1947 boundaries has been impossible. The surrounding Arab countries are furious, but more or less powerless. 66

The Iraq-Iran War (1980–88): This was a particularly savage war in which both sides used every means of slaughter, including poison gas (Iraq). Iran with the larger population (40 million) lost 500,000 dead and twice as many wounded, while Iraq (population 18 million) lost 150,000 dead and 500,000 wounded. At the end of the war neither side had gained anything; the war had originally been over the use of the Shatt al-Arab river, but after the UN-brokered peace the river was so silted up that it was no longer navigable for much of its length except by small boats. The Iraq-Kuwait War (1990–91), also known as the Gulf War, began when the Iraqi leader, Saddam Husein, invaded Kuwait, declaring it a part of Iraq. This was widely condemned by the West, and the UN Security Council imposed sanctions on Iraq. A UN coalition force, comprising troops from 34 nations, was deployed to expel Iraq from Kuwait. Iraq had also fired missiles at Saudi Arabia and Israel. The coalition-led attack was known as ‘Operation Desert Storm’. Kuwait was liberated in February 1991. Kashmir: Equally insoluble is the problem of Kashmir. At partition, Kashmir which had a large Muslim majority, was given to India by the British—in response to the Indians’ (Nehru’s) demand—to provide access to Kashmir itself and to the headwaters of four of the five great rivers of the Punjab. It is ironical that Kashmir itself is of little economic value, except for tourism perhaps: it is more a question of human rights, and prestige. With a change of ruling party in India (Congress now in control) it remains to be seen whether the slight thaw in Indo-Pakistan relations can be expanded. (The details of this issue have been given in the textbook.) Bosnia The Balkans is a byword for quarrelling states mainly because of the historical background of this south-eastern corner of Europe. The people are very mixed ethnically: Slavs, Greeks, eastern Europeans; some states are nominally Muslim, some Russian Orthodox Church, some Greek Orthodox, some Roman Catholic. It is not surprising that it is called the ‘powder keg of Europe’. Before World War I, there was a series of wars among the Balkan states with differing alliances, and then in 1912, they joined forces to drive the Turkish forces out of Europe, apart from a small tip of land at Istanbul. In 1914 it was the assassination of Crown Prince Ferdinand in the Balkans, which started World War I. 67

Although conquered by Germany in World War II, there was a powerful resistance movement under the communist Josef Tito who maintained control until his death in 1980, when the association broke up again into warring factions. A savage and brutal war followed, until NATO intervention forced a ceasefire, but the situation is still tense. The Balkans is at present made up of Albania (3.7 million); BosniaHerzegovina (3.7 million); Croatia (4.5 million); Slovenia (2 million); Macedonia (2 million) and Yugoslavia (11 million). Yugoslavia is made up of Serbia, Kosovo, and Montenegro, the last two of which are hoping to become independent. The total population of the nine states is about 27 million—about two and a half times the population of Karachi. Chechnya This province has always been a thorn in the side of the Russian authorities who conquered it only in the mid-19th century. The Chechens have been fighting Russia for their independence. The war there continues unabated, with gross atrocities on both sides. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES, PAGE 117: 1. The three documents were: (a) The McMahon letters (1915) in which Britain promised the Arabs, many of whom were fighting on the British side against their overlords the Turks, that when Turkey was defeated (as it almost was) the Arabs would have a homeland of their own in Palestine with Hussein as their king. (b) The Sykes-Picot agreement (1916) in which Britain, France, and Russia agreed more or less to share out the area between them. (c) The Balfour Declaration (1917) under which the British government, under strong pressure from the USA, proclaimed it would help in setting up a national home for Jewish people. In practice, they did none of these when the war ended. Britain seized Palestine and Jordan as mandates from the League of Nations and kept control of Egypt; France was given Syria and Lebanon as a mandate. Feisal, who had led the Arabs against the Turks, was made king of Iraq, but the country was garrisoned by British troops. His brother, Abdullah, was made king of Jordan.

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2. Jerusalem is a city holy to the three main faiths of this area, i.e. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. For Jews, here are the remains of Solomon’s temple. For Muslims, the Dome of the Rock is sacred as it is the point from where the prophet Muhammad (SAW) is believed to have ascended to Paradise; and for the Christians, it is the place of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. Ideally, it should have been an international city, allowing free access to the followers of the three faiths, but Israel has taken complete control, denying entry especially to Muslims living outside this territory. 3. The factors behind the Middle East conflict have been covered in adequate detail both in the textbook and this teaching guide. 4. All four wars ended in defeat for the Arab/Palestinian forces, and the possession of Palestinian land by Israel. 5. Kashmir, the largest of the princely states, had a predominant majority of Muslims, but the maharaja and the prime minister were Hindu. At partition the maharaja, Hari Singh, prevaricated when the choice of joining either India or Pakistan was offered: he hoped Kashmir would remain a separate state. When it was obvious he would not be allowed to do this, the prime minister urged him to join Pakistan. There was some fighting when the Muslims of Poonch, many of them ex-soldiers of the British army, invaded and drove the Kashmir army back. At this point, Hari Singh fled to India and signed a document giving Kashmir and Jammu to India. Both India and Pakistan sent regular troops into the country. There was a vicious war, and hundreds of thousands more penniless refugees poured into Pakistan. In 1949 the UN arranged a ceasefire with a Line of Control, and promised that a plebiscite (election) of the people as to which country they wished to join. More than 60 years later this election has not taken place, and constant border skirmishes and invasions take place along the Line of Control. In addition, China invaded the Indian part of Kashmir and seized about a fifth of the country to straighten out the frontier. Kashmir and Jammu are more geographically part of Pakistan than they are of India, but predominantly, the vast majority of the population is Muslim. 6. Kashmir is important to Pakistan because it is through this territory that the headwaters of four out of the five main rivers of Pakistan 69

flow. Controlling Kashmir means controlling the waters that support Pakistan’s agriculture and industry, the very lifeline of the country. Secondly, maintaining a defensive force for this region and being prepared for any untoward advances from across the eastern border also eats away a big chunk of Pakistan’s budget which could be spent on meaningful development of the country. Chapter 15: Migration Text pages 118–125 Migration The three main causes for migration today are: i) Political—people move to another country because they fear or dislike the political system in their own country; ii) Religious—to move where the majority of their co-religionists live or because they fear religious persecution in their own country; ii) Economic migration—this is the commonest today. People move to countries where they think they can make more money or have a better lifestyle than in their homeland. Perhaps ask if any pupils have relatives living abroad, permanently or on a job basis. Ask how they feel about living in a foreign country. What problems do/did they encounter? There are often considerable tensions, especially with the first-generation emigrants: the women, particularly, often do not know the language, and are unfamiliar with the customs and social life. They tend to cling together in limited areas, where shops selling familiar goods and foods are set up. With the second generation there are sometimes problems of a different sort: younger people are often caught between different cultures—their traditional culture and customs at home, and western ones at school, and a particularly vexatious question among second generation immigrants to the UK is arranged marriages: young people living in a more liberal society want to have the right to decide for themselves. There are also some areas where less educated locals resent the coming of immigrants, claiming that they are taking their jobs. This is rarely true—these extreme right-wing groups are usually already unemployed and/or unable to meet the job requirements. 70

The partition of the subcontinent resulted in the migration of millions across the border, from India to Pakistan and vice versa. An estimated eight million or more Muslims who had hitherto lived relatively peacefully with their Hindu neighbours migrated by train, on foot, by cart, by any means possible, to Pakistan, and six million Hindus migrated from what was now Pakistan to India. About a million people trying to escape were murdered by people of the opposite religion. The migrants had no homes or jobs and had to live as refugees in camps for a long time. While professional people like lawyers, doctors, bankers, etc. relatively quickly settled down as the new state needed their skills, the great mass of refugees were poorer people with few skills that were needed The emigration to the oil states in the 1970s and 80s is very important to Pakistanis. Not only are they earning much more money than they could at home and sending this back to their families, but they are also learning technological skills. Better incomes allow them to provide a better standard of living and education to their next generation—economic and social uplift. Immigration into Pakistan today is on a small scale: the refugee problem is different. Initially, refugees came from India at Partition and then later (1980s and after 2001) from Afghanistan. Many of the latter still live in camps, particularly those with no real skills, while the more enterprising ones have found themselves work in the big cities. Pakistan has quite enough (6 per cent of the labour force) unemployment of its own, so that unskilled jobs are particularly difficult to provide. Internal migration Pakistan does have a migration problem—internal migration. This is the movement from the countryside to the towns and cities. This is common to most developing countries where the standard of living is so dramatically different in many cases. Outsiders see city life as some kind of paradise, but all too often what they find when they reach the urban areas is very different from what they had dreamed. The reasons for migration and the situation of refugees are explained on pages 118–121. Remind pupils of the fact that one person in every 270 on earth is a refugee. The map on page 122 shows the main drift of migrations since the 1940s. The causes and effects of these movements have been explained in the text following the map. 71

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES, PAGE 125: 1. This has been discussed in detail in the textbook and the teaching guide. The main migrations in the subcontinent after Partition were from Pakistan to Bangladesh and vice versa, after 1971 (though a very large number of Biharis continues to live in camps in Bangladesh); and from Afghanistan into Pakistan—perhaps the largest mass movement after Partition—in the 1980s and again in 2001–2. The Afghan refugee problem has not been solved really, as they continue to move back and forth across the porous border between the two countries. The wars and conflicts in African nations have led to migrations to safer parts of the continent as well as beyond. People from poor Asian countries are always trying to find ways to enter developed countries, mostly illegally, to find work. Reasons for migration today: (a) Searching for better jobs and standards of living—usually from underdeveloped countries to more developed ones (b) To find religious freedom—either to a country of their own religion or where there is total religious toleration (c) To look for political freedom—e.g. to escape a communist or an authoritarian system or to where there is freedom of expression (d) Escape from unstable countries where there are constant wars, usually civil wars with different groups fighting for power, e.g. Balkans, parts of South-east Asia, Africa (Somalia, Congo, Ethiopia and others), and parts of Latin America. 2. Pakistan has a serious problem with refugees because of various reasons: (a) at Partition millions fled from India; (b) successive waves of immigrants from Afghanistan when the Russians invaded, and when the Taliban took control, and now when an international force is trying to establish stability; (c) refugees from Kashmir. 3. Students to research further than the textbook and discuss the answer in class. 4. Women and children form the largest part of the refugees because their menfolk have either been killed, or have joined the forces fighting the invaders. 5. Problems facing refugees (a) no money—most depend on charitable organizations or government agencies; (b) accommodation—finding 72

permanent housing for the many millions is impossible so that the great majority live in temporary tents in all sorts of climatic conditions; (c) education—it is almost impossible to provide any serious education for the millions of children, who are left to their own devices; (d) food, clothing supplies, and health care—again charitable organizations are trying to help; health care is a major problem as poor living conditions result in disease; (e) no employment and nothing to do all day tends to lead some people into crime or extreme behaviour and also results in psychological problems. 6. As explained in the textbook, people may leave their homes in the face of conflict and move to safer locations; they may be persecuted due to religious/ethnic differences; they move from the countryside to the cities in search of better jobs, more income. 7. Students to work in small groups to collect and compile data and share it with the class. Chapter 16: Democracy and human rights Text pages 126–134 It might be worth mentioning that in the UK and USA, the Magna Carta, the Great Charter which the nobles of England forced King John to sign in 1215, is the basis of democracy. But this was really democracy only for the nobles: for the ordinary people it took another 600–700 years. Even now there are omissions, although in theory these are in place. Perhaps pupils could talk about this—is real democracy ever achievable? The Greek assembly met 40 times each year and each person was allowed to speak once, if he wanted to. But the real decisions were taken by a small group. The Roman system was more like the present system in Pakistan, but only free men were allowed to vote for candidates for their district. The candidates were of course all wealthy noblemen. Government chosen by the people: should people be free to vote or not as they like, or should it be compulsory, as in Australia? The same justice for all: should a rich person be allowed to hire a brilliant lawyer to run rings round a jury and possibly get him off? 73

The independence of the judiciary is important because in some countries the judges are under the control of the government which can then force them to do their wishes like sending opponents to prison, etc. In a democracy the judges and courts are independent of the government. The government makes the laws but the judiciary can overrule them if it thinks these laws do not conform to the constitution. How much freedom of speech should people have? Should they be able to talk in public or write in papers criticizing the leaders? The religion? Other races? Should people be allowed to meet freely to discuss anything, as long as it is legal? What should be done in a democracy if a leader is elected who immediately banishes all freedoms? Do not forget that Hitler was elected democratically. Have we been able to achieve all or some of this? These are some points for discussion as it will yield interesting responses and also be an interactive and hands-on way of learning. Great humanitarians Only a few notable figures from the 20th century have been presented here, but obviously there are more individuals and organizations too that have been striving for human rights and freedom of oppressed peoples. Arundhati Roy of India, for instance, is one such person and Corazon Aquino of the Philippines was another. Perhaps students can be guided to look up information on such personalities and institutions, both national and international, and present their findings as a group project or display. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES, PAGE 134: 1. Democracy means ‘rule of the people’. This does not mean everyone can do as he or she likes, but must consider, and tolerate, the opinions, and religious, political, social beliefs of others. Extremes of poverty and wealth incite jealousy and envy, and can lead to social problems, and even rioting. Education is vital as people need to be able to read to get news and information, and to get rid of traditional old wives’ tales about almost everything. So much of modern society depends on the written word that people must be able to read. The benefits of democracy come at a price: people must be prepared to exercise their rights in such matters as voting. They cannot justly 74

2.

3.

4. 5.

complain about society if they are not prepared to bother to elect their representatives at all levels. In emergencies e.g. natural disasters, conflicts, etc. democracy can seem slow to make decisions as so many people and parties have to be consulted. A single ruler or dictator can make these decisions instantly. Students can collect information from various sources such as newspaper archives and the Internet. Mandela’s autobiography, The Long Walk to Freedom, is an engrossing and admirable account of an exemplary life. Qualities that made Ataturk a successful leader of Turkey: sympathetic, focused, abolished obsolete laws and customs, made Turkey a secular state, took steps to educate people, etc. Ataturk succeeded in bringing his nation into the modern world and equipping it to survive successfully. Details are given in textbook and students can also research for more information. Reference and research work for students, using news magazines, newspapers, and the Internet. Again, this requires research by the students. Some of the organizations operating in Pakistan are the Edhi Foundation, Ansar Burney Trust, Dar-us-Sukoon, The Citizens’ Foundation, The Jinnah Foundation, Infaq Foundation, and several local as well as international NGOs. Help students find out more by doing a little preliminary research to guide them.

Chapter 17: World travellers Text pages 135–138 This chapter introduces the students to some famous travellers from the past. They are important, besides being interesting, because they opened up the routes to remote places for later travellers, merchants, and adventurers. They also brought back amazing accounts of distant places and different peoples and their way of life. Remember the value of such information at a time when it took months for news to reach people. Their voyages ultimately resulted in opening up business links between various countries and also brought an exchange of cultures and knowledge. 75

ANSWER TO QUESTION IN TEXT, PAGE 136: This point on the tip of southern Africa was called the Cape of Good Hope, an apt name as it indicated the good chance of the ship’s moving towards its destination, India. Diaz originally called it Cape of Storms, for obvious reasons, but it was later renamed Cape of Good Hope by King John II of Portugal because it offered good hope of a sea route to India, bypassing Turkish territory. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES, PAGE 138: 1. Main trading centres might have moved to the Atlantic coast because the sea voyages opened up new routes and brought new countries and their riches within reach of the Europeans. 2. Vespucci was a navigator and a widely travelled man. As he crossed the Atlantic and reached the American continent, Vespucci may have realized that the lands were not India or China perhaps because the people were totally different with a totally different lifestyle. The difference in flora, fauna, and people may have convinced him that this was not Asia or India, but a new land mass. 3. The voyages of discovery (1) confirmed that the Earth was spherical and not flat, (b) introduced Europeans to completely new products e.g. tobacco from America, and fragile items such as pottery and furniture from Asia, (3) increased supply of fabrics and spices, so that the prices of these fell in Europe and (4) stimulated conflict among European nations—Spain, Portugal, Holland, France, Britain—to get the lands as colonies. 4. Students can work in groups and share findings with the class. Chapter 18: Explorers, scientists, and inventors Text pages 139–147 This chapter gives a brief overview of the contribution of some remarkable individuals of the 19th and 20th centuries. These men and women enhanced our knowledge of the world, science, and technology. They gave us products and ideas that have changed the way we live, travel, think, and more. 76

The explorers were driven by a sense of curiosity as well as adventure to dare, as it were, where no one or few may have gone. Their discoveries and accounts led the way to later exploration and the opening up of the lands. Livingstone: Although he failed in his great ambition to discover the source of the Nile, he did discover a number of other geographical features. His main achievement was to open up the centre of Africa (then totally unknown to the West) to later explorers. Get the pupils to find the Nile and trace it back to its source (Oxford School Atlas for Pakistan, page 62). Though confusing as the river has many tributaries, but it generally accepted that the source of the Nile is Lake Victoria (Uganda). The first men on the Everest: It is interesting that once a seemingly impossible task has been done, like reaching the summit of Mt Everest, it seems so much easier. Today several hundred people have done it—on one day 40 people stood on the summit. In 1924 two Englishmen, a school teacher and a student, Mallory and Irvine, set out to climb the Everest. They had no oxygen, no radio (which had not been invented in a portable version), and no modern mountaineering equipment. They wore just thick everyday walking clothes. Their support team watched them from the base camp through telescopes and last saw them a few hundred feet from the summit, still climbing upwards. Then heavy cloud came down, and they vanished. 75 years later (1999), a lost climber on Mt Everest came across a perfectly preserved body: the name tags on the clothing showed it was Mallory. A desperate search for his camera began, because it could have the film showing if they had reached the summit. So we may never know if Hillary and Tensing really were the first people on top of the world. There are more people in the past, and at present, whose discoveries and inventions are invaluable: perhaps students can be guided to do some research on other personalities and put up a display for the class. Before Bessemer, steel was extremely expensive and made only in very small amounts. Most of this was used for weapons, in making swords, where its strength and hardness were essential. Bessemer’s process of making cheap steel by blowing air through great furnaces of molten iron was really the key to the Industrial Revolution and to our modern world, which could not exist without millions of tonnes of steel every year, 77

Robert Koch: There are stories that during the Crusades, when the Europeans fought the Arabs for control of Palestine in the 12th–14th centuries, they saw the Arabs putting what seemed to be mouldy bread on the wounds of their soldiers. It seems almost certain that the mould was penicillin. When the Crusaders tried this, sometimes it worked, sometimes not—they did not realize in those times that they did not have the right mould. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES, PAGE 147: 1. Although Livingstone failed in his great ambition to discover the source of the Nile, he did discover a number of other geographical features. His main achievement was to open up the centre of Africa (then totally unknown to the West) to later explorers. 2. Map work to be done individually by the students. 3. No one knew if living creatures could stand the stress of being launched into space, so the Russians trained and sent a stray dog named Laika into space. She survived the launch, but died after a few hours in orbit because the cooling system on the satellite broke down. But it showed that living creatures could survive the shock of launch. Laika was launched into space on November 3, 1957 in a Soviet spacecraft named Sputnik 2. 4. The jet engine has revolutionized air transport (a) by making it much faster—propeller-driven planes can fly at about 400 kph, while jets can fly at more than 800 kph, which means shorter travelling times; (b) propeller-driven aircraft can fly only at relatively low altitudes— about 1500 metres—because the propellers need air to ‘get a grip on’; jet planes fly at 10,000 metres where the air is very thin so that they can travel much faster and use less fuel; (c) a jet airliner can travel from London to Hong Kong non-stop in 13 hours: a propeller plane would take several days and have to stop several times to refuel. 5. Von Braun had been one of the leading scientists in developing the V2 rocket which caused so much damage in London in the last years of World War II. As the Russian armies started to invade Germany, Von Braun, along with forty colleagues, fled to surrender themselves to the US army. They were eagerly accepted and worked to develop the US space rockets which had always been Von Braun’s main interest, rather than rockets as weapons. Von Braun’s rocket propulsion system is the foundation of space exploration. Of course, this has been further refined, but the principle is more or less the same. 78

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