Sports Medicine Study Notes

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How are sports injuries classified and managed?

* Ways to classify sports injuries: * Direct and indirect * Soft and hard tissue * Overuse

Students learn to: Identify specific examples of injuries that reflect each of these classifications

Classification | Signs and symptoms | Possible cause | Specific examples | Direct | * Pain * Tenderness * Swelling * Decreased function * Deformity | External force or blow to the body | * A hockey player receiving a bruise from being struck on the leg by a stick during a game. | Indirect | * Pain * Tenderness * Swelling * Decreased function * Deformity | Internal forces within the body | * A beach volleyball player overstretching to reach a ball straining a hamstring. | Soft tissue | * Pain * Tenderness * Swelling * Decreased function * Insatiability | Injury to body tissue, other than bones and teeth (tendons, ligaments, muscles); these can be caused by internal or external forces | * a sprained ankle | Hard tissue | * Pain * Tenderness * Swelling * Decreased function * Deformity * Discoloration * Bleeding | Injury to the bones (teeth) or cartilage caused by internal or external forces | * Dislocation of a joint (impact to the shoulder socket in a football tackle) * Fracture or break of the bone (landing heavily on the hands after a fall, breaking bones in the wrist) * Stress fractures (repeated pounding on hard surfaces | Overuse | * Persistent pain * Tenderness * Swelling * Decreased function | Excessive or repetitive use, trauma or stress on the bones, joints, tendons and muscles. Overuse problems can be caused by poorly designed training schedules | * Tendonitis (repeated low intensity activity causing tiny tears in the tendons) in the shoulder of a swimming form repeating of technique * Doing too much too soon (insufficient rest and recovery time) * Stress fractures (small cracks in the bone usually

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