sports

Topics: Sociology, Obesity, Social relation Pages: 42 (11477 words) Published: July 31, 2014
The Social Benefits of Sport
An Overview to Inform the Community Planning Process

sportscotland Research Report no. 98

Professor Fred Coalter
Institute for Sports Research
University of Stirling

sportscotland
v1, January 2005

This research report is one of a series of reports and summary digests available on sportscotland’s website:
www.sportscotland.org.uk/
The research section is located at:
www.sportscotland.org.uk/ChannelNavigation/Resource+Library/TopicNavigation/Research/

The report will be updated periodically as new information and data become available – updated copies will be flagged with revised dates and version numbers.

Professor Coalter has also developed the Value of Sport Monitor available on: www.sportengland.org/vsm/vsm_intro.asp
This monitor critically assesses research on the benefits of sport and summaries of key information are added regularly to the website where they are considered to be reliable.

sportscotland
Caledonia House
South Gyle
Edinburgh EH12 9DQ
0131 317 7200
research@sportscotland.org.uk

ISBN 1 85060 475 4

2

Contents
Page
4

Introduction

5
5
5

Background
Sport and Community Planning
Sport and the Nature of its Contribution

8
8
12
12
13

Sport, Fitness and Health
A Healthier Nation
The Social Nature of Sport
Sport and Mental Health
Conclusions

15
15
16
17
18

Sport, Young People and Education
Physical Activity, Sport and Academic Achievement
The Importance of Sport
A Step to Employment
Conclusions

19
19
19
19
21
22
23
24

Community Development
Social Capital and Active Citizenship
Sport and Social Participation
Developing Communities
Volunteering in Sport
Supporting and Encouraging Volunteers
Broadening Horizons
Conclusions

25
25
26
27
29
30
31

Youth Crime
Youth Justice Strategy
Diversionary Programmes
Integrated Development Programmes
The Importance of Sports Leadership
Which Types of Sport work Best?
Conclusions

32
32
32
33
33
34
35

The Economic Impact of Sport
Economic Benefits of an Active Population
Sport-related Consumer Expenditure
Sport-related Employment – National
Sport-related Employment – Local
Economic Impact of Sporting Events
Conclusions

36

The Challenge

37

Bibliography

3

Introduction
The first of five principles that inform Sport 21 2003-2007 – the national strategy for sport is that:
“participating in sport can improve the quality
communities, promote social inclusion, improve
behaviour, raise individual self-esteem and
horizons.”

of life of individuals and
health, counter anti-social
confidence, and widen
(sportscotland, 2003, p7)

However, sport alone will not solve Scottish society’s ills. This document illustrates how, in conjunction with other factors, sport has the potential to contribute to society in general and aspects of community planning in particular. It shows that, in partnership with a range of organisations and agencies, sport can assist in the achievement of their policy objectives. In particular, in the context of local community planning, this document will demonstrate the extent to which sport may contribute to:



improvements in people’s physical and mental health, and well-being;



the promotion and enhancement of education and life-long learning;



the promotion of active citizenship;



programmes aimed at combating crime and anti-social behaviour; and



economic development.

Target 11 of Sport 21 is that by 2007 “every local authority area’s community planning process will have contributed to the targets of Sport 21 2003-2007”. The purpose of this document is to provide a balanced view of the evidence for the social benefits of sport that can inform the inclusion of sport in community plans.

sportscotland, January 2005

4

Background
Sport and Community Planning
The Local Government in Scotland Act 2003 places a duty on local authorities to...


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Kong, Hong Kong Sports Development Board
Best, J (2001)
paper)
Boule, N G, Hadded, E, Kenny G P, Wells, G A and Sigal, R J (2002) ‘Effects of Exercise on
Glycemic Control and Body Mass in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-analysis of Controlled
Cabinet Office (2002) Game Plan: A Strategy for Delivering Government’s Sport and Physical
Activity Objectives, London, Cabinet Office.
Coalter, F (1988) Sport and Anti-Social Behaviour: A Literature Review, Research Report No. 2,
Edinburgh, Scottish Sports Council
Coalter, F and Allison, M (1996) Sport and Community Development, (Research Digest no. 42),
Edinburgh, Scottish Sports Council
Coalter, F, Allison, M and Taylor, J (2000) The Role of Sport in Regenerating Deprived Urban
Areas, Edinburgh, Scottish Office Central Research Unit
Coalter, F (2002) Sport and Community Development: A Manual, (Research Report no. 86),
Edinburgh, sportscotland.
Collins, M et al (1999) Sport and Social Inclusion: A Report to the Department Of Culture, Media
and Sport, Institute of Sport and Leisure Policy, Loughborough University.
Coopers and Lybrand (1994)
Prince’s Trust
Preventative Strategy for Young People in Trouble, London,
Council of Europe (2001) European Sports Charter, Brussels, Council of Europe.
Crompton, J L (1995) Economic Impact Analysis of Sports Facilities and Events: Eleven Sources
of Misapplication, Journal of Sport Management, 9(1), pp14-35
Deane, J (1998) Community Sports Initiatives - An Evaluation of UK Policy Attempts to Involve
the Young Unemployed - The 1980’s Action Sport Scheme, In Sport in the City: Conference
Eley, D and Kirk, D (2002) ‘Developing Citizenship through Sport: The Impact of a Sport-Based
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Etnier, J L, Salazar, W, Landers, D M, Petruzzello, S J, Han, M and Nowell, P (1997) “The
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A Lot to Learn? Bristol, The Policy Press. Available at: www.ehnheart.org/pdf/activity.pdf
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