Spina Bifida

Topics: Folic acid, Spina bifida, Obesity Pages: 8 (2332 words) Published: July 2, 2013

Running Head: Spina Bifida Spina Bifida 1

Spina Bifida

George Burns

PED 407 Motor Perception and Adaptives for Special Populations

Wayne State College

Dr. Todd Farmer

April 6, 2007

Spina Bifida

Introduction

One common motor functional problem children and adults suffer from today is a condition called Spina Bifida. Spina Bifina is a physical condition people suffer from which, results in a failure of fusions of the caudial neural tube, which produces a malformation that losses motor functions in the human structure (Sival, Viles, Weerden, 2004, p.427). Spina Bifida usually occurs in the human embryos, before the fourth week of conception. The factors that spina bifina is related to is gender, race, geographical location, and socioeconomic status (2004, p. 427). Spina Bifida is very rare in the United States, which rare occurred in only about 2 out of every 1,000 births or (2%) (p. 427). However, spina bifida occurs more often in other countries such as Great Britain and Ireland, occurring 4 out of every 1,000 births (p.427). Spina Bifida is a very genetic problem, and if a person’s first child has this condition, the child will be very likely the mother will pass the disease on to the second child. During the second pregnancy, the rate of spina bifida will increase greatly to about 1 in 20 or (5%) of the births if the first child has Spina Bifida (p.427). Poverty is another relevant problem associated with spina bifida. Families suffer greatly because income is not sufficient enough to provide treatment and care for this condition (p.427). Lack of nutrition during pregnancy, may also harm the child, causing the embryo not to fully develop that may lead to spina bifida. Issue Causes

In this section the researchers will discuss the effects folic acid can have on spina bifida. It is recommended that folic acid be used before and during early pregnancy because inadequate intake of natural folate will decrease the child chances in developing spina bifida (Adzick, Melchionne, and Mitchell, 2004, pp.1885-1886). Inadequate amount of folic acid during pregnancy can increase the risk of spina bifida and anencephaly (2004, p.1886). The studies done by the researcher’s shows that failure to consume folic acid supplements or folic acid-containing will increase the risk of having a child defected with spina bifida from two-fold to eight-fold (p.1886). If folic acid is disrupted in the two metabolic pathways it could harm the development of the embryo (p.1886). “Disruption in folate metabolism can also result in raised homomocysteine concentrations, which are teratogenic to the neural tube in some animal models” (p.1886). The researchers did a study which involved Mexican-American women who reported having a three-fold, which increase the risk of neural tube defects occurring in the women’s off-spring (p.1886). Drugs

Another problem related to the increases in the number of people with spina bifida is drugs. Drugs are considered to be a teratogen, which is a type of action or environment factor, which has a negative affect that will hinder the health of the embryo before birth. According to the researchers, Adzick, Melchoionne, and Mitchell, anticonvulsant drugs should not be used unless used for the treatment of epilepsy (eg, bipolar, disease, migraine, chronic pain are also related factors in having a child with spina bifida (Adzick, Melchionne, and Mitchell, 2004, pp.1886-1887). The use of drug metabolism may have an adverse affect on the embryonic tissue causing it to be damaged (2004, p.1886). However, there has been some research to prove maternal use of folic acid might reduce some but not all risk factors related to drugs (p.1886). Folic acid is still proven to be unknown by researchers as a drug-related...

References: Barnes, A. M., Wilkinson, M., & Khemani, E. (2006). Arithmetic Processing in Children
With Spina Bifida: Calculation Accuracy, Strategy Use, and Fact Retrieval
Deborah, S. A., van Weerden, T. W., & Vles, J. S. (2004). Neonatal Loss of Motor
Fuction in Human Spina Bifida Aperta
E, A., & Grimby, G. (2004). Dependence in daily activities and life satisfaction in adult
subjects with cerebal palsy or spina bifida: A follow-up study
Laura, M. E., Adzick, S. N., & MeIchionne, J. (2004). Spina bifida. Lancet , 1895-1895.
N, R., Patrick, J., & Hodnett, C. (2001). A long-term review of severely disabled spina
bifida patients using a reciprocal walking system
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