Specific Heat Lab Report
“Here are the facts we confront; No one is against conservation. No one is against alternative fuel sources.”
– J. D. Hayworth Research Question:
Does the number of hydrocarbons that a fuel is composed of affect how much it will ignite? If so, consider the following: What is the quantity and concentration of the combustion that is released and how can that be measured in other (more coherent) means? These are the fuels that were seasoned throughout the experiment: * Butanol (C4H10O)
* Ethanol (C2H5OH)
* Propanol (CH3CH2CH2OH)
* Methanol (CH3OH)
* Pentanol (C5H11OH)
Costs; they’re always a problem or a benefit. And when they are a problem, they must be dealt with accordingly. Fuel is a common problem associated with money, and unfortunately, it is almost compulsory for people to consume it just as much, if not even more than water. This is precisely why the public should consider other more efficient, abundant and cheaper fuels capable of giving off larger amounts of heat energy through combustion. To find out what fuel releases the most heat energy whereas the amount of fuel wasted is also accounted for; we could test a number of well-known fuels (provided by the school) and contemplate their bonding attributes and components which they are composed of (all fuels are compounds, so they are made up of number of hydrocarbons, thus bonds are customary during combustion). The main emphasis of this experiment is to identify not only the energy potential emitted by the fuels in a given amount of time, but also to discover how and most importantly why every fuel releases the amount of energy that correspondingly. Of course in order to accomplish this test fairly, time, fire intensity, water (substance) levels will be considered once implemented into the equation. Variables:
* The different fuels used in the experiment.
* The combusted energy taken in by the body of water (∆H in Kilo Joules). Controlled:
* Amount of water used for heating (100ml).
* Calorie Meter.
* Starting temperature of water inside boiling tube (21°C). * Amount of time boiling tubes are heated (2 minutes).
* The placement and size of the hole (in the foil covering the calorie meter’s cap) where the thermometer was put through. * Weighing scale (ml).
Similar to enthalpy , but differs in terms of the output capacities which are given in Kilojoules (KJ) and interpreted into moles, and the formulas utilized to discover the energy yield of combustion. Our group investigated the difference in enthalpy changes for the combustion of different alcohols. This is done to find out how the number of carbon atoms a fuel contains effects the enthalpy change during complete combustion. To do this we ignited the combustible thread-lid which links directly to the fuel and arrange for as much of the energy as practically possible to be transferred to the water through energy heating. In theory, the more hydrocarbons that a fuel has, the more energy that is going to be produced
QUICK-RECAP: A Hydrocarbon is a compound of hydrogen and carbon, such as any of those that are the chief components of petroleum and natural gas. To work out the enthalpy change of combustion for the alcohols we use the assumption that 1cm of water is equal to 1g. Using this assumption we then use the equation energy absorbed = MCâ–²T; which means Amount of energy = mass of water x specific heat capacity x temperature rise. Instead, we can also use the preferable scientific formula [KJ = mCɅT] to find the potential energy absorption in the water’s temperature, ‘KJ’ being the Kilojoules (output), ‘m’ being mass of the water, and the remaining is the specific heat capacity times the temperature rise, respectively. Obviously, as the equation suggests, all these values in the other side of the equation (right side where the components are i.e. mCɅT) are...
Bibliography: 1. R, Nave. Hydrocarbons. Test Page for Apache Installation. Google.com, 2009. Web. 26 July 2011. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/organic/hydrocarbon.html
2. Babrauskas, Dr. Vytenis. "Fuel & Ventilation." CFBT-US LLC. 19 Jan. 2009. Not Just How and What, but Why! MORNING PRIDE, 19 Jan. 2009. Web. 28 May 2011. http://cfbt-us.com/wordpress/?tag=heat-release-rate
3. Gide, Andre. Bond Breaking and the Heat of Reaction. TS. .PDF (file). CHEM Study, 1960. Web. 27 May 2011. http://www.chemtopics.com/unit05/bond.pdf
Please join StudyMode to read the full document