Top-Rated Free Essay

Specific Deterrence

Good Essays
Specific Deterrence
Critical Thinking Critique
Your name
Park University

Author Note
This paper was prepared for Criminology CJ200,taught by Professor____________.
The theory of specific deterrence holds that criminal sanctions should be so powerful that known criminals will never repeat their criminal acts.
Critical Thinking
The theory of specific deterrence holds that criminal sanctions should be powerful enough that convicted criminals will never repeat the criminal acts. However, research has not provided clear evidence that punishing criminals with high sanctions is an effective way of stopping them from committing future crimes. In the other hand people that are harshly punished might become defiant instead, perhaps as a way of objecting that they won’t let themselves be stopped or broken. A study made in Minneapolis by researchers Lawrence Sherman and Richard Berk, resulted on finding that domestic violence offenders that were arrested only feared punishment initially. Arrest, temporally deterred them from the crime but they became angry and more violent when they saw that the punishment wasn’t harsh. (Siegel, 2010) We’ve probably heard of women that have been killed by their partners. They were victims of domestic violence; a family member might come forward and say, “The police never did anything”. That complaint is not necessarily true, many times the punishment received didn’t deterred the assailant to change his ways, and instead he became very violent and enraged because she “put the cops on him”. The criminal then is arrested again, but now faces a longer sentence for worst criminal charges. Perhaps there needs to be more exposure to information that can potentially help to prevent crimes. Threat communication is a way of spreading information and can have great impact. First, sanction publicity needs to be provided by mass media to announce any modification of criminal penalties. Second, police visibility, like the “cop on the corner”. Third, sanction enforcement through arrest, prosecution, and sentencing ensures that a penalty is applied as intended. Sanction risk perceptions, are substantially correlated with punishments as long as the punishments are publicized and enforced. Sanction risk perceptions can potentially have other influences, including media coverage of high profile criminal trials, televised crime dramas, conditions of urban decay, etc. Sanction risk perceptions can also be shaped by experiences from family members, or friends, etc. (Apel, 2013)
Ultimately according to researchers Morral and Jackson, it is necessary to quantify deterrence to track progress. When deliberating deterrence strategies, we want to know answers to three questions:
1. What is the extent to which the attacker is deterred,
2. What is the risk reduction, or change in expected defender loss resulting from that deterrence strategy, and
3. What are the cost implications, or defender deterrence investment efficiency, of that deterrence strategy. (Taquechel, 2012)
Specific deterrence can be a very complex method because some criminals will react positively, while others will not change. This can turn out to be a serious problem when the enemy is another country. Our military is capacitated and trained to fight the threats to the United States. The Defense Strategic Guidance (DSG) sets a general goal: “The Joint Force will be prepared to confront and defeat aggression anywhere in the world.” Thankfully the government works hard to “deter and defeat aggression”. (Johnson, 2014) Overall I think that many of the techniques and methods implemented might help to deter criminals from committing future crimes. However, if a criminal likes or wants their criminal life style, no powerful or harsh punishments can change or stop him. There can be many sanctions and punishments, but if a criminal does not change himself, nothing will change him.

References
Apel, Robert. (2013). Sanctions, Perceptions, and Crime: Implications for Criminal Deterrence. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 29, 67-101. DOI: 10.1007/s10940-012-9170-1.
Johnson, M., Kelly, T. K. (2014). Tailored Deterrence. JFQ: Joint Force Quarterly. 74, 22-29. Retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.pegleg.park.edu/
Siegel, L. J. (2011). Criminology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth
Taquechel, E. F., Lewis, T. G. (2012). How to Quantify Deterrence and Reduce Critical Infrastructure Risk. Homeland Security Affairs, 8, 1-27. Retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.pegleg.park.edu/

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Satisfactory Essays

    general deterrence, the purpose of general deterrence is to discourage individual from committing crimes by setting examples of what will be consequence to deal with after committing a crime. However, children are punished less severally than adults. It is important that the threat of punishment to juvenile delinquency allows officers to reach out to such criminals in their schools that will only allow the judge to commit to severe penalties. In Addition an example of general deterrence is a “tow…

    • 511 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Philosophy of Punishment: Deterrence General and Specific Sentencing Model: Indeterminate Sentencing For the philosophy of punishment I chose deterrence, specifically because of the goals and benefit this philosophy. The deterrence punishment is divided in to two separate categories. First on is the general deterrence, the goal of general deterrence is to prevent non-offenders (those who’ve not committed a crime) from committing crimes by exposing non-offenders to the reality…

    • 1084 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Deterrence Theory

    • 724 Words
    • 3 Pages

    The Deterrence Theory Deterrence of a crime is based on choice theory, which is the assumption that a person is making a conscious decision to commit a criminal act. Since the person is making a conscious effort to commit the crime, deterrence is meant to reflect the punishment for the crime based on that decision. In computer crime, since most computer users are aware of what constitutes as an illegal act (e.g. downloading music without paying for it), the assumption is that most people know when…

    • 724 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Deterrence Theory

    • 932 Words
    • 4 Pages

    This paper has highlighted deterrence and power-control theory to provide insight into why shoplifting happens but fails to give an integrated approach to this behaviour. Situational Action Theory (SAT) is a promising theoretical approach to integrating both person-oriented and environment-oriented explanations to shoplifting. Hirtenlehner and Hardie (2016) address deterrence theory and Gottfredson and Hirschi’s self-control theory as influential theories that often represent inconclusive results…

    • 932 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Deterrence and Diplomacy

    • 322 Words
    • 2 Pages

    bilateral, regional and international relations. Deterrence refers to measures taken by countries to prevent and protect themselves from threats. These threats may be carried out by countries or non-state aggressors such as transnational terrorists. Some deterrence measures to deter aggressors include maintaining military installations, carrying out military exercises, installing CCTV cameras at train stations and sharing information among countries. Deterrence is necessary to give the citizens of a country…

    • 322 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Deterrence Theory

    • 546 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Deterrence theory is a form of social control that is used to instill fear as a preventative measure to crime. This theory often makes an offender do a cost/benefits analysis prior to committing the crime: is doing this crime worth the time? An offender is “put on notice” that if they are caught there are certain things that society and the constitution mandates will happen as a result of non-conformity. I believe Deterrence can work, my issue is the varying degrees of non-conformity and the varying…

    • 546 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    History Of Deterrence

    • 390 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Law enforcement teaches offenders that crime is punished. However, deterrence is the exclusion of commit a criminal act for factors as such as fear of sanctions or punishment. The history of deterrence begins by the end of the 1700s in the work of Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham, but the interest in deterrence and rational choice theory developed by the mid-1960s. Specific deterrence view that if experienced punishment is severe enough, convicted offenders will be deterred from repeating their…

    • 390 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Deterrence Failures

    • 189 Words
    • 1 Page

    When it comes to deterrence I think that there is a difference between what is expected of the legal system and what the system actually delivers. We need to have deterrence but I don’t think we do a proper job in enforcing it. Paternoster talks about how we use sanction threats as a way to deter crime but it doesn’t change people’s minds. It’s hard to determine how strong of an effect threats can deter someone actions. Whether it’s someone who believes they’ll never be caught or they are thinking…

    • 189 Words
    • 1 Page
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Better Essays

    The deterrence theory can be dated back to the early 1600’s, with combined research from Thomas Hobbes, Cesare Beccaria, and Jeremy Bentham. The information obtained by these theorists did not coincide with the current European legal practices, which stated other reasons for crime control. Deterrence is when a person fears punishment therefore they do not commit crime. Hobbes argued that punishment for a crime must be greater than the benefits of committing the crime in order for an individual…

    • 2177 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    Pogarsky On Deterrence

    • 589 Words
    • 3 Pages

    The article, “Identifying deterrable offenders: implications for research on deterrence,” proposed a unique framework from which to understand how deterrence operates. The article argued that most research has not adequately explored the proposition that deterrence operates for only a subgroup of the general population. In light of this, Pogarsky focused on more efficiently testing the effects of the certainty and severity of sanctions by dividing a sample into three subgroups and then analyzing…

    • 589 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays