Spasticity

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Spasticity:

Causation and Treatment of Spasticity in TBI

PSY200

Section 03

Spasticity a disorder of muscle function that causes muscle tightness or spasm. It is the involuntary movement (jerking) of muscles, which occurs when there is damage to the central nervous system. This damage may result from a traumatic brain, injury stroke, tumor, cerebral palsy or multiple sclerosis. Symptoms may include hypertonicity (increased muscle tone), clonus (a series of rapid muscle contractions), exaggerated deep tendon reflexes, muscle spasms, scissoring (involuntary crossing of the legs), and fixed joints. Spasticity may be as mild as the feeling of stiffness or tightness of muscles, or it may be so severe as to produce painful uncontrollable spasms of the extremities, usually of the legs. It may also produce feelings of pain or tightness in and around joints and can also cause low back pain.

Some people find that spasticity is so severe or frequent that it disrupts their life. Health care professional suggest a number of things to calm or stop spasticity: range-of- motion exercises, stress management, prescription drugs, physical therapy regimens, and or surgery. Each offers some help, but treatments like medication and surgery bring complications. The patient is forced to decide if decreasing spasticity is worth the side effects from drugs or loss of some movement and feeling from surgery. Many people who have spasticity take few, if any, medications to control their spasticity.

While spasticity cannot be cured, some of the problems associated with spasticity can be cared for in a number of ways. At this present time, there are several medications and surgical methods that are used to help treat spasticity. In most cases, treatments consist of combinations of different medications, implantation devices, and surgery. The investigation of this paper deals with a comparison of the oral medications being used by patients and the numerous surgical



References: Armutlu, K., & Fil, A. (2010). Spasticity and its Management with Physical Therapy Applications. Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science ;. Brashear, A., & Elovic, E. (2011). Spasticity: Diagnosis and Management. New York: Demos Medical Pub.. Fleuren, J. (2009). Perception of lower limb spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord, 47, 396-400. Retrieved December 4, 2011, from the Ebsco Host database. Glenn, M. B. (1990). The Practical Management of Spasticity In Children and Adults. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. National Stroke Association: Spasticity and Paralysis after Stroke. (n.d.). National Stroke Association: . Retrieved December 2, 2011, from http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=spasttr Preston, L VOERMA, G. (2010). Perceived spasticity in chronic spinal cord injured patients: Associations with psychological factors. Disability and Rehabilitation, 9(32), 775-780. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from the EBSCO Host database. Wiley, J. (2010). Clinical assessment and management of spasticity: a review. Acta Neurol Scand, 122(120), 62-66. Retrieved November 26, 2011, from the EBSCO database.

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