This article is about the modern country. For other uses, see South Africa (disambiguation).
Republic of South Africa[show]
Coat of arms
Motto: "!ke e: ǀxarra ǁke" (ǀXam)
"Unity In Diversity"
Anthem: National anthem of South Africa
Cape Town (legislative)
Ethnic groups ([Note 1]:21)
79.2% Black African
2.5% Indian or Asian
Constitutional parliamentary republic
M. J. Mahlangu
Speaker of the National Assembly
National Council of Provinces
Independence from the United Kingdom
31 May 1910
Statute of Westminster
11 December 1931
31 May 1961
1,221,037 km2 (25th)
471,443 sq mi
very high · 2nd
medium · 123rd
South African rand (ZAR)
Drives on the
ISO 3166 code
Coordinates: 30°S 25°E
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is a country located at the southern tip of Africa. It is divided into nine provinces and has 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline. To the north lie the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe; to the east are Mozambique and Swaziland; while Lesotho is an enclave surrounded by South African territory. South Africa is the 25th largest country in the world by area and the 24th most populous country with over 51 million people. South Africa is a multi-ethnic nation and has diverse cultures and languages. Eleven official languages are recognised in the constitution. Two of these languages are of European origin: English and Afrikaans, a language which originated mainly from Dutch that is spoken by the majority of white and Coloured South Africans. Though English is commonly used in public and commercial life, it is only the fifth most-spoken home language. All ethnic and language groups have political representation in the country's constitutional democracy comprising a parliamentary republic; unlike most parliamentary republics, the positions of head of state and head of government are merged in a parliament-dependent President. About 80% of the South African population is of black African ancestry,:21 divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, nine of which have official status. South Africa also contains the largest communities of European, Asian, and racially mixed ancestry in Africa. South Africa is ranked as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank. It has the largest economy in Africa, and the 28th-largest in the world. By purchasing power parity, South Africa has the 5th highest per capita income in Africa. It is considered a newly industrialised country. However, about a quarter of the population is unemployed and lives on less than US $1.25 a day. Contents [hide]
1.1 Prehistoric finds
2.3 Conservation issues
3.2 Foreign relations
3.3 Human rights
5.1 Labour market
5.2 Science and technology
6.3 Largest cities
References: ^ a b c d e Census 2011: Census in brief. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2012. ISBN 9780621413385 Check |isbn= value (help). Retrieved 12 January 2013.
^ Wymer, John; Singer, R (1982). The Middle Stone Age at Klasies River Mouth in South Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-76103-7.
^ Deacon, HJ (2001). "Guide to Klasies River". Stellenbosch University. p. 11. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
^ Domville-Fife, C.W. (1900). The encyclopedia of the British Empire the first encyclopedic record of the greatest empire in the history of the world ed.. London: Rankin. p. 25.
^ Mackenzie, W. Douglas; Stead, Alfred (1899). South Africa: Its History, Heroes, and Wars. Chicago: The Co-Operative Publishing Company.
^ Rubinstein, W. D. (2004). Genocide: a history. Pearson Education. p. 22. ISBN 0-582-50601-8
^ Williams, Garner F (1905)
^ Bond, Patrick (1999). Cities of gold, townships of coal: essays on South Africa 's new urban crisis. Africa World Press. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-86543-611-4.
^ Cape of Good Hope (South Africa). Parliament House. (1906). Report of the Select Committee on Location Act. Cape Times Limited. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
^ Report of the Inter-departmental committee on the native pass laws. Cape Times Limited, government printers. p. 2. 1920.
^ Great Britain Colonial Office; Transvaal (Colony). Governor (1901–1905: Milner) (January 1902). Papers relating to legislation affecting natives in the Transvaal. His Majesty 's Stationery Office.
^ De Villiers, John Abraham Jacob (1896). The Transvaal. London: Chatto & Windus. pp. 30 (n46). Retrieved 30 July 2009.
^ "South Africa". Human Development Report. United Nations Development Programme. 2006. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
^ Jonathan Crush (ed), The Perfect Storm: Realities of Xenophobia in Contemporary South Africa, , Southern African Migration Project, Cape Town & Queen 's University, Canada, 2006, p. 1
^ a b c d United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
^ South African Communication Service (1997). South Africa yearbook. South African Communication Service.
^ Rong, I. H.; Baxter, A. P. (2006). "The South African National Collection of Fungi: Celebrating a centenary 1905-2005". Studies in Mycology 55: 1–12. doi:10.3114/sim.55.1.1. PMC 2104721. PMID 18490968. edit
^ Crous, P
^ Marincowitz, S.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald J.Z. and Wingfield, M.J. (2008) Microfungi occurring on Proteaceae in the fynbos. CBS Biodiversity Series 7.
^ SA marriage law signed retrieved 5 April 2012
^ Pamela Snyman and Amanda Barratt (2 October 2002)
^ Adriana Stuijt (17 February 2009). "Two more S. African farmers killed: death toll now at 3,037". Digital Journal. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
^ Rosalind Rosenberg (Summer 2001). "Virginia Gildersleeve: Opening the Gates (Living Legacies)". Columbia Magazine.
^ Increasing police repression highlighted by recent cases, Freedom of Expression Institute, 2006
^ Political tolerance on the wane in South Africa, Imraan Buccus, SA Reconciliation Barometer, 2011
^ Perry, Alex (5 November 2007). "Oprah scandal rocks South Africa". TIME. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
^ a b "Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act 200 of 1993 (Section 224)". South African Government. 1993. Retrieved 23 June 2008.
^ Col L B van Stade, Senior Staff Officer Rationalisation, SANDF (1997). "Rationalisation in the SANDF: The Next Challenge". Institute for Security Studies. Retrieved 23 June 2008.
^ a b c Mosiuoa Lekota (5 September 2005). "Address by the Minister of Defence at a media breakfast at Defence Headquarters, Pretoria". Department of Defence. Retrieved 23 June 2008.
^ a b Lieutenant Colonel Roy E. Horton III (BS, Electrical Engineering; MS, Strategic Intelligence) (October 1999). "Out of (South) Africa: Pretoria 's Nuclear Weapons Experience". USAF Institute for National Security Studies. Retrieved 23 June 2008.
^ a b c "South Africa comes clean", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, May 1993, pp. 3,4
^ Christine Dodson (22 October 1979)
^ Stats in Brief, 2010. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2010. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-621-39563-1.
^ Solomon, Hussein (1996). "Strategic Perspectives on Illegal Immigration into South Africa". African Security Review 5 (4).
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